# Letter case

minusculemajusculelowercaselower caseuppercasecapital lettercapital lettersupper casecapitalcursive
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.wikipedia
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### Alphabetical order

ordered alphabeticallyalphabeticallyalphabetic order
The two case variants are alternative representations of the same letter: they have the same name and pronunciation and are treated identically when sorting in alphabetical order.
Capital letters (upper case) are generally considered to be identical to their corresponding lower case letters for the purposes of alphabetical ordering, though conventions may be adopted to handle situations where two strings differ only in capitalization.

### Small caps

small capitalssmall capital
The glyphs of lower-case letters can resemble smaller forms of the upper-case glyphs restricted to the base band (e.g. "C/c" and "S/s", cf. small caps) or can look hardly related (e.g. "D/d" and "G/g").
In typography, small capitals (usually abbreviated small caps) are lowercase characters typeset with glyphs that resemble uppercase letters ("capitals") but reduced in height and weight, close to the surrounding lowercase (small) letters or text figures, for example:.

### Set (mathematics)

setsetsmathematical set
In mathematics, on the other hand, letter case may indicate the relationship between objects, with upper-case letters often representing "superior" objects (e.g. X could be a set containing the generic member x).
Sets are conventionally denoted with capital letters.

### Greek alphabet

GreekGreek lettersGreek letter
Languages that use the Latin, Cyrillic, Greek, Coptic, Armenian, Adlam, Warang Citi, Cherokee, and Osage scripts use letter cases in their written form as an aid to clarity.
Like Latin and Cyrillic, Greek originally had only a single form of each letter; it developed the letter case distinction between uppercase and lowercase forms in parallel with Latin during the modern era.

### English alphabet

namedEnglishalphabet
Here is a comparison of the upper and lower case variants of each letter included in the English alphabet (the exact representation will vary according to the typeface and font used):
Since then, various letters have been added, or removed, to give the current Modern English alphabet of 26 letters, each having an upper- and lower-case form:

### Writing system

scriptwriting systemsscripts
The writing systems that distinguish between the upper and lower case have two parallel sets of letters, with each letter in one set usually having an equivalent in the other set.
For example, in the Latin-based writing system of standard contemporary English, examples of graphemes include the majuscule and minuscule forms of the twenty-six letters of the alphabet (corresponding to various phonemes), marks of punctuation (mostly non-phonemic), and a few other symbols such as those for numerals (logograms for numbers).

### Ascender (typography)

ascenderascendersascenders and descenders
There is more variation in the height of the minuscules, as some of them have parts higher (ascenders) or lower (descenders) than the typical size.
In typography, an ascender is the portion of a minuscule letter in a Latin-derived alphabet that extends above the mean line of a font.

### Diacritic

diacriticsdiacritical markdiacritical marks
Typographically, the basic difference between the majuscules and minuscules is not that the majuscules are big and minuscules small, but that the majuscules generally have the same height (although, depending on the typeface, there may be some exceptions, particularly with Q and sometimes J having a descending element; also, various diacritics can add to the normal height of a letter).
tittle, the superscript dot of the modern lowercase Latin i and j

### Unicase

unicameralunicameral alphabet
Many other writing systems make no distinction between majuscules and minuscules – a system called unicameral script or unicase.
A unicase or unicameral alphabet is one that has no case for its letters.

### All caps

all-capsall capitalsall capital letters
Acronyms (and particularly initialisms) are often written in all-caps, depending on various factors.
In typography, all caps (short for "all capitals") refers to text or a font in which all letters are capital letters, for example:.

### Sigma

Σlunate sigma
The Greek upper-case letter "Σ" has two different lower-case forms: "ς" in word-final position and "σ" elsewhere. In a similar manner, the Latin upper-case letter "S" used to have two different lower-case forms: "s" in word-final position and " ſ " elsewhere. The latter form, called the long s, fell out of general use before the middle of the 19th century, except for the countries that continued to use Blackletter typefaces such as Fraktur. When Blackletter type fell out of general use in the mid-20th century, even those countries dropped the long s.
Sigma (uppercase Σ, lowercase σ, lowercase in word-final position ς; ) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.

### Text figures

old-style numeralsold style figuresoldstyle figures
In addition, with old-style numerals still used by some traditional or classical fonts, 6 and 8 make up the ascender set, and 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9 the descender set.
In text figures, the shape and positioning of the numerals vary as those of lowercase letters do. In the most common scheme, 0, 1, and 2 are of x-height, having neither ascenders nor descenders; 6 and 8 have ascenders; and 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9 have descenders.

### Capital ẞ

capital ßuppercase form
The German letter "ß" only used to exist in lower case. The orthographical capitalisation does not concern "ß", which never occurs at the beginning of a word, and in the all-caps style it has traditionally been replaced by the digraph "SS". Since June 2017, however, capital ẞ is accepted as an alternative in the all-caps style.
Capital sharp s (ẞ; großes Eszett) is the majuscule (uppercase) form of the [[ß|eszett]] (also called scharfes S, 'sharp s') ligature in German orthography .

### Long s

ſlong ''selongated S
The Greek upper-case letter "Σ" has two different lower-case forms: "ς" in word-final position and "σ" elsewhere. In a similar manner, the Latin upper-case letter "S" used to have two different lower-case forms: "s" in word-final position and " ſ " elsewhere. The latter form, called the long s, fell out of general use before the middle of the 19th century, except for the countries that continued to use Blackletter typefaces such as Fraktur. When Blackletter type fell out of general use in the mid-20th century, even those countries dropped the long s.
The long, medial, or descending s is an archaic form of the lower case letter s.

