Liberal Party of Canada

LiberalLiberal PartyLiberals(L)federal LiberalLPCfederal LiberalsLIBLib.L
The Liberal Party of Canada (Parti libéral du Canada) is the oldest and longest-serving political party in Canada.wikipedia
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Dominant-party system

dominant-partyone party dominant statedominant party
The party has dominated federal politics for much of Canada's history, holding power for almost 70 years in the 20th century—more than any other party in a developed country—and as a result, it is sometimes referred to as Canada's "natural governing party".
Examples include United Russia (ЕP) in Russia, the Liberal Party of Canada (LPC) in Canada, the Justice and Development Party (AKP) in Turkey, Serbian Progressive Party (SNS) in Serbia, Fidesz in Hungary, the People's Action Party (PAP) in Singapore, the African National Congress (ANC) in South Africa, the Liberal Democratic Party in Japan, Awami League in Bangladesh and MPLA in Angola.

Pierre Trudeau

Pierre Elliot TrudeauTrudeauPierre Elliott Trudeau
In the late 1970s, Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau claimed that his Liberal Party adhered to the "radical centre".
Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau (, ; October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000), mostly referred to as simply Pierre Trudeau, or by the initials PET, was a Canadian politician who was 15th prime minister of Canada and leader of the Liberal Party, between 1968 and 1984, with a brief period as Leader of the Opposition, from 1979 to 1980.

Conservative Party of Canada

ConservativeConservative PartyConservatives
The party espouses the principles of liberalism, and generally sits at the centre to centre-left of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Conservative Party positioned to the centre-right and the New Democratic Party (who at times aligned itself with the Liberals during minority governments), occupying the left.
The party sits at the centre-right to the right-wing of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Liberal Party of Canada positioned centre to centre-left.

Big tent

Catch-allcatch-all partyCatch all
Like their federal Conservative Party rivals, the party is often described as a "big tent", attracting support from a broad spectrum of voters.
Both the Liberal Party of Canada and the Conservative Party of Canada (or its predecessors) rely on attracting supports from a broad spectrum of voters.

Politics of Canada

Canadian politicsfederal governmentCanadian politician
The Liberal Party of Canada (Parti libéral du Canada) is the oldest and longest-serving political party in Canada.
The two dominant political parties in Canada have historically been the Liberal Party of Canada and the Conservative Party of Canada (or its predecessors) Smaller parties like

Justin Trudeau

J. TrudeauTrudeauJustin
In the 2015 federal election, the Liberal Party under Justin Trudeau had its best result since the 2000 election, winning 39.5 percent of the popular vote and 184 seats, gaining a majority of seats in the House of Commons.
Justin Pierre James Trudeau (born December 25, 1971) is a Canadian politician who has served as the 23rd prime minister of Canada since 2015 and has been the leader of the Liberal Party since 2013.

2019 Canadian federal election

2019 federal election2019 election2019
However, in the 2019 federal election, they lost their majority, winning 157 seats, but they still remained the largest party in the House.
The Liberal Party, led by incumbent Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, won 157 seats to form a minority government and lost the majority they had won in the 2015 election.

2015 Canadian federal election

2015 federal election2015 election42nd Canadian federal election
In the 2015 federal election, the Liberal Party under Justin Trudeau had its best result since the 2000 election, winning 39.5 percent of the popular vote and 184 seats, gaining a majority of seats in the House of Commons.
The Liberal Party, led by Justin Trudeau, won 184 seats, allowing it to form a majority government with Trudeau becoming the next prime minister.

Centrism

CentrecentristCenter
The party espouses the principles of liberalism, and generally sits at the centre to centre-left of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Conservative Party positioned to the centre-right and the New Democratic Party (who at times aligned itself with the Liberals during minority governments), occupying the left.
Both the Liberal Party of Canada and the Conservative Party of Canada (or its predecessors) rely on attracting supports from a broad spectrum of voters.

George Brown (Canadian politician)

George BrownBrownGeorge Brown, Toronto publisher & politician
These included George Brown, Alexander Mackenzie, Robert Baldwin, William Lyon Mackenzie and the Clear Grits in Upper Canada, Joseph Howe in Nova Scotia, and the Patriotes and Rouges in Lower Canada led by figures such as Louis-Joseph Papineau.
His career in active politics faltered after 1865, but he remained a powerful spokesman for the Liberal Party promoting westward expansion and opposing the policies of Conservative Prime Minister John A. Macdonald.

Liberalism

liberalliberalssocially liberal
The party espouses the principles of liberalism, and generally sits at the centre to centre-left of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Conservative Party positioned to the centre-right and the New Democratic Party (who at times aligned itself with the Liberals during minority governments), occupying the left.
The dominant Canadian party is the Liberal Party and the United States' Democratic Party is usually considered liberal.

2000 Canadian federal election

2000 federal election20002000 election
In the 2015 federal election, the Liberal Party under Justin Trudeau had its best result since the 2000 election, winning 39.5 percent of the popular vote and 184 seats, gaining a majority of seats in the House of Commons.
The governing Liberal Party of Canada won a third consecutive majority government, winning more seats than the previous election.

Conservative Party of Canada (1867–1942)

ConservativeConservative PartyNational Government
At the time of confederation of the former British colonies of Canada (now Ontario and Quebec), New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the radical Liberals were marginalized by the more pragmatic Conservative coalition assembled under Sir John A. Macdonald.
As a result of World War I and the Conscription Crisis of 1917, the party joined with pro-conscription Liberals to become the "Unionist Party", led by Robert Borden from 1917 to 1920, and then the "National Liberal and Conservative Party" until 1922.

