A report on Liberalism

John Milton's Areopagitica (1644) argued for the importance of freedom of speech
Madame de Staël
Benjamin Constant, a Franco-Swiss political activist and theorist
Thomas Hill Green, an influential liberal philosopher who established in Prolegomena to Ethics (1884) the first major foundations for what later became known as positive liberty and in a few years his ideas became the official policy of the Liberal Party in Britain, precipitating the rise of social liberalism and the modern welfare state
John Maynard Keynes, one of the most influential economists of modern times and whose ideas, which are still widely felt, formalized modern liberal economic policy
The Great Depression with its periods of worldwide economic hardship formed the backdrop against which Keynesian Revolution took place (the image is Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother depiction of destitute pea-pickers in California, taken in March 1936)
Mary Wollstonecraft, widely regarded as the pioneer of liberal feminism
Sismondi, who wrote the first critique of the free market from a liberal perspective in 1819
John Stuart Mill, whose On Liberty greatly influenced the course of 19th century liberalism
Gustave de Molinari
Julius Faucher
John Locke, who was the first to develop a liberal philosophy, including the right to private property and the consent of the governed
Montesquieu, who argued for the government's separation of powers
The iconic painting Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix, a tableau of the July Revolution in 1830
As a liberal nationalist, K. J. Ståhlberg (1865–1952), the President of Finland, anchored the state in liberal democracy, guarded the fragile germ of the rule of law, and embarked on internal reforms.
January 1933 color photo of Franklin D. Roosevelt as the Man of the Year of Time
2017 Russian protests were organized by Russia's liberal opposition
Execution of José María de Torrijos y Uriarte and his men in 1831 as Spanish King Ferdinand VII took repressive measures against the liberal forces in his country
Raif Badawi, a Saudi Arabian writer and the creator of the website Free Saudi Liberals, who was sentenced to ten years in prison and 1,000 lashes for "insulting Islam" in 2014

Political and moral philosophy based on the rights of the individual, liberty, consent of the governed and equality before the law.

- Liberalism
John Milton's Areopagitica (1644) argued for the importance of freedom of speech

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Charles Fourier, influential early French socialist thinker

Socialism

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Left-wing to far-left economic philosophy and movement encompassing a range of economic systems characterized by the dominance of social ownership of the means of production as opposed to private ownership.

Left-wing to far-left economic philosophy and movement encompassing a range of economic systems characterized by the dominance of social ownership of the means of production as opposed to private ownership.

Charles Fourier, influential early French socialist thinker
The celebration of the election of the Commune on 28 March 1871—the Paris Commune was a major early implementation of socialist ideas
Mikhail Bakunin speaking to members of the International Workingmen's Association at the Basel Congress in 1869
Antonio Gramsci, member of the Italian Socialist Party and later leader and theorist of the Communist Party of Italy
Rosa Luxemburg, prominent Marxist revolutionary, leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany and martyr and leader of the German Spartacist uprising in 1919
FAI militia during the Spanish Revolution in 1936
Einar Gerhardsen, Prime Minister of Norway for the Labour Party
Olof Palme, Prime Minister of Sweden for the Swedish Social Democratic Party
Salvador Allende, President of Chile and member of the Socialist Party of Chile, whose presidency and life were ended by a CIA-backed military coup
Mikhail Gorbachev, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1985–1991)
Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon, early French socialist
The writings of Karl Marx provided the basis for the development of Marxist political theory and Marxian economics.
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, main theorist of mutualism and influential French socialist thinker
Socialists in Union Square, New York City on May Day 1912
Eduard Bernstein
The first anarchist journal to use the term libertarian was Le Libertaire, Journal du Mouvement Social, published in New York City between 1858 and 1861 by French libertarian communist Joseph Déjacque, the first recorded person to describe himself as libertarian.
Arabic letters "Lam" and "Alif" reading "Lā" (Arabic for "No!") are a symbol of Islamic Socialism in Turkey.
Socialist feminist Clara Zetkin and Rosa Luxemburg in 1910
Edward Carpenter, philosopher and activist who was instrumental in the foundation of the Fabian Society and the Labour Party as well as in the early LGBTI western movements

Socialism contrasted with the liberal doctrine of individualism that emphasized the moral worth of the individual whilst stressing that people act or should act as if they are in isolation from one another.

2009 Taxpayer March on Washington as conservative protesters walk down Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D. C.

Conservatism

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Cultural, social, and political philosophy that seeks to promote and to preserve traditional social institutions and practices.

Cultural, social, and political philosophy that seeks to promote and to preserve traditional social institutions and practices.

2009 Taxpayer March on Washington as conservative protesters walk down Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D. C.
Gianfranco Fini, former President of the Italian Chamber of Deputies, in 2004
2012 March for Life in Paris, France
Edmund Burke (1729–1797)
Joseph de Maistre (1753–1821)
Nicolas Sarkozy, President of France (2007–2012)
Robert Peel (1788–1850)
Margaret Thatcher (1925–2013), under whose leadership the Conservative Party has shifted their economic policies to the right as well as Thatcherism
Jair Bolsonaro, the incumbent President of Brazil, known for his conservative stances
Angela Merkel, Chancellor of Germany from 2005 to 2021
European People's Party (EPP) Congress in Bucharest in 2012, whose three conservative leaders in the EPP included Prime Minister of Spain Mariano Rajoy (2011–2018), Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel and Prime Minister of Hungary Viktor Orbán
President of the United States Ronald Reagan (1981–1989), whose Reagan Doctrine has reshaped the Republican Party

Conservatism is often used as a generic term to describe a "right-wing viewpoint occupying the political spectrum between liberalism and fascism".

