Liberal Unionist Party

Liberal UnionistLiberal UnionistsUnionistLib.U.a splitLeader of the Liberal UnionistsLib ULiberal and UnionistLiberal split in 1886Liberal Unionism
The Liberal Unionist Party was a British political party that was formed in 1886 by a faction that broke away from the Liberal Party.wikipedia
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Joseph Chamberlain

ChamberlainJoseph The Right Honourable '''Joseph Chamberlain
Led by Lord Hartington (later the Duke of Devonshire) and Joseph Chamberlain, the party formed a political alliance with the Conservative Party in opposition to Irish Home Rule.
He helped to engineer a Liberal Party split and became a Liberal Unionist, a party which included a bloc of MPs based in and around Birmingham.

Conservative Party (UK)

ConservativeConservative PartyConservatives
Led by Lord Hartington (later the Duke of Devonshire) and Joseph Chamberlain, the party formed a political alliance with the Conservative Party in opposition to Irish Home Rule.
In the 1890s, it formed a coalition government with the Liberal Unionist Party, a break-away faction of the Liberal Party, and in 1912 the two merged to form the Conservative and Unionist Party.

Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury

Lord SalisburyThe Marquess of SalisburyMarquess of Salisbury
The leading Liberal Unionists were invited to join the Conservative Lord Salisbury's government.
When Gladstone came out in favour of Home Rule for Ireland, Salisbury opposed him and formed an alliance with the breakaway Liberal Unionists, winning the subsequent general election.

Irish Home Rule movement

Home RuleIrish Home RuleHome Rule for Ireland
Led by Lord Hartington (later the Duke of Devonshire) and Joseph Chamberlain, the party formed a political alliance with the Conservative Party in opposition to Irish Home Rule. The 1885 General Election had left Charles Stewart Parnell's Irish Nationalists holding the balance of power, and had convinced Gladstone that the Irish wanted and deserved reinstatement of Home Rule for Ireland and so end 85 years of union.
Conservatives and (after 1886) Liberal Unionists fiercely resisted any dilution of the Act of Union, and in 1891 formed the Irish Unionist Alliance to oppose home rule.

1895 United Kingdom general election

18951895 general election1895 UK general election
Their strength in the House of Commons fell from 78 seats in 1886 to 47 in 1892 but recovered to 71 and then 68 in the general elections of 1895 and 1900.
It was won by the Conservatives led by Lord Salisbury who formed an alliance with the Liberal Unionist Party and had a large majority over the Liberals, led by Lord Rosebery.

Austen Chamberlain

Sir Austen ChamberlainChamberlainAusten
He remained semi-politically active and continued as the official leader of the Liberal Unionists, but his son Austen Chamberlain and Lansdowne effectively acted on his behalf in both the party and the Tariff Reform League. It also remained a profound influence on Chamberlain's sons Austen and Neville Chamberlain, who, when he was elected leader of the Conservative Party and thus became Prime Minister in 1937, told an audience how proud he was of his Liberal Unionist roots.
He stood for the Liberal Unionist Party, which merged with the Conservatives in 1912, and led the Conservatives in the Commons in 1921–22.

1892 United Kingdom general election

18921892 general election1892 election
Hostile feelings between the former political colleagues hardened with the return of Gladstone as Prime Minister, following the 1892 General Election.
The Liberal Unionists who had previously supported the Conservative government saw their vote and seat numbers go down.

1900 United Kingdom general election

19001900 general electiongeneral election of 1900
Their strength in the House of Commons fell from 78 seats in 1886 to 47 in 1892 but recovered to 71 and then 68 in the general elections of 1895 and 1900.
The Conservative Party, led by Lord Salisbury with their Liberal Unionist allies, secured a large majority of 130 seats, despite securing only 5.6% more votes than Henry Campbell-Bannerman's Liberals.

Charles Stewart Parnell

ParnellParnellite1890
The 1885 General Election had left Charles Stewart Parnell's Irish Nationalists holding the balance of power, and had convinced Gladstone that the Irish wanted and deserved reinstatement of Home Rule for Ireland and so end 85 years of union.
The Conservatives and the Liberal Unionist Party returned with a majority of 118 over the combined Gladstonian Liberals and Parnell's 85 Irish Party seats.

December 1910 United Kingdom general election

December 1910December 1910 general election1910
The resulting government was generally referred to as "Unionist", and the distinction between Conservatives and Liberal Unionists began to dissolve, though the latter were still able to field around 100 candidates for all the subsequent General Elections until the December 1910 General Election when that total dropped to 75.
The Conservatives, led by Arthur Balfour with their Liberal Unionist allies, and the Liberals, led by H. H. Asquith, could not break the deadlock produced in the January general election, with the Conservatives again winning the largest number of votes.

Irish Unionist Alliance

Irish UnionistUnionistSouthern Unionists
An effective merger had already happened to some extent in Ireland, with the Irish Unionist Party and the separately organized Ulster Unionist Council in 1905, later formally to become the Ulster Unionist Party.
The party aligned itself closely with the Conservative Party and Liberal Unionists to campaign to prevent the passage of a new Home Rule Bill.

Winston Churchill

ChurchillSir Winston ChurchillChurchill, Winston
As for Devonshire and his allies, they put their political efforts into the Unionist Free Trade League (also called the Free Food League) which included a sizeable minority of Conservative Members of Parliament (MPs) (and, for a few months, Conservative MP Winston Churchill before he too defected to the Liberals in 1904).
In May 1903, the Liberal Unionist MP Joseph Chamberlain, then the Secretary of State for the Colonies in a Conservative government, called for the introduction of tariffs on goods imported into the British Empire from outside; Churchill became a leading Conservative voice against such economic protectionism.

