Letter case

minusculemajusculelowercaselower caseuppercaseupper casecapital letterall lowercasecapital letterssentence case
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.wikipedia
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Alphabetical order

ordered alphabeticallyalphabeticallyalphabetic order
The two case variants are alternative representations of the same letter: they have the same name and pronunciation and are treated identically when sorting in alphabetical order.
Capital letters (upper case) are generally considered to be identical to their corresponding lower case letters for the purposes of alphabetical ordering, though conventions may be adopted to handle situations where two strings differ only in capitalization.

English alphabet

modern English alphabetEnglishalphabet
Here is a comparison of the upper and lower case variants of each letter included in the English alphabet (the exact representation will vary according to the typeface and font used):
The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an upper- and lower-case form.

Small caps

small capitalssmall capital
small caps) or can look hardly related (e.g. "D/d" and "G/g").
In typography, small capitals (usually abbreviated small caps) are lowercase characters typeset with glyphs that resemble uppercase letters ("capitals") but reduced in height and weight, close to the surrounding lowercase (small) letters or text figures.

Set (mathematics)

setsetsmathematical set
In mathematics, on the other hand, letter case may indicate the relationship between objects, with upper-case letters often representing "superior" objects (e.g. X could be a set containing the generic member x).
Sets are conventionally denoted with capital letters.

Greek alphabet

GreekGreek lettersGreek letter
Languages that use the Latin, Cyrillic, Greek, Coptic, Armenian, Adlam, Warang Citi, Cherokee, and Osage scripts use letter cases in their written form as an aid to clarity and legibility.
These twenty-four letters (each in uppercase and lowercase forms) are: Α α, Β β, Γ γ, Δ δ, Ε ε, Ζ ζ, Η η, Θ θ, Ι ι, Κ κ, Λ λ, Μ μ, Ν ν, Ξ ξ, Ο ο, Π π, Ρ ρ, Σ σ/ς, Τ τ, Υ υ, Φ φ, Χ χ, Ψ ψ, and Ω ω.

Writing system

scriptwriting systemsscripts
The writing systems that distinguish between the upper and lower case have two parallel sets of letters, with each letter in one set usually having an equivalent in the other set.
For example, in the Latin-based writing system of standard contemporary English, examples of graphemes include the majuscule and minuscule forms of the twenty-six letters of the alphabet (corresponding to various phonemes), marks of punctuation (mostly non-phonemic), and a few other symbols such as those for numerals (logograms for numbers).

Ascender (typography)

ascenderascendersascenders and descenders
There is more variation in the height of the minuscules, as some of them have parts higher (ascenders) or lower (descenders) than the typical size.
In typography, an ascender is the portion of a minuscule letter in a Latin-derived alphabet that extends above the mean line of a font.

Latin alphabet

LatinRoman alphabetRoman
Languages that use the Latin, Cyrillic, Greek, Coptic, Armenian, Adlam, Warang Citi, Cherokee, and Osage scripts use letter cases in their written form as an aid to clarity and legibility.
Letter shapes have evolved over the centuries, including the development in Medieval Latin of lower-case, forms which did not exist in the Classical period alphabet.

Diacritic

diacriticsdiacritical markdiacritical marks
Typographically, the basic difference between the majuscules and minuscules is not that the majuscules are big and minuscules small, but that the majuscules generally have the same height (although, depending on the typeface, there may be some exceptions, particularly with Q and sometimes J having a descending element; also, various diacritics can add to the normal height of a letter).

Unicase

unicameralunicameral alphabet
Many other writing systems make no distinction between majuscules and minuscules – a system called unicameral script or unicase.
A unicase or unicameral alphabet is one that has no case for its letters.

All caps

all-capsall capitalsall uppercase
Acronyms (and particularly initialisms) are often written in all-caps, depending on various factors.
In typography, all caps (short for "all capitals") refers to text or a font in which all letters are capital letters, for example:.

Sigma

Σlunate sigmafinal sigma
Sigma (uppercase Σ, lowercase σ, lowercase in word-final position ς; ) is the eighteenth letter of the Greek alphabet.

Capital ẞ

uppercase formCapital Letter Sharp S
Capital sharp s (ẞ; großes Eszett) is the majuscule (uppercase) form of the [[ß|eszett]] (also called scharfes S, 'sharp s') ligature in German orthography .

Long s

ſlong ''smedial s
Lost variants such as r rotunda, ligatures and scribal abbreviation marks are omitted; long s is shown when no terminal s (the only variant used today) is preserved from a given script.
The long s is an archaic form of the lower case letter s.

Text figures

old style figuresold-style numeralslining figures
In addition, with old-style numerals still used by some traditional or classical fonts, 6 and 8 make up the ascender set, and 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9 the descender set.
In text figures, the shape and positioning of the numerals vary as those of lowercase letters do.

Nj (digraph)

njNj njNJ
Nj (nj in lower case) is a letter present in South Slavic languages such as the Latin-alphabet version of Serbo-Croatian and in romanised Macedonian.

DŽDž džDŽ/Dž/dž
Dž (titlecase form; all-capitals form DŽ, lowercase dž) is the seventh letter of the Gaj's Latin alphabet for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian), after D and before Đ.

Proper adjective

common adjective
Capital letters are used as the first letter of a sentence, a proper noun, or a proper adjective.
In English orthography, the term proper adjective is sometimes applied to adjectives that take initial capital letters, and the term common adjective to those that do not.

Font

fontsoptical sizeoptical sizes
Here is a comparison of the upper and lower case variants of each letter included in the English alphabet (the exact representation will vary according to the typeface and font used):
For example, the Cyrillic minuscule "т" may look like a smaller form of its majuscule "Т" or more like a roman small "m" as in its standard italic appearance; in this case the distinction between styles is also a matter of local preference.

S

See belowſ
The minuscule form ſ, called the long s, developed in the early medieval period, within the Visigothic and Carolingian hands, with predecessors in the half-uncial and cursive scripts of Late Antiquity.

Descender

descendersBeard linedescend below the line
There is more variation in the height of the minuscules, as some of them have parts higher (ascenders) or lower (descenders) than the typical size.
In most fonts, descenders are reserved for lowercase characters such as g, j, q, p, y, and sometimes f.

Cyrillic script

CyrillicCyrillic alphabetUzbek Cyrillic
Languages that use the Latin, Cyrillic, Greek, Coptic, Armenian, Adlam, Warang Citi, Cherokee, and Osage scripts use letter cases in their written form as an aid to clarity and legibility.
Cyrillic uppercase and lowercase letter forms are not as differentiated as in Latin typography.

Hebrew alphabet

HebrewHebrew scriptHebrew letters
It does not have case, but five letters have different forms when used at the end of a word.

Dotted and dotless I

dotless iİdotless letter ''i
In some fonts, if the lowercase letters fi are placed adjacently, the dot-like upper end of the f would fall inconveniently close to the dot of the i, and therefore a ligature glyph is provided with the top of the f extended to serve as the dot of the i.

Acronym

initialismacronymsinitials
Acronyms (and particularly initialisms) are often written in all-caps, depending on various factors.
Some style manuals also base the letters' case on their number.