### Latin alphabet

LatinRomanLatin letters
Languages that use the Latin, Cyrillic, Greek, Coptic, Armenian, Adlam, Warang Citi, Cherokee, and Osage scripts use letter cases in their written form as an aid to clarity.
Letter shapes have evolved over the centuries, including the development in Medieval Latin of lower-case, forms which did not exist in the Classical period alphabet.

### Nj (digraph)

njNj njǋ/ǌ
In some languages, specific digraphs may be regarded as single letters, and in Dutch, the digraph "IJ/ij" is even capitalised with both components written in uppercase (for example, "IJsland" rather than "Ijsland"). In other languages, such as Welsh and Hungarian, various digraphs are regarded as single letters for collation purposes, but the second component of the digraph will still be written in lower case even if the first component is capitalised. Similarly, in South Slavic languages whose orthography is coordinated between the Cyrillic and Latin scripts, the Latin digraphs "ǈ/ǉ", "ǋ/ǌ" and "ǅ/ǆ" are each regarded as a single letter (like their Cyrillic equivalents "Љ/љ", "Њ/њ" and "Џ/џ", respectively), but only in all-caps style should both components be in upper case (e.g. ǈiǉan–ǇIǇAN, ǋoǌa–ǊOǊA, ǅiǆa–ǄIǄA). Unicode designates a single character for each case variant (i.e., upper case, title case and lower case) of the three digraphs.
Nj (nj in lower case) is a letter present in South Slavic languages such as the Latin-alphabet version of Serbo-Croatian and in romanised Macedonian.

### Dž

ǄDž džDŽ/Dž/dž
In some languages, specific digraphs may be regarded as single letters, and in Dutch, the digraph "IJ/ij" is even capitalised with both components written in uppercase (for example, "IJsland" rather than "Ijsland"). In other languages, such as Welsh and Hungarian, various digraphs are regarded as single letters for collation purposes, but the second component of the digraph will still be written in lower case even if the first component is capitalised. Similarly, in South Slavic languages whose orthography is coordinated between the Cyrillic and Latin scripts, the Latin digraphs "ǈ/ǉ", "ǋ/ǌ" and "ǅ/ǆ" are each regarded as a single letter (like their Cyrillic equivalents "Љ/љ", "Њ/њ" and "Џ/џ", respectively), but only in all-caps style should both components be in upper case (e.g. ǈiǉan–ǇIǇAN, ǋoǌa–ǊOǊA, ǅiǆa–ǄIǄA). Unicode designates a single character for each case variant (i.e., upper case, title case and lower case) of the three digraphs.
Dž (titlecase form; all-capitals form DŽ, lowercase dž) is the seventh letter of the Gaj's Latin alphabet for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian), after D and before Đ.

### Font

fontsoptical sizeoptical sizes
Here is a comparison of the upper and lower case variants of each letter included in the English alphabet (the exact representation will vary according to the typeface and font used):
In Latin-script countries, upright italics are rare but are sometimes used in mathematics or in complex documents where a section of text already in italics needs a "double italic" style to add emphasis to it. For example, the Cyrillic minuscule "т" may look like a smaller form of its majuscule "Т" or more like a roman small "m" as in its standard italic appearance; in this case the distinction between styles is also a matter of local preference.

Capital letters are used as the first letter of a sentence, a proper noun, or a proper adjective.
In English orthography, the term proper adjective is sometimes applied to adjectives that take initial capital letters, and the term common adjective to those that do not.

### Cyrillic script

CyrillicUzbek CyrillicCyrillic alphabet
Languages that use the Latin, Cyrillic, Greek, Coptic, Armenian, Adlam, Warang Citi, Cherokee, and Osage scripts use letter cases in their written form as an aid to clarity.
Cyrillic uppercase and lowercase letter forms are not as differentiated as in Latin typography.

### Descender

descendersdescend below the linetail
There is more variation in the height of the minuscules, as some of them have parts higher (ascenders) or lower (descenders) than the typical size.
In most fonts, descenders are reserved for lowercase characters such as g, j, q, p, y, and sometimes f.

### Hebrew alphabet

HebrewHebrew scriptHebrew letters
Letters of the Arabic and Hebrew alphabets (some final forms only), and some jamo of the Korean hangul have different forms for initial or final placement, but these rules are strict and the different forms cannot be used for emphasis.
It does not have case, but five letters have different forms when used at the end of a word.

### Dotted and dotless I

dotless iİı
Unlike most Latin-script languages, which link the dotless upper-case "I" with the dotted lower-case "i", Turkish has both a dotted and dotless I, each in both upper and lower case. Each of the two pairs (" İ/i " and " I/ı ") represent a distinctive phoneme.
In some fonts, if the lowercase letters fi are placed adjacently, the dot-like upper end of the f would fall inconveniently close to the dot of the i, and therefore a ligature glyph is provided with the top of the f extended to serve as the dot of the i.

### Palaeography

PalaeographicallyPaleographicallypaleography
Majuscule ( or ), for palaeographers, is technically any script in which the letters have very few or very short ascenders and descenders, or none at all (for example, the majuscule scripts used in the Codex Vaticanus Graecus 1209, or the Book of Kells).
The Latin alphabet first appears in the epigraphic type of majuscule writing, known as capitals.

### Acronym

initialismacronymsinitials
Acronyms (and particularly initialisms) are often written in all-caps, depending on various factors.
Some style manuals also base the letters' case on their number.