Lever arm shock absorber

lever armlever arm dampershydraulic lever armLuvaxpaddle-based shock absorber
Lever arm shock absorbers were the first form of hydraulic shock absorber or damper used for car suspension.wikipedia
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Shock absorber

shock absorbersdampersdamper
Lever arm shock absorbers were the first form of hydraulic shock absorber or damper used for car suspension.
These used a lever arm which moved hydraulically damped vanes inside the unit.

Friction disk shock absorber

friction dampersHartford dampersHartford shock absorber
One of the earliest patents for a hydraulic lever arm shock absorber was awarded in 1925 to Georges de Ram, who was already an established maker of friction disk shock absorbers.
One of the major reasons for the decline of frictional dampers post-war, in favour of hydraulic lever arms, was the hydraulic damper's better change of rate with suspension amplitude.

Torsion bar suspension

torsion bartorsion-bartorsion bars
About the only area where lever arm shock absorbers still are actively used is tank suspensions, where their compact size and unique geometry allow them to be easily integrated with the suspension's torsion bars, and the massive tank chassis acting as a one huge heatsink alleviates the heat dissipation problems.
The Minor used lever arm dampers with its torsion bars while the Oxford and the Six used innovative telescopic dampers.

T-14 Armata

T-14T-14 "ArmataT-14 tank
Some designs of this type of shock absorber lend themselves well to their modification as an active suspension actuators, and at least one modern main battle tank (Russian T-14 Armata) is said to have this type of suspension.
This, along with published design blueprints, suggest at least a partial hydraulic suspension system based on the adjustable lever arm shock absorbers that now double as suspension actuators.

Car suspension

suspensionrear suspensionsuspension system
Lever arm shock absorbers were the first form of hydraulic shock absorber or damper used for car suspension.

Viscosity

viscouskinematic viscositydynamic viscosity
With a viscous device using hydraulic oil, the resistance force increased with speed, so providing better damping for larger suspension bumps.

Chassis

framehullundercarriage
These consisted of a cylindrical oil-filled body, bolted to the chassis.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
This type was most common pre-war, although Ferrari continued to use the Houdaille vane-type for Formula One racing cars into the late 1950s.

Formula One

Formula 1F1Formula One World Championship
This type was most common pre-war, although Ferrari continued to use the Houdaille vane-type for Formula One racing cars into the late 1950s.

Volkswagen Beetle

VW BeetleBeetleVolkswagen
Some, such as the VW Beetle until 1949–1951, had only single-acting shock absorbers, with no rebound damping.

Independent suspension

independent front suspensionindependent rear suspensionindependent
Many cars of this period began to use independent front suspension, often a double wishbone.

Double wishbone suspension

double wishboneDouble wishboneswishbone
Many cars of this period began to use independent front suspension, often a double wishbone.

Sports car

sports carssportssportscar
One of the last mass-production sports cars to still use lever arm shock absorbers was the MG B.

MG MGB

MGBMG BMGC
One of the last mass-production sports cars to still use lever arm shock absorbers was the MG B.

Controlled-access highway

freewaymotorwayexpressway
This was encouraged by better roads and motorways, increasing average speeds and driver expectations of handling.

Tank

tankstank commanderarmor
About the only area where lever arm shock absorbers still are actively used is tank suspensions, where their compact size and unique geometry allow them to be easily integrated with the suspension's torsion bars, and the massive tank chassis acting as a one huge heatsink alleviates the heat dissipation problems.

Heat sink

heatsinkheat sinksheatsinks
About the only area where lever arm shock absorbers still are actively used is tank suspensions, where their compact size and unique geometry allow them to be easily integrated with the suspension's torsion bars, and the massive tank chassis acting as a one huge heatsink alleviates the heat dissipation problems.

Active suspension

Continuous Damping ControlAdaptive Damping Systemadaptive suspension
Some designs of this type of shock absorber lend themselves well to their modification as an active suspension actuators, and at least one modern main battle tank (Russian T-14 Armata) is said to have this type of suspension.

Main battle tank

MBTmain battle tankstank
Some designs of this type of shock absorber lend themselves well to their modification as an active suspension actuators, and at least one modern main battle tank (Russian T-14 Armata) is said to have this type of suspension.

Chapman strut

Chapman
MacPherson's strut was cheap to manufacture and reliable in service, having few moving joints and using the new telescopic shock absorbers, rather than the previous lever arms.

Bond Minicar

Minicar
During development, the Mark C had utilised the same sliding pillar suspension on the rear as the Mark B, but by September 1952, this had been changed for Flexitor suspension units produced by George Spencer Moulton & Co. Ltd. The Flexitor units were a type of lever arm shock absorber which used bonded rubber in torsion as the shock absorber.

Cottin & Desgouttes

Automobiles Cottin et DesgouttesCottin et DesgouttesCottin-Desgouttes
In 1925, the company launched the “Sans Secousse”, with Houdaille-type paddle-based shock absorbers and separate springs for the 4 wheels.

Morris Marina

Leyland MarinaMarinaAustin Marina
The rest of the front suspension consisted of lower arms pivoting on trunnions with upper ball joints supporting the wheel and acting on hydraulic lever arm dampers.