Liberalism

liberalliberalssocially liberalpolitical liberalismLiberals (''Isabelinos'' or ''Cristinos'')anti-liberalliberal politicsliberalistliberal theoryprogressive
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.wikipedia
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Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe Enlightenment18th-century philosophy
Liberalism became a distinct movement in the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among Western philosophers and economists.
A variety of 19th-century movements, including liberalism and neo-classicism, trace their intellectual heritage to the Enlightenment.

Liberalism in the United States

liberalliberalsliberalism
The 19th century saw liberal governments established in nations across Europe and South America, whereas it was well-established alongside republicanism in the United States.
The fundamental liberal ideals of freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion for all belief systems, and the separation of church and state, right to due process, and equality under the law are widely accepted as a common foundation across the spectrum of liberal thought.

John Locke

LockeLockeanLocke, John
Philosopher John Locke is often credited with founding liberalism as a distinct tradition, arguing that each man has a natural right to life, liberty and property, adding that governments must not violate these rights based on the social contract. These ideas were first drawn together and systematized as a distinct ideology by the English philosopher John Locke, generally regarded as the father of modern liberalism.
His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.

Liberal democracy

constitutional democracyliberal democraticliberal democracies
However, during the 20th century liberal ideas also spread even further—especially in Western Europe—as liberal democracies found themselves on the winning side in both world wars.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.

Classical liberalism

classical liberalliberalclassical liberals
Before 1920, the main ideological opponent of classical liberalism was conservatism, but liberalism then faced major ideological challenges from new opponents: fascism and communism.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.

Fascism

fascistfascistsfascistic
Before 1920, the main ideological opponent of classical liberalism was conservatism, but liberalism then faced major ideological challenges from new opponents: fascism and communism.
Opposed to liberalism, Marxism and anarchism, fascism is placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum.

Modern liberalism in the United States

liberalliberalsLiberalism
In Europe and North America, the establishment of social liberalism (often called simply "liberalism" in the United States) became a key component in the expansion of the welfare state.
Modern American liberalism is the dominant version of liberalism in the United States.

Liberalism in Turkey

liberalTurkish Liberalsliberalism in the Ottoman Empire
During 19th and early 20th century, liberalism in the Ottoman Empire and Middle East influenced periods of reform such as the Tanzimat and Al-Nahda as well as the rise of secularism, constitutionalism and nationalism.
He was highly influenced by French culture and was a liberal.

Liberalism and conservatism in Latin America

LiberalLatin AmericaLiberal Party
The 19th century saw liberal governments established in nations across Europe and South America, whereas it was well-established alongside republicanism in the United States.
Liberalism and conservatism in Latin America have unique historical roots as Latin American independence began to occur in 1808 after the French Revolution and the subsequent Napoleonic Wars that eventually engulfed all of Europe.

Social liberalism

social liberalsocial-liberalliberal
In Europe and North America, the establishment of social liberalism (often called simply "liberalism" in the United States) became a key component in the expansion of the welfare state.
Social liberalism (also known as modern liberalism in the United States, and "left liberalisn" in Germany) is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a regulated free market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights.

Liberalism by country

liberal partyliberalliberal democratic
Today, liberal parties continue to wield power and influence throughout the world.
This article gives information on liberalism worldwide.

Egalitarianism

egalitarianequalityeconomic egalitarianism
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
One argument is that liberalism provides democratic societies with the means to carry out civic reform by providing a framework for developing public policy and thus providing the right conditions for individuals to achieve civil rights.

Conservatism

conservativeconservativessocial conservatives
Before 1920, the main ideological opponent of classical liberalism was conservatism, but liberalism then faced major ideological challenges from new opponents: fascism and communism.
Liberal conservatism is a variant of conservatism that is strongly influenced by liberal stances.

French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionaryrevolutionary France
Leaders in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the American Revolution of 1776 and the French Revolution of 1789 used liberal philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of royal tyranny.
It became the focal point for the development of all modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism, nationalism, and secularism, among many others.

Liberal

Liberals
Words such as liberal, liberty, libertarian and libertine all trace their history to the Latin liber, which means "free".
A supporter of liberalism, a political philosophy founded on ideas of liberty and equality

Liberalism and radicalism in Spain

LiberalLiberalismliberals
In Spain, the liberales, the first group to use the liberal label in a political context, fought for decades for the implementation of the 1812 Constitution.
This article gives an overview of liberalism and radicalism in Spain. It is limited to liberal and radical parties with substantial support, mainly proved by having been represented in parliament.

Liberalism and radicalism in France

liberalLiberalismliberals
While the British liberal tradition has emphasised expanding democracy, French liberalism has emphasised rejecting authoritarianism and is linked to nation-building.
The early high points of liberalism in France were:

Liberal Party of Canada

LiberalLiberal PartyLiberals
The dominant Canadian party is the Liberal Party and the United States' Democratic Party is usually considered liberal.
The party espouses the principles of liberalism, and generally sits at the centre to centre-left of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Conservative Party positioned to the centre-right and the New Democratic Party (who at times aligned itself with the Liberals during minority governments), occupying the left.

List of liberal theorists

contributions to liberal theoryliberal theoristsliberal theorists and philosophers
The objectives of liberal theorists and philosophers have differed across various times, cultures and continents.
Individual contributors to classical liberalism and political liberalism are associated with philosophers of the Enlightenment.

Tanzimat

reformsTanzimat periodreform in the Ottoman capital
During 19th and early 20th century, liberalism in the Ottoman Empire and Middle East influenced periods of reform such as the Tanzimat and Al-Nahda as well as the rise of secularism, constitutionalism and nationalism.
Although the motives for the implementation of Tanzimât were bureaucratic, it was impulsed by liberal ministers and intellectuals like Kabuli Mehmed Pasha, the secret society the Young Ottomans, and liberal minded like Midhat Pasha who is also often considered as one of the founders of the Ottoman Parliament.

Government

governmentsform of governmentgovernmental
The early waves of liberalism popularised economic individualism while expanding constitutional government and parliamentary authority.
As Ribuffo notes, "what Americans now call conservatism much of the world calls liberalism or neoliberalism".

Welfare state

welfarewelfare statessocial state
In Europe and North America, the establishment of social liberalism (often called simply "liberalism" in the United States) became a key component in the expansion of the welfare state.
After 1830 in France Liberalism and economic modernization were key goals.

Ideology

ideologicalideologiespolitical ideology
These ideas were first drawn together and systematized as a distinct ideology by the English philosopher John Locke, generally regarded as the father of modern liberalism.
He conceived "Ideology" as a liberal philosophy that would defend individual liberty, property, free markets, and constitutional limits on state power.

Liberalism in the United Kingdom

LiberalLiberalismBritish
The development into maturity of classical liberalism took place before and after the French Revolution in Britain and was based on the following core concepts: classical economics, free trade, laissez-faire government with minimal intervention and taxation and a balanced budget.
This article gives an overview of liberalism in the United Kingdom. It is limited to liberal parties with substantial support, mainly proved by having had a representation in parliament.

Libertarianism in the United States

libertarianlibertariansLibertarianism
Consequently, in the United States the ideas of individualism and laissez-faire economics previously associated with classical liberalism became the basis for the emerging school of libertarian thought and are key components of American conservatism.
The term "liberal" had ceased to refer to the support of individual rights and minimal government and instead came to denote left-leaning ideas that would be seen elsewhere as social democratic.