Liberal democracy

constitutional democracyliberal democraticliberal democraciesbourgeois democracyliberal democratliberal-democraticliberaldemocraticliberal democratsWestern democracy
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.wikipedia
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Representative democracy

elected representativerepresentative democraticparliamentary democracy
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Nearly all modern Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies; for example, the United Kingdom is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy, France is a unitary semi-presidential republic, and the United States is a federal presidential republic.

Liberalism

liberalliberalssocially liberal
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism. These ideas and beliefs inspired the American Revolution and the French Revolution, which gave birth to the ideology of liberalism and instituted forms of government that attempted to apply the principles of the Enlightenment philosophers into practice.
During the 20th century, liberal ideas also spread even further, especially in Western Europe, as liberal democracies found themselves on the winning side in both world wars.

Politics of Australia

Australian politicsAustraliaAustralian politician
A liberal democracy may take various constitutional forms as it may be a constitutional monarchy (such as Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Spain and the United Kingdom) or a republic (such as France, Germany, India, Italy, Ireland, Mexico, and the United States).
Australia has maintained a stable liberal democratic political system under its Constitution, one of the world's oldest, since Federation in 1901.

Parliamentary system

parliamentaryparliamentarismparliamentary democracy
It may have a parliamentary system (such as Australia, Canada, Germany, India, Israel, Ireland, Italy and the United Kingdom), a presidential system (such as Indonesia and the United States) or a semi-presidential system (such as France and Romania).
Later, in the 17th century, the Parliament of England pioneered some of the ideas and systems of liberal democracy culminating in the Glorious Revolution and passage of the Bill of Rights 1689.

Civil liberties

individual libertypersonal freedomcivil liberty
Also referred to as Western democracy, it is characterised by elections between multiple distinct political parties, a separation of powers into different branches of government, the rule of law in everyday life as part of an open society, a market economy with private property and the equal protection of human rights, civil rights, civil liberties and political freedoms for all people. The research institute Freedom House today simply defines liberal democracy as an electoral democracy also protecting civil liberties.
These include individual rights common to most liberal democracies, incorporated in the fundamental law of the land and are enforceable in a court of law.

List of political ideologies

political ideologypolitical ideologiesIdeology
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.

Politics of the Republic of Ireland

IrelandIrish politicsIrish
A liberal democracy may take various constitutional forms as it may be a constitutional monarchy (such as Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Spain and the United Kingdom) or a republic (such as France, Germany, India, Italy, Ireland, Mexico, and the United States).
The constitution falls within the liberal democratic tradition.

French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary FranceRevolutionary
These ideas and beliefs inspired the American Revolution and the French Revolution, which gave birth to the ideology of liberalism and instituted forms of government that attempted to apply the principles of the Enlightenment philosophers into practice.
Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution profoundly altered the course of modern history, triggering the global decline of absolute monarchies while replacing them with republics and liberal democracies.

Separation of powers

checks and balancesbranches of governmentdivision of powers
Also referred to as Western democracy, it is characterised by elections between multiple distinct political parties, a separation of powers into different branches of government, the rule of law in everyday life as part of an open society, a market economy with private property and the equal protection of human rights, civil rights, civil liberties and political freedoms for all people.

Cold War

The Cold WarCold War eraCold-War
In the United States more than in Europe, during the Cold War such restrictions applied to communists.
The capitalist West was led by the United States, a federal republic with a two-party presidential system, as well as the other First World nations of the Western Bloc that were generally liberal democratic with a free press and independent organizations, but were economically and politically entwined with a network of banana republics and other authoritarian regimes, most of which were the Western Bloc's former colonies.

Fascism

fascistfascistsFascist regime
Members of political organisations with connections to prior totalitarianism (typically formerly predominant communist, fascist or National Socialists) may be deprived of the vote and the privilege of holding certain jobs.
Fascists believe that liberal democracy is obsolete and regard the complete mobilization of society under a totalitarian one-party state as necessary to prepare a nation for armed conflict and to respond effectively to economic difficulties.

