Liberal Republican Party (United States)

Liberal Republican campaign poster
Interior of the convention hall during the announcement of Horace Greeley as the party's nominee for president in 1872
Thomas Nast's caricature of the Cincinnati Convention from Harper's Weekly, April 13, 1872
Liberal Republican "conspirators" in a political cartoon from Harper's Weekly of March 16, 1872

American political party that was organized in May 1872 to oppose the reelection of President Ulysses S. Grant and his Radical Republican supporters in the presidential election of 1872.

- Liberal Republican Party (United States)

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Ulysses S. Grant

American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880
Grant's birthplace, Point Pleasant, Ohio
Grant c. undefined 1845–1847
Battle of Monterrey Published 1847
Chinook Indian Plank House Published 1845
Grant believed Pacific Northwest Indians were a peaceful people and not a threat to settlers.
"Hardscrabble" Published 1891
The farm home Grant built in Missouri for his family. His wife Julia called the home an "unattractive cabin".
Brigadier General Grant photographed at Cairo, Illinois, September 1861 (Published 1911)
21st Illinois regiment monument in the Viniard Field, Chickamauga
Grant's successful gamble: Porter's gunboats night ran the Confederate gauntlet at Vicksburg on the Mississippi River.
Published 1863
The Battle of Jackson, fought on May 14, 1863, was part of the Vicksburg Campaign.
Published 1863
Union troops swarm Missionary Ridge and defeat Bragg's army. Published 1886
Commanding General Grant at the Battle of Cold Harbor, June 1864
Grant (center left) next to Lincoln with General Sherman (far left) and Admiral Porter (right) – The Peacemakers by Healy, 1868
Defeated by Grant, Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House
Ulysses S. Grant by Balling (1865)
Grant–Colfax Republican Ticket
Published 1868
Inauguration of President U.S. Grant, Capitol building steps.
March 4, 1869
Anthony Comstock Grant's vigorous prosecutor of abortionists and pornographers.
Amos T. Akerman, appointed Attorney General by Grant, who vigorously prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan
Image of mobs rioting entitled "The Louisiana Outrage". White Leaguers at Liberty Place attacked the integrated police force and state militia, New Orleans, September 1874.
Published October 1874
Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell aided Grant to defeat the Gold Ring.
Secretary of State Hamilton Fish and Grant successfully settled the Alabama Claims by treaty and arbitration.
Wharf of Santo Domingo City
Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
American Captain Frye and his crew were executed by Spanish authority.
King Kalākaua of Hawaii meets President Grant at the White House on his state visit, 1874.
Published January 2, 1875
Ely Samuel Parker
Grant appointed Parker the first Native American (Seneca) Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Battle of the Little Big Horn
Great Sioux War
Published 1889
Cartoon by Thomas Nast on Grant's opponents in the reelection campaign
Grant is congratulated for vetoing the "inflation bill" in 1874.
Cartoonist Thomas Nast praises Grant for rejecting demands by Pennsylvania politicians to suspend civil service rules.
Harper's Weekly
cartoon on Bristow's Whiskey Ring investigation
Grant and Bismarck in 1878
Cartoonist Joseph Keppler lampooned Grant and his associates. Grant's prosecutions of the Whiskey Ring and the Klan were ignored.
Puck, 1880
Official White House portrait of President Grant by Henry Ulke, 1875
Commanding General Grant
Constant Mayer's portrait of 1866
Grant National Memorial, known as "Grant's Tomb", largest mausoleum in North America

The Liberal Republicans and Democrats united behind Grant's opponent in the presidential election of 1872, but Grant was handily reelected.

Charles Sumner

American statesman and United States Senator from Massachusetts.

Birthplace, Irving Street, Beacon Hill, Boston
An 1842 bust of Charles Sumner by Thomas Crawford
Sumner ca. 1850
Lithograph of Preston Brooks' 1856 attack on Sumner; the artist depicts the faceless assailant bludgeoning the learned martyr
The walking cane used to attack Charles Sumner on exhibit at the Old State House in Boston
1860 steel-engraved portrait of Sumner
Senator Sumner and his friend Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, photograph by Gardner, 1863
Sumner ca. 1865, by Brady
Sumner puts head in British lion's mouth—Harper's Weekly, 1872
President Ulysses S. Grant The Dominican Republic annexation treaty caused bitter contention between President Grant and Sen. Sumner. —Brady 1869
Sumner in later years
Death of Sumner
Charles Sumner House, Boston
Statue by Anne Whitney in Harvard Square

Sumner bitterly opposed Grant's re-election by supporting the Liberal Republican candidate Horace Greeley in 1872 and lost his power inside the Republican Party.