Alexander Mackenzie (politician)

Alexander MackenzieMackenzieAlexander
These included George Brown, Alexander Mackenzie, Robert Baldwin, William Lyon Mackenzie and the Clear Grits in Upper Canada, Joseph Howe in Nova Scotia, and the Patriotes and Rouges in Lower Canada led by figures such as Louis-Joseph Papineau.
In 1867, Mackenzie was elected to the new House of Commons of Canada for the Liberal Party.

Cannabis Act

Bill C-45legalization of recreational cannabiscannabis
The Liberals' signature policies and legislative decisions include universal health care, the Canada Pension Plan, Canada Student Loans, peacekeeping, multilateralism, official bilingualism, official multiculturalism, patriating the Canadian constitution and the entrenchment of Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Clarity Act, legalizing same-sex marriage, euthanasia, and cannabis, national carbon pricing, and reproductive choice.
The Liberal Party of Canada proposed legalization in 2012 and it was a major campaign platform for Justin Trudeau who became Prime Minister of Canada in 2015.

Reform movement (pre-Confederation Canada)

ReformerReformReformers
The Liberals are descended from the mid-19th century Reformers who agitated for responsible government throughout British North America.
The movement dissolved after responsible government was granted to the Province of Canada in 1848, with members forming the Parti bleu and Parti rouge in Canada East and the Liberal Party in Canada West, among other smaller parties.

William Lyon Mackenzie King

Mackenzie KingKingW.L. Mackenzie King
The party did organize the national party's second convention in 1919 to elect William Lyon Mackenzie King as Laurier's successor (Canada's first ever leadership convention), yet following the party's return to power in the 1921 federal election the nascent national party organizations were eclipsed by powerful ministers and local party organizations largely driven by patronage.
A Liberal with 21 years and 154 days in office, he was the longest-serving prime minister in Canadian history.

Canada Pension Plan

Quebec Pension PlanCPPCanada Pension Plan Investment Board
The Liberals' signature policies and legislative decisions include universal health care, the Canada Pension Plan, Canada Student Loans, peacekeeping, multilateralism, official bilingualism, official multiculturalism, patriating the Canadian constitution and the entrenchment of Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Clarity Act, legalizing same-sex marriage, euthanasia, and cannabis, national carbon pricing, and reproductive choice.
The Liberal government of Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson in 1965 first established the Canadian Pension Plan.

Liberal Party of Canada leadership elections

Liberal leadership conventions1919 leadership convention1958 convention
The party did organize the national party's second convention in 1919 to elect William Lyon Mackenzie King as Laurier's successor (Canada's first ever leadership convention), yet following the party's return to power in the 1921 federal election the nascent national party organizations were eclipsed by powerful ministers and local party organizations largely driven by patronage.
The first three leaders of the Liberal Party of Canada were not chosen at a leadership convention.

Pacific Scandal

corruption in railway contractsscandals
He was able to lead the party to power for the first time in 1873, after the MacDonald government lost a vote of no confidence in the House of Commons due to the Pacific Scandal.
The scandal led to the resignation of Canada's first Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, and a transfer of power from his Conservative government to a Liberal government led by Alexander Mackenzie.

1896 Canadian federal election

18961896 federal election1896 election
Laurier led the Liberals to power in the 1896 election (in which he became the first Francophone Prime Minister), and oversaw a government that increased immigration in order to settle Western Canada.
Though the Conservative Party won a plurality of the popular vote, the Liberal Party, led by Wilfrid Laurier, won the majority of seats to form the next government.

1957 Canadian federal election

19571957 election1957 federal election
With the defeat of the Liberals in the 1957 federal election and in particular 1958, reformers argued for the strengthening of the national party organization so it would not be dependent on provincial Liberal parties and patronage.
In one of the great upsets in Canadian political history, the Progressive Conservative Party (also known as "PCs" or "Tories"), led by John Diefenbaker, brought an end to 22 years of Liberal rule, as the Tories were able to form a minority government despite losing the popular vote to the Liberals.

Parti rouge

RougeRougesRed Party
These included George Brown, Alexander Mackenzie, Robert Baldwin, William Lyon Mackenzie and the Clear Grits in Upper Canada, Joseph Howe in Nova Scotia, and the Patriotes and Rouges in Lower Canada led by figures such as Louis-Joseph Papineau.
After confederation, the party was dissolved, with members forming the Liberal Party of Canada at the federal level, and the Liberal Party of Quebec at the provincial level.

1921 Canadian federal election

19211921 federal election1921 general election
The party did organize the national party's second convention in 1919 to elect William Lyon Mackenzie King as Laurier's successor (Canada's first ever leadership convention), yet following the party's return to power in the 1921 federal election the nascent national party organizations were eclipsed by powerful ministers and local party organizations largely driven by patronage.
The Union government that had governed Canada through the First World War was defeated, and replaced by a Liberal government under the young leader William Lyon Mackenzie King.

1911 Canadian federal election

19111911 federal election1911 election
As a result of the party's defeats in the 1911 and 1917 federal elections, Laurier attempted to organize the party on a national level by creating three bodies: the Central Liberal Information Office, the National Liberal Advisory Committee, and the National Liberal Organization Committee.
The election ended 15 years of government by the Liberal Party of Wilfrid Laurier.