Unionist Party (Scotland)

UnionistUnionist PartyScottish Unionist Party
Following the merger, the party remained officially distinct in Scotland as the Unionist Party, though its MPs sat with the Conservatives and were part of the Conservative Party in all but name only; the Scottish party finally officially merged with its English counterpart in 1965.
Independent from, although associated with, the Conservative and Unionist Party in England and Wales, it stood for election at different periods of its history in alliance with a small number of Liberal Unionist and National Liberal candidates.

Ulster Unionist Party

Ulster UnionistUUPUnionist
An effective merger had already happened to some extent in Ireland, with the Irish Unionist Party and the separately organized Ulster Unionist Council in 1905, later formally to become the Ulster Unionist Party.
The IUA was an alliance of Irish Conservatives and Liberal Unionists, the latter having split from the Liberal Party over the issue of home rule.

Frederick Leveson-Gower (Sutherland MP)

Frederick Leveson-GowerFrederick Leveson-Gower
Another example is Frederick Leveson-Gower.
Frederick Neville Sutherland Leveson-Gower (31 May 1874 – 9 April 1959), was a British Liberal Unionist Party politician from the Leveson-Gower family.

1906 United Kingdom general election

19061906 general election1906 election
In the 1906 General Election, the Liberal Unionists (both Free Traders and Tariff Reformers) shared the same fate as their Conservative allies, with a big reduction in their parliamentary strength.
This election was a landslide defeat for the Conservative Party and their Liberal Unionist allies, with the primary reason given by historians as the party's weakness after its split over the issue of free trade (Joseph Chamberlain had resigned from government in September 1903 in order to campaign for Tariff Reform, which would allow "preferential tariffs").

Sir George Trevelyan, 2nd Baronet

George TrevelyanSir George Trevelyan, BtSir George Otto Trevelyan
Led by Chamberlain and Sir George Trevelyan, the Round Table Conference was an attempt to see if reunion of the Liberal party was possible.
As a representative of the Liberal Unionist Party he took part in the Round Table Conference, and, being satisfied with the changes made by Gladstone in his Home Rule scheme, he formally rejoined the Liberal Party.

Neville Chamberlain

ChamberlainMr. ChamberlainNeville
It also remained a profound influence on Chamberlain's sons Austen and Neville Chamberlain, who, when he was elected leader of the Conservative Party and thus became Prime Minister in 1937, told an audience how proud he was of his Liberal Unionist roots.
During the "Khaki election" of 1900 he made speeches in support of Joseph Chamberlain's Liberal Unionists.

Bonar Law

Andrew Bonar LawLaw The Right Honourable '''Bonar Law
This encouraged a movement to merge the two parties formally at the constituency and national organizational levels, a process speeded up by the election in 1911 of Bonar Law as the new Conservative Party leader.
The speech and its ideas split the Conservative Party and its coalition ally the Liberal Unionist Party into two wings – the Free-Fooders, who supported free trade, and the Tariff Reformers, who supported Chamberlain's tariff reforms.

Lord Randolph Churchill

Randolph ChurchillLord Randolph Henry Spencer-ChurchillLord
In December 1886, when Lord Randolph Churchill suddenly resigned as Chancellor of the Exchequer, Salisbury offered the position to Goschen, by far the most conservative of the leading Liberal Unionists.
In the contest which arose over William Ewart Gladstone's Home Rule bill, Lord Randolph again bore a conspicuous part, and in the electioneering campaign his activity was only second to that of some of the Liberal Unionists, Lord Hartington, George Goschen and Joseph Chamberlain.

Jesse Collings

Collings, JesseJesse Collings MP
Jesse Collings
Jesse Collings (2 December 1831 – 20 November 1920) was Mayor of Birmingham, England, a Liberal (later Liberal Unionist) member of Parliament, but was best known nationally in the UK as an advocate of educational reform and land reform.

Whigs (British political party)

WhigWhigsWhig Party
The majority of Liberal Unionists, including Hartington, Lord Lansdowne, and George Goschen, were drawn from the Whig faction of the party and had been expected to split from the Liberal Party anyway, for reasons connected with economic and social policy.
Although the Whigs at first formed the most important part of the coalition, the Whiggish elements of the new party progressively lost influence during the long leadership of the former Peelite William Ewart Gladstone and many of the old Whig aristocrats broke from the party over the issue of Irish home rule in 1886 to help form the Liberal Unionist Party, which in turn would merge with the Conservative Party by 1912.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland

United KingdomBritishUK
Some Liberals believed that Gladstone's Home Rule bill would lead to independence for Ireland and the dissolution of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which they could not countenance.
He broke with the Gladstone and in 1886 formed a new party, the Liberal Unionist Party.

Spencer Cavendish, 8th Duke of Devonshire

Marquess of HartingtonLord HartingtonDuke of Devonshire
Led by Lord Hartington (later the Duke of Devonshire) and Joseph Chamberlain, the party formed a political alliance with the Conservative Party in opposition to Irish Home Rule.

George Goschen, 1st Viscount Goschen

George GoschenGeorge Joachim GoschenLord Goschen
The majority of Liberal Unionists, including Hartington, Lord Lansdowne, and George Goschen, were drawn from the Whig faction of the party and had been expected to split from the Liberal Party anyway, for reasons connected with economic and social policy.
He was initially a Liberal, then a Liberal Unionist before joining the Conservative Party by the time of the 1895 General Election.