Benjamin Gratz Brown

American politician.

Greeley/Brown campaign poster

He was a U.S. Senator, the 20th Governor of Missouri, and the Liberal Republican and Democratic Party vice presidential candidate in the presidential election of 1872.

Reconstruction era

Period in American history following the American Civil War ; it lasted from 1865 to 1877 and marked a significant chapter in the history of civil rights in the United States.

The ruins of Richmond, Virginia, the former Confederate capital, after the American Civil War; newly-freed African Americans voting for the first time in 1867; office of the Freedmen's Bureau in Memphis, Tennessee; Memphis riots of 1866
The Southern economy had been ruined by the war. Charleston, South Carolina: Broad Street, 1865
The distribution of wealth per capita in 1872, illustrating the disparity between North and South in that period
A political cartoon of Andrew Johnson and Abraham Lincoln, 1865, entitled "The Rail Splitter At Work Repairing the Union". The caption reads (Johnson): "Take it quietly Uncle Abe and I will draw it closer than ever." (Lincoln): "A few more stitches Andy and the good old Union will be mended."
Monument in honor of the Grand Army of the Republic, organized after the war
Freedmen voting in New Orleans, 1867
Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States (1861–1865)
Celebration of the Emancipation Proclamation in Massachusetts, 1862
Northern teachers traveled into the South to provide education and training for the newly freed population.
Andrew Johnson, 17th President of the United States (1865–1869)
An October 24th, 1874 Harper's Magazine editorial cartoon by Thomas Nast denouncing KKK and White League murders of innocent Blacks
The debate over Reconstruction and the Freedmen's Bureau was nationwide. This 1866 Pennsylvania election poster alleged that the bureau kept the Negro in idleness at the expense of the hardworking white taxpayer. A racist caricature of an African American is depicted.
1868 Republican cartoon identifies Democratic candidates Seymour and Blair (right) with KKK violence and with Confederate soldiers (left).
"This is a white man's government", Thomas Nast's caricature of the forces arraigned against Grant and Reconstruction in the 1868 election. Atop a black Union veteran reaching for a ballot box: the New York City Irish; Confederate and Klansman Nathan Bedford Forrest; and big-money Democratic Party chairman August Belmont, a burning freedmen's school in the background. Harper's Weekly, September 5, 1868.
Ulysses S. Grant, 18th President of the United States (1869–1877)
Grant's Attorney General Amos T. Akerman prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan, believing that the strong arm of the federal Justice Department could pacify the South.
Eastman Johnson's 1863 painting The Lord is My Shepherd, of a man reading the Bible
Atlanta's rail yard and roundhouse in ruins shortly after the end of the Civil War
$20 banknote with portrait of Secretary of the Treasury Hugh McCulloch
Winslow Homer's 1876 painting A Visit from the Old Mistress
A Republican Form of Government and No Domestic Violence, by Thomas Nast, a political cartoon about the Wheeler Compromise in Louisiana, published in Harper's Weekly, March 6, 1875
White Leaguers attacking the New Orleans integrated police force and state militia, Battle of Liberty Place, 1874
Rutherford B. Hayes, 19th President of the United States (1877–1881)
A poster for the 1939 epic film Gone with the Wind, which is set during the Civil War and Reconstruction eras

A new Republican faction emerged that wanted Reconstruction ended and the Army withdrawn—the Liberal Republicans.

Radical Republicans

The Radical Republicans (later also known as "Stalwarts" ) were a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party from the founding of the Republican Party in 1854 (before the American Civil War) until the end of Reconstruction in the Compromise of 1877.

U.S. Rep. Thaddeus Stevens
Salmon P. Chase, Lincoln's Secretary of the Treasury
Henry Winter Davis, one of the authors of the Wade–Davis Manifesto opposing Lincoln's "ten percent" reconstruction plan
Edwin McMasters Stanton, Lincoln's Secretary of War, whom Johnson tried to remove from office
U.S. Senator Charles Sumner
"Grant's Last Outrage in Louisiana" art in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper of January 23, 1875

Finally in 1872, the Liberal Republicans, who wanted a return to classical republicanism, ran a presidential campaign and won the support of the Democratic Party for their ticket.

New-York Tribune

American newspaper founded in 1841 by editor Horace Greeley.

Front page of the New-York Tribune no. 7,368 November 16, 1864
Front page of the New-York Tribune no. 7,368 November 16, 1864
Daguerreotype of the Tribune editorial staff by famed later Civil War photographer Mathew Brady (1822–1896), taken circa 1850s. Horace Greeley (1811–1872), is seated, second from the right. Editor Charles Anderson Dana (1819–1897), is standing, center.
The New York Tribune building, today the site of One Pace Plaza in lower Manhattan.

