Leukemia

leukaemialeukemiasleukemicleukaemiasleukemogenicatomic bomb sicknessaleukemiablood cancerchronic lymphocytic leukemialeukemogenesis
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of blood cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal blood cells.wikipedia
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Bone marrow

marrowred bone marrowbone marrow stroma
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of blood cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal blood cells.
Bone marrow transplants can be conducted to treat severe diseases of the bone marrow, including certain forms of cancer such as leukemia.

Down syndrome

Down's syndrometrisomy 21Downs Syndrome
Risk factors include smoking, ionizing radiation, some chemicals (such as benzene), prior chemotherapy, and Down syndrome. The disease is restricted to individuals with Down syndrome or genetic changes similar to those in Down syndrome, develops in a baby during pregnancy or shortly after birth, and resolves within 3 months or, in ~10% of cases, progresses to acute megakaryoblastic leukemia.
They have an increased risk of a number of other health problems, including congenital heart defect, epilepsy, leukemia, thyroid diseases, and mental disorders.

Lymphoma

lymphomaslymphatic cancerlymphosarcoma
Leukemias and lymphomas both belong to a broader group of tumors that affect the blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid system, known as tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues.
Lymphomas and leukemias are a part of the broader group of tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia

chronic myeloid leukemiachronic myeloid leukaemiablast crisis
There are four main types of leukemia—acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)—as well as a number of less common types. Chronic myelogenous leukemia is associated with a genetic abnormality called the Philadelphia translocation; 95% of people with CML carry the Philadelphia mutation, although this is not exclusive to CML and can be observed in people with other types of leukemia.
It is a form of leukemia characterized by the increased and unregulated growth of myeloid cells in the bone marrow and the accumulation of these cells in the blood.

Lymphoid leukemia

lymphocytic leukemialymphatic leukemiaB cell leukemia
Lymphoid leukemias are a group of leukemias affecting circulating lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells.

Childhood leukemia

Childhood leukaemia(childhood) leukemiachildren with leukemia
They concluded that there is limited evidence that high levels of ELF magnetic (but not electric) fields might cause some cases of childhood leukemia.
Childhood leukemia is leukemia that occurs in a child and is a type of childhood cancer.

Chemotherapy

chemotherapeuticantineoplasticantineoplastic agent
Treatment may involve some combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and bone marrow transplant, in addition to supportive care and palliative care as needed. Among adults, the known causes are natural and artificial ionizing radiation, a few viruses such as human T-lymphotropic virus, and some chemicals, notably benzene and alkylating chemotherapy agents for previous malignancies.
The overall effectiveness ranges from being curative for some cancers, such as some leukemias, to being ineffective, such as in some brain tumors, to being needless in others, like most non-melanoma skin cancers.

Myeloid leukemia

myeloid leukaemiamyelogenous leukemialeukemia, myeloid
Myeloid leukemia is a type of leukemia affecting myeloid tissue.

Bruise

bruisingcontusionbruises
Symptoms may include bleeding and bruising, feeling tired, fever, and an increased risk of infections. The most common symptoms in children are easy bruising, pale skin, fever, and an enlarged spleen or liver.
Unexplained bruising may be a warning sign of child abuse, domestic abuse, or serious medical problems such as leukemia or meningoccocal infection.

B-cell prolymphocytic leukemia

B cell prolymphocytic leukemiaprolymphocytic leukemia
It is a more aggressive, but still treatable, form of leukemia.

Acute leukemia

acute leukaemiaacute
Acute leukemia or acute leukaemia is a family of serious medical conditions relating to an original diagnosis of leukemia.

Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia

AML-M7megakaryocytic acute leukemia
The disease is restricted to individuals with Down syndrome or genetic changes similar to those in Down syndrome, develops in a baby during pregnancy or shortly after birth, and resolves within 3 months or, in ~10% of cases, progresses to acute megakaryoblastic leukemia.
Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is life-threatening leukemia in which malignant megakaryoblasts proliferate abnormally and injure various tissues.

Neoplasm

tumortumorstumour
Leukemias and lymphomas both belong to a broader group of tumors that affect the blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid system, known as tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues.
For lymphoid neoplasms, e.g. lymphoma and leukemia, clonality is proven by the amplification of a single rearrangement of their immunoglobulin gene (for B cell lesions) or T cell receptor gene (for T cell lesions).

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia

chronic myelomonocytic leukaemiachronic myelomonocyticCLL
Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a type of leukemia, which are cancers of the blood-forming cells of the bone marrow.

Hairy cell leukemia

Hairy cell leukaemialeukemia, hairy cellHairy-cell leukemia
Aleukemia can occur in any of the four major types of leukemia, and is particularly common in hairy cell leukemia.
Hairy cell leukemia makes up approximately 2% of all leukemias, with fewer than 2,000 new cases diagnosed annually in North America and Western Europe combined.

T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia

Leukemia, T-Cell, chronicT-PLL
T-cell-prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) is a mature T-cell leukemia with aggressive behavior and predilection for blood, bone marrow, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and skin involvement.

Radiation therapy

radiotherapyradiation oncologyradiation
Treatment may involve some combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, and bone marrow transplant, in addition to supportive care and palliative care as needed.
These include leukemias, most lymphomas and germ cell tumors.

Clonal hypereosinophilia

clonal eosinophiliaPDGFRAETV6-ACSL6
Clinically, clonal eosinophilia resembles various types of chronic or acute leukemias, lymphomas, or myeloproliferative hematological malignancies.

Splenomegaly

enlarged spleenhypersplenismspleen
The most common symptoms in children are easy bruising, pale skin, fever, and an enlarged spleen or liver.
Other common causes include congestion due to portal hypertension and infiltration by leukemias and lymphomas.

Fatigue

exhaustionOverexertiontiredness
Symptoms may include bleeding and bruising, feeling tired, fever, and an increased risk of infections.

Human T-lymphotropic virus

HTLVHuman T-lymphotrophic virusHTLV-1
Among adults, the known causes are natural and artificial ionizing radiation, a few viruses such as human T-lymphotropic virus, and some chemicals, notably benzene and alkylating chemotherapy agents for previous malignancies.
HTLV-1 is an abbreviation for human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, also called human T-cell leukemia type 1, a virus that has been implicated in several kinds of diseases, including tropical spastic paraparesis, and as a virus cancer link for leukemia (see adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma).

Benzene

benzene ringbenzolbenzene rings
Risk factors include smoking, ionizing radiation, some chemicals (such as benzene), prior chemotherapy, and Down syndrome. Among adults, the known causes are natural and artificial ionizing radiation, a few viruses such as human T-lymphotropic virus, and some chemicals, notably benzene and alkylating chemotherapy agents for previous malignancies.
Long-term exposure to excessive levels of benzene in the air causes leukemia, a potentially fatal cancer of the blood-forming organs.

Petechia

petechiaepetechialpetechial hemorrhages
This means people with leukemia may easily become bruised, bleed excessively, or develop pinprick bleeds (petechiae).

Hepatomegaly

enlarged liverliver enlargementliver
The most common symptoms in children are easy bruising, pale skin, fever, and an enlarged spleen or liver.

Philadelphia chromosome

BCR-ABLBCR/ABLbcr-abl fusion protein
Chronic myelogenous leukemia is associated with a genetic abnormality called the Philadelphia translocation; 95% of people with CML carry the Philadelphia mutation, although this is not exclusive to CML and can be observed in people with other types of leukemia.
The Philadelphia chromosome or Philadelphia translocation (Ph) is a specific genetic abnormality in chromosome 22 of leukemia cancer cells (particularly chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells).