Li Jiancheng

Historical sourcesJiancheng
Li Jiancheng (589 – July 2, 626, formally Crown Prince Yin (, literally, "the hidden crown prince"), nickname Pishamen (Sanskrit: Vaiśravaṇa), was the first crown prince of the Chinese Tang Dynasty.wikipedia
131 Related Articles

Tang dynasty

TangTang ChinaTang Empire
Li Jiancheng (589 – July 2, 626, formally Crown Prince Yin (, literally, "the hidden crown prince"), nickname Pishamen (Sanskrit: Vaiśravaṇa), was the first crown prince of the Chinese Tang Dynasty.
603) and Crown prince Li Jiancheng (b.

Emperor Gaozu of Tang

Emperor GaozuLi YuanGaozu
He was the oldest son of the founding emperor Emperor Gaozu (Li Yuan) and the crown prince after the founding of the dynasty in 618 CE.
In 626, Li Shimin, in a dispute with his brothers Li Jiancheng, the Crown Prince, and Li Yuanji, the Prince of Qi, ambushed Li Jiancheng and Li Yuanji at Xuanwu Gate, killing them.

Emperor Taizong of Tang

Emperor TaizongLi ShiminTaizong
Li Jiancheng was murdered by his younger brother, Li Shimin, the Prince of Qin, in the Xuanwu Gate indident in 626. Duchess Dou would subsequently give birth to three of Li Jiancheng's younger brothers: Li Shimin, Li Xuanba (李玄霸, who died in 614), and Li Yuanji.
Duchess Dou bore Li Yuan four sons—an older brother to Li Shimin, Li Jiancheng, and two younger brothers, Li Yuanba, who would die in 614, and Li Yuanji – and at least one daughter (the later Princess Pingyang).

Xuanwu Gate Incident

Xuanwu GateIncident at Xuanwu Gateambushed and killed
Li Jiancheng was murdered by his younger brother, Li Shimin, the Prince of Qin, in the Xuanwu Gate indident in 626.
The Xuanwu Gate Incident was a palace coup for the throne of the Tang dynasty on 2 July 626, when Prince Li Shimin (Prince of Qin) and his followers assassinated Crown Prince Li Jiancheng and Prince Li Yuanji (Prince of Qi).

Li Yuanji

Lei Yuen GatLee WongilYuanji
Duchess Dou would subsequently give birth to three of Li Jiancheng's younger brothers: Li Shimin, Li Xuanba (李玄霸, who died in 614), and Li Yuanji.
He was a son of the dynasty's founder Emperor Gaozu of Tang (Li Yuan), and in the intense rivalry developed between his older brothers Li Jiancheng the Crown Prince and Li Shimin the Prince of Qin, he sided with Li Jiancheng and often advocated drastic actions against Li Shimin, including assassination.

Heir apparent

heir-apparentheirs apparentheir
At some point, Li Jiancheng received the title of Heir Apparent of Tang.

Princess Pingyang

PingyangLee Sau-ningPinyang
She also gave birth to a girl child who eventually became Princess Pingyang, although it is not clear whether she was older or younger than Li Jiancheng.
She was his third daughter, but the only daughter of his wife Duchess Dou, who also bore four sons -- Li Jiancheng, Li Shimin (later Emperor Taizong), Li Xuanba, and Li Yuanji.

Taishang Huang

Jōkō of Japanretired emperorJōkō
Even before Li Jiancheng, Li Yuanji, and Chai Shao arrived at Jinyang, Li Yuan rebelled, declaring that he intended to support Emperor Yang's grandson Yang You, the Prince of Dai, as emperor, while honoring Emperor Yang as Taishang Huang (retired emperor).
During the course of the coup, he succeeded in killing his rival brothers, Crown Prince Li Jiancheng and Prince Li Yuanji.

Wang Gui (Tang chancellor)

Wang Gui
Li Jiancheng's staff members Wang Gui and Wei Zheng argued to him that he needed some victories to establish his reputation, and Li Jiancheng volunteered to command the army against Liu Heita.
He had previously served Li Shimin's elder brother, Li Jiancheng, with whom Li Shimin was locked in an intense rivalry during the reign of their father, Emperor Gaozu, but after Li Shimin killed Li Jiancheng and then took the throne, he knew that Wang was faithful to Li Jiancheng and was capable, and therefore retained him, eventually making him chancellor.

Wei Zheng

Wee JingWei, ZhengWèi Zhēng
Li Jiancheng's staff members Wang Gui and Wei Zheng argued to him that he needed some victories to establish his reputation, and Li Jiancheng volunteered to command the army against Liu Heita.
After Li Mi's submission to the Tang Empire, Wei Zheng became a Tang official and eventually served on the staff of Li Jiancheng, the Crown Prince and eldest son of Emperor Gaozu, the Tang dynasty's founding emperor.

Luo Yi

Li YiLo Ngai
In 624, Li Jiancheng requisitioned a number of soldiers from the general Li Yi, the Prince of Yan, to supplement his guard corps.
He subsequently, in the struggle between Emperor Gaozu's sons Li Jiancheng the Crown Prince and Li Shimin the Prince of Qin, joined Li Jiancheng's faction.

Liu Heita

By winter 622, the only remaining major threat against Tang rule was Liu Heita, the Prince of Handong.
He was then defeated, first by the Tang general Li Shimin (the eventual Emperor Taizong) and then Li Shimin's brother Li Jiancheng the Crown Prince, and in 623, he was captured by his one-time subordinate Zhuge Dewei and executed.

Yang You

Emperor Gong of SuiGong of SuiYáng Yòu
Even before Li Jiancheng, Li Yuanji, and Chai Shao arrived at Jinyang, Li Yuan rebelled, declaring that he intended to support Emperor Yang's grandson Yang You, the Prince of Dai, as emperor, while honoring Emperor Yang as Taishang Huang (retired emperor).
With Luoyang under attack by the rebel leader Li Mi, in spring 618, Li sent troops commanded by his sons Li Jiancheng and Li Shimin there, claiming to be aiding the defense.

Zhangsun Wuji

Cheung-suen Mo-geiZhang Sun Wu-ji
By 626, Li Shimin was fearful that he would be killed by Li Jiancheng, and his staff members Fang Xuanling, Du Ruhui, and Zhangsun Wuji were encouraging Li Shimin to attack Li Jiancheng and Li Yuanji first.
He helped Li Shimin overcome his brothers Li Jiancheng (the Crown Prince) and Li Yuanji (the Prince of Qi) in a succession struggle at the Xuanwu Gate Incident, eventually enabling Li Shimin to become the heir apparent and later the emperor.

Li Mi (Sui dynasty)

Li MiLee MatLee Mil
In the spring of 618, Li Yuan sent Li Jiancheng and Li Shimin toward Luoyang, which was then under attack by the rebel leader Li Mi, Duke of Wei, ostensibly to help the Sui forces there.
Li Yuan, having nominally become a regent over Yang You, briefly considered the possibility of taking Luoyang himself, sending his sons Li Jiancheng and Li Shimin to Luoyang, claiming to be aiding it, but the Sui generals in Luoyang refused to acknowledge Li Yuan's authority and did not respond.

Fang Xuanling

Fang, XuanlingBang Hyun RyungFang Qiao
By 626, Li Shimin was fearful that he would be killed by Li Jiancheng, and his staff members Fang Xuanling, Du Ruhui, and Zhangsun Wuji were encouraging Li Shimin to attack Li Jiancheng and Li Yuanji first. However, in Fang Xuanling's biography from the Old Book of Tang, it happened before the founding of Tang, and wine was not mentioned.
By 626, Li Shimin was locked in an intense rivalry with his older brother, Li Jiancheng the Crown Prince, and Fang and Du often suggested that he act first against Li Jiancheng.

Pei Ji (Sui and Tang)

Pei Ji
Later that year, Li Yuan, troubled by repeated Eastern Tujue incursions, seriously considered burning Chang'an to the ground and moving the capital to Fancheng, a suggestion that Li Jiancheng, Li Yuanji, and the chancellor Pei Ji agreed with.
Li Shimin and another son of Li Yuan, Li Jiancheng, however believed that retreat would lead to inevitable defeat and therefore successfully persuaded Li Yuan not to retreat.

Du Yan

Li Yuan then blamed the discord between his sons on Li Jiancheng's staff members Wang Gui and Wei Ting, and Li Shimin's staff member Du Yan, exiling them.
Eventually, he considered resigning and joining the staff of Li Shimin's older brother Li Jiancheng the Crown Prince—with whom Li Shimin was then having an intense rivalry.

Dou Jiande

Xia
Although Li Jiancheng had made contributions towards Tang's reunification of China, Li Shimin had defeated a number of the most important contenders including Xue Rengao, the Emperor of Qin, Wang Shichong, the Emperor of Zheng, and Dou Jiande, the Prince of Xia.
When Dou's generals, who had already previously surrendered or hid themselves in the countryside, heard about Dou's death, they rebelled under the leadership of Liu Heita, who publicly mourned Dou and was eventually able to take back all of Xia territory, but eventually was defeated first by Li Shimin and then by Li Shimin's older brother Li Jiancheng and killed in 623.

Liang Shidu

LiangLiang Shi Du
Only Liu escaped and fled to Liang Shidu, the Emperor of Liang.
In 626, Emperor Gaozu's son Li Shimin the Prince of Qin, ambushed and killed his brothers Li Jiancheng the Crown Prince and Li Yuanji the Prince of Qi, and then effectively forced Emperor Gaozu to yield the throne to him (as Emperor Taizong).

Xiao Yu

Li Yuan responded by issuing summonses to Li Jiancheng and Li Yuanji for the next morning, convening the senior officials Pei Ji, Xiao Yu, and Chen Shuda to examine Li Shimin's accusations.
In spring 618, during an abortive campaign where Li Yuan sent his sons Li Jiancheng and Li Shimin with an army to the eastern capital Luoyang to try to get Sui officials there to submit, Xiao served on Li Shimin's staff.

Yuchi Gong

Yuchi JingdeYuchiGao Zengsheng
Li Jiancheng persuaded Li Yuan to remove Fang and Du, as well as Li Shimin's trusted guard officers Yuchi Gong and Cheng Zhijie, from Li Shimin's staff.
(Later that year, however, Liu Heita would return and again take over former Xia territory, only to be later defeated by Li Shimin's older brother Li Jiancheng the Crown Prince.) Yuchi also then followed Li Shimin in his campaign against Liu Heita's ally Xu Yuanlang.

Chen Shuda

Li Yuan responded by issuing summonses to Li Jiancheng and Li Yuanji for the next morning, convening the senior officials Pei Ji, Xiao Yu, and Chen Shuda to examine Li Shimin's accusations.
Late in Emperor Gaozu's reign, an intense rivalry developed between his two oldest sons, Li Jiancheng the Crown Prince and Li Shimin the Prince of Qin, as Li Jiancheng, while a capable general himself, was overshadowed by Li Shimin, who had destroyed Tang's major enemies Xue Rengao the Emperor of Qin, Liu Wuzhou the Dingyang Khan, Wang Shichong the Emperor of Zheng, and Dou Jiande the Prince of Xia.

Feng Deyi

Feng Lun
After Li Shimin left, however, Li Yuanji, Li Yuan's concubines, and the chancellor Feng Deyi, all spoke on Li Jiancheng's behalf, and Li Yuan changed his mind, released Li Jiancheng, and allowed him to return to Chang'an as crown prince.
Meanwhile, an intense rivalry was developing between Li Shimin and his older brother Li Jiancheng, who, as Emperor Gaozu's oldest son, was created crown prince.