Participatory democracy

Participative democracyparticipatorypolitical participation
Marxists, communists, socialists and anarchists argue that liberal democracy under capitalist ideology is constitutively class-based and therefore can never be democratic or participatory.
Some scholars argue for refocusing the term on community-based activity within the domain of civil society, based on the belief that a strong non-governmental public sphere is a precondition for the emergence of a strong liberal democracy.

Pluralism (political philosophy)

pluralismpolitical pluralismpluralistic
Also referred to as Western democracy, it is characterised by elections between multiple distinct political parties, a separation of powers into different branches of government, the rule of law in everyday life as part of an open society, a market economy with private property and the equal protection of human rights, civil rights, civil liberties and political freedoms for all people.

Democratic socialism

democratic socialistdemocratic socialistsdemocratic-socialist
Liberal democracy has also been attacked by some socialists as a dishonest farce used to keep the masses from realizing that their will is irrelevant in the political process.
A variant of this set of definitions is Joseph Schumpeter's argument set out in Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (1941) that liberal democracies were evolving from liberal capitalism into democratic socialism with the growth of workers' self-management, industrial democracy and regulatory institutions.

Government

Form of governmentgovernmentsgovernmental
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, liberal democracy has become an even more prevalent form of government.

Classical liberalism

classical liberalliberalclassical liberals
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.

Republic

constitutional republicrepublicsrepublican form of government
A liberal democracy may take various constitutional forms as it may be a constitutional monarchy (such as Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Spain and the United Kingdom) or a republic (such as France, Germany, India, Italy, Ireland, Mexico, and the United States).
In liberal democracies presidents are elected, either directly by the people or indirectly by a parliament or council.

Karl Popper

PopperSir Karl PopperConjectures and Refutations
This criticism assumes that it is possible to make long term predictions for a society, something Karl Popper has criticised as historicism.
In political discourse, he is known for his vigorous defence of liberal democracy and the principles of social criticism that he believed made a flourishing open society possible.

Human nature

humanitynaturehuman
It was further believed that democracy was contrary to human nature, as human beings were seen to be inherently evil, violent and in need of a strong leader to restrain their destructive impulses.
The basis of liberal democracy, Habermas rightfully claims, is the symmetrical and independent mutual recognition among free, equal and autonomous persons.

Freedom House

Freedom on the NetFreedom House’sFreedomhouse
The research institute Freedom House today simply defines liberal democracy as an electoral democracy also protecting civil liberties.
Bush shows in her report that its ideology has long reflected that of the people who are most involved in US foreign policy, and that liberal democracy was the main form of democracy that was considered.

Noam Chomsky

ChomskyChomsky, NoamChomskyan
In Manufacturing Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media, Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomsky argue via their Propaganda Model that the corporate media limits the availability of contesting views and assert this creates a narrow spectrum of elite opinion.
He has said he focuses on the U.S. because the country has militarily and economically dominated the world during his lifetime and because its liberal democratic electoral system allows the citizenry to influence government policy.

Social democracy

social democraticsocial-democraticsocial democrat
Social democracy is a political, social and economic philosophy that supports economic and social interventions to promote social justice within the framework of a liberal democratic polity and a capitalist-oriented economy.

Democratization

democratisationdemocratic reformdemocratic transition
The collapse of the Soviet Union and the partial democratisation of Soviet bloc states was followed by wars in the former Yugoslavia, in the Caucasus and in Moldova.
Francis Fukuyama wrote another classic in democratization studies entitled The End of History and the Last Man which spoke of the rise of liberal democracy as the final form of human government.

Communism

communistcommunistscommunist ideology
In the United States more than in Europe, during the Cold War such restrictions applied to communists. Marxists, communists, socialists and anarchists argue that liberal democracy under capitalist ideology is constitutively class-based and therefore can never be democratic or participatory.
Marxism is also subject to general criticisms, criticisms related to historical materialism that it is a type of historical determinism, the necessary suppression of liberal democratic rights, issues with the implementation of communism and economic issues such as the distortion or absence of price signals.

Transparency (behavior)

transparencytransparentTransparency (humanities)
Freedom of information legislation is important for accountability and transparency.
While a liberal democracy can be a plutocracy, where decisions are made behind locked doors and the people have fewer possibilities to influence politics between the elections, a participative democracy is more closely connected to the will of the people.