Greeley ran for president as the nominee of the Liberal Republican Party (and subsequently the Democratic Party) in the 1872 election against incumbent Ulysses S. Grant in his bid for a second term.

The Republican (Springfield, Massachusetts)

Newspaper based in Springfield, Massachusetts covering news in the Greater Springfield area, as well as national news and pieces from Boston, Worcester and northern Connecticut.

The October 17, 2018, front page of The Republican
The October 17, 2018, front page of The Republican
Samuel Bowles, transformed the paper into the largest circulating daily in New England by the mid-19th century, and is remembered for his influence on abolitionism and the Republican Party, as well as his mantra for journalists—"Put it all in the first sentence."
The historic Republican Block was home to The Republican from 1858 to 1867
The Springfield Republican as it appeared during the Reconstruction era, 1865
First Home of the Springfield Republican
Springfield Republican building, 1875
Springfield Republican building, 1880s
Republican block, Springfield (newspaper building at left), 19th century
Current headquarters and printing facilities of The Republican, 2018

During the controversies affecting slavery and resulting in the American Civil War, Bowles supported, in general, the Whig and Republican parties, but in the period of Reconstruction under President Ulysses S. Grant, his paper represented anti-administration or Liberal Republican opinions, while in the disputed election of 1876 it favored the claims of Samuel J. Tilden, and subsequently became independent in politics.

1872 United States presidential election

The 22nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1872.

Map of presidential election results by county
Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote
Map of Republican presidential election results by county
Map of Liberal Republican/Democratic presidential election results by county
Map of "other" presidential election results by county
Cartogram of presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county
Cartogram of Liberal Republican/Democratic presidential election results by county
Cartogram of "other" presidential election results by county

Despite a split in the Republican Party, incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant defeated Democratic-endorsed Liberal Republican nominee Horace Greeley.

Carl Schurz

German revolutionary and an American statesman, journalist, and reformer.

Schurz photographed by Mathew Brady, c. 1877
Carl Schurz as a young man
Carl Schurz, [ca. 1859–1870]. Carte de Visite Collection, Boston Public Library.
"For freedom in Germany and America": West German commemorative stamp featuring Schurz for the United States Bicentennial, 1976
Carl Schurz as Major General of Volunteers during the Civil War.
Carl Schurz, [ca. 1859–1870]. Carte de Visite Collection, Boston Public Library.
Carl Schurz is Don Quixote in this cartoon by Thomas Nast from Harper's Weekly of April 6, 1872
Carl Schurz and James Blaine in a Puck political cartoon of c. 1878 by J. Keppler
Delegation of Ute Indians in Washington, D.C. in 1880. Background: Woretsiz and general Charles Adams (Colorado Indian agent) are standing. Front from left to right: Chief Ignatio of the Southern Utes; Carl Schurz US Secretary of the Interior; Chief Ouray and his wife Chipeta.
When a statuary tribute to German poet Heinrich Heine was resisted because of anti-Semitic opponents in Germany, Schurz's activism aided in its relocation across the Atlantic to New York.
Schurz monument in New York City
Carl Schurz Park, Upper East Side Manhattan, New York City
Carl Schurz grave, Sleepy Hollow, N.Y.
Schurz and other anti-Grant "conspirators" – March 16, 1872
French Arms investigation – May 11, 1872
Schurz and his victims – September 7, 1872
Schurz is depicted as a carpetbagger - November 9, 1872.
Schurz leaves the U.S. Senate – March 20, 1875
Schurz reforms the Indian Bureau – January 26, 1878
Schurz counsels a wounded settler – December 28, 1878
Schurz and Wilhelm II – July 14, 1900
Schurz and Emilio Aguinaldo – August 9, 1902
- February 26, 1881

After serving as a Union general in the American Civil War, he helped found the short-lived Liberal Republican Party and became a prominent advocate of civil service reform.

Lyman Trumbull

Lawyer, judge, and United States Senator from Illinois and the co-author of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Political cartoon by Thomas Nast: Senators Schurz and Trumbull in a scene from Shakespeare's Richard III
Illustration of Senator Trumbull motioning on May 6, 1868 for the arrest of disorderly spectators at the impeachment trial of Andrew Johnson
Lyman Trumbull
Front of Trumbull's house in Alton
Trumbull's grave at Oak Woods Cemetery

During this time, he claimed party affiliations with the Democrats, the Republicans, the Liberal Republicans, and finally the Democrats again.