Letters patent

commissionpatentroyal patentpatent of nobilitycommissionsjudicial commissionletters-patentlettres patentesprivilègepatents
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.wikipedia
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Royal commission

Royal CommissionerRoyal Commission of InquiryCommission of Inquiry
Letters patent are issued for the appointment of representatives of the Crown, such as governors and governors-general of Commonwealth realms, as well as appointing a Royal Commission.
The commission is created by the head of state (the sovereign, or their representative in the form of a governor-general or governor) on the advice of the government and formally appointed by letters patent.

Patent

patentspatent lawpatented
A particular form of letters patent has evolved into the modern patent (referred to as a utility patent or design patent in United States patent law) granting exclusive rights in an invention (or a design in the case of a design patent). The primary source of letters patent in the United States are intellectual property patents and land patents, though letters patent are issued for a variety of other purposes.
It is a shortened version of the term letters patent, which was an open document or instrument issued by a monarch or government granting exclusive rights to a person, predating the modern patent system.

Commonwealth realm

Commonwealth realmsrealmsCommonwealth
Letters patent are issued for the appointment of representatives of the Crown, such as governors and governors-general of Commonwealth realms, as well as appointing a Royal Commission. In Commonwealth realms, letters patent are issued under the prerogative powers of the head of state, as an executive or royal prerogative.
In certain other cases, the extent of which varies from realm to realm, specific additional powers are reserved exclusively for the monarch—such as the appointment of extra senators to the Canadian Senate, the creation of honours, or the issuance of letters patent—and on occasions of national importance, the Queen may be advised to perform in person her constitutional duties, such as granting Royal Assent or issuing a royal proclamation.

Open letter

public letterlettersopen letters
Letters patent are thus comparable to other kinds of open letter in that their audience is wide.
Letters patent are another form of open letter in which a legal document is both mailed to a person by the government and publicized so that all are made aware of it.

The Crown

British CrownCrownAustralian Crown
Letters patent are issued for the appointment of representatives of the Crown, such as governors and governors-general of Commonwealth realms, as well as appointing a Royal Commission.
This royal prerogative, and the various Letters Patent which buttress it, derive entirely from the monarch acting or existing in an official capacity.

Letters close

letter closeletterslettres closes
The opposite of letters patent are letters close (litterae clausae), which are personal in nature and sealed so that only the recipient can read their contents.
This type of letter contrasts with the better-known letters patent.

Patent roll

Patent RollsCalendar of Patent RollsCal. Pat. Rolls
The Patent Rolls are made up of office copies of English (and later United Kingdom) royal letters patent, which run in an almost unbroken series from 1201 to the present day, with most of those to 1625 having been published.
The patent rolls comprise a register of the letters patent issued by the Crown, and sealed "open" with the Great Seal pendent, expressing the sovereign's will on a wide range of matters of public interest, including – but not restricted to – grants of official positions, lands, commissions, privileges and pardons, issued both to individuals and to corporations.

Royal assent

assentassentedassented to
They can thus be contrasted with the Act of Parliament, which is in effect a written order by Parliament involving assent by the monarch in conjunction with its members.
However, royal assent is usually granted less ceremonially by letters patent.

Seal (emblem)

sealsealssignet ring
The originator's seal was attached pendent from the document, so that it did not have to be broken in order for the document to be read.
They were attached both to legal instruments and to letters patent (i.e. open letters) conferring rights or privileges, which were intended to be available for all to view.

Land patent

patentedpatentpatents
The primary source of letters patent in the United States are intellectual property patents and land patents, though letters patent are issued for a variety of other purposes.
A land patent is known in law as "letters patent", and usually issues to the original grantee and to their heirs and assigns forever.

Papal bull

bullbullspapal bulls
A papal bull is a type of public decree, letters patent, or charter issued by a pope of the Catholic Church.

Royal charter

chartercharter of incorporationchartered
A royal charter is a formal grant issued by a monarch under royal prerogative as letters patent.

Exequatur

An exequatur is a patent which a head of state issues to a foreign consul, guaranteeing the consul's rights and privileges of office and ensuring recognition in the state to which the consul is appointed to exercise such powers.

Statute of Monopolies

Statute of Monopolies 1623statute forbidding such action1624 English Statute of Monopolies
Patents evolved from letters patent, issued by the monarch to grant monopolies over particular industries to skilled individuals with new techniques.

Lettre de cachet

lettres de cachetlettres de cachets
This was an early conception, and in early times the order in question was simply verbal; some letters patent of Henry III of France in 1576 state that François de Montmorency was "prisoner in our castle of the Bastille in Paris by verbal command" of the late king Charles IX.

Royal prerogative

prerogative powersprerogativeprerogative power
In Commonwealth realms, letters patent are issued under the prerogative powers of the head of state, as an executive or royal prerogative.

Plurale tantum

pluralia tantumalways pluralplural
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.

Legal instrument

legal documentinstrumentlegal documents
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.

Monarch

kingSovereignkings
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.

President (government title)

PresidentpresidentialPresidents
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.

Government-granted monopoly

franchisemonopolygovernment-granted monopolies
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.

Corporation

corporatecorporationsincorporated
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation. Letters patent can be used for the creation of corporations or government offices, or for the granting of city status or a coat of arms.

Heraldry

heraldicheraldistarms
Letters patent can be used for the creation of corporations or government offices, or for the granting of city status or a coat of arms.

Governor

gubernatorialgovernorsMilitary Governor
Letters patent are issued for the appointment of representatives of the Crown, such as governors and governors-general of Commonwealth realms, as well as appointing a Royal Commission.