Leonard Hobhouse, one of the originators of social liberalism, notably through his book Liberalism, published in 1911.

Social liberalism

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Leonard Hobhouse, one of the originators of social liberalism, notably through his book Liberalism, published in 1911.
Thomas Hill Green
Friedrich Naumann
Franklin D. Roosevelt, the 32nd President of the United States, whose New Deal domestic policies defined American liberalism for the middle third of the 20th century
David Lloyd George, who became closely associated with this new liberalism and vigorously supported expanding social welfare
British leaflet from the Liberal Party expressing support for the National Health Insurance Act of 1911 and the legislation provided benefits to sick and unemployed workers, marking a major milestone in the development of social welfare
Alexander Rüstow

Social liberalism (Sozialliberalismus, socioliberalismo, Sociaalliberalisme) also known as new liberalism in the United Kingdom, modern liberalism in the United States, left liberalism (Linksliberalismus) in Germany, and progressive liberalism (Liberalismo progresista) in Spanish-speaking countries, is a political philosophy and variety of liberalism that endorses a social market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights.

Egoist philosopher Max Stirner has been called a proto-existentialist philosopher while at the same time is a central theorist of individualist anarchism

Individualism

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Moral stance, political philosophy, ideology and social outlook that emphasizes the intrinsic worth of the individual.

Moral stance, political philosophy, ideology and social outlook that emphasizes the intrinsic worth of the individual.

Egoist philosopher Max Stirner has been called a proto-existentialist philosopher while at the same time is a central theorist of individualist anarchism
Benjamin Tucker, American individualist anarchist who focused on economics calling them anarchistic-socialism and adhering to the mutualist economics of Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Josiah Warren
Influential French individualist anarchist Émile Armand
Oscar Wilde, famous Irish socialist writer of the decadent movement and famous dandy

Anarchism, existentialism, liberalism and libertarianism are examples of movements that take the human individual as a central unit of analysis.

A meeting of the Anti-Corn Law League in Exeter Hall in 1846

Classical liberalism

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A meeting of the Anti-Corn Law League in Exeter Hall in 1846
John Locke
Adam Smith

Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism that advocates free market and laissez-faire economics; civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on limited government, economic freedom, and political freedom.

An example of a French salon

Age of Enlightenment

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Intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries with global influences and effects.

Intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries with global influences and effects.

An example of a French salon
The most famous work by Nicholas de Condorcet, Esquisse d'un tableau historique des progres de l'esprit humain, 1795. With the publication of this book, the development of the Age of Enlightenment is considered generally ended.
René Descartes
German philosopher Immanuel Kant
Cesare Beccaria, father of classical criminal theory (1738–1794)
English philosopher John Locke argued that the authority of government stems from a social contract based on natural rights. According to Locke, the authority of government was limited and required the consent of the governed.
The Marquis of Pombal, as the head of the government of Portugal, implemented sweeping socio-economic reforms (abolished slavery, significantly weakened the Inquisition, created the basis for secular public schools and restructured the tax system)
Denmark's minister Johann Struensee, a social reformer, was publicly executed in 1772 for usurping royal authority
The French philosopher Voltaire argued for religious tolerance, saying that "It does not require great art, or magnificently trained eloquence, to prove that Christians should tolerate each other. I, however, am going further: I say that we should regard all men as our brothers. What? The Turk my brother? The Chinaman my brother? The Jew? The Siam? Yes, without doubt; are we not all children of the same father and creatures of the same God?"
Europe at the beginning of the War of the Spanish Succession, 1700
One leader of the Scottish Enlightenment was Adam Smith, the father of modern economic science
John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence imagines the drafting committee presenting its work to the Congress
Weimar's Courtyard of the Muses by Theobald von Oer, a tribute to The Enlightenment and the Weimar Classicism depicting German poets Schiller, Wieland, Herder and Goethe
Spanish Constitution of 1812
Empress Elizabeth visits Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov.
Constitution of 3 May, 1791, Europe's first modern constitution
Italian Jesuit priest Matteo Ricci worked with several Chinese elites, such as Xu Guangqi, in translating Euclid's Elements into Chinese.
Jean-François Champollion, considered the founder of Egyptology
If there is something you know, communicate it. If there is something you don't know, search for it. — An engraving from the 1772 edition of the Encyclopédie; Truth, in the top center, is surrounded by light and unveiled by the figures to the right, Philosophy and Reason
A medal minted during the reign of Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor, commemorating his grant of religious liberty to Jews and Protestants in Hungary—another important reform of Joseph II was the abolition of serfdom.
German explorer Alexander von Humboldt showed his disgust for slavery and often criticized the colonial policies—he always acted out of a deeply humanistic conviction, borne by the ideas of the Enlightenment.
George Frideric Handel
French philosopher Pierre Bayle
Front page of The Gentleman's Magazine, January 1731
ESTC data 1477–1799 by decade given with a regional differentiation
Denis Diderot is best known as the editor of the Encyclopédie
Georges Buffon is best remembered for his Histoire naturelle, a 44 volume encyclopedia describing everything known about the natural world
Journal des sçavans was the earliest academic journal published in Europe
First page of the Encyclopédie, published between 1751 and 1766
"Figurative system of human knowledge", the structure that the Encyclopédie organised knowledge into—it had three main branches: memory, reason and imagination
A portrait of Bernard de Fontenelle
Louis XIV visiting the Académie des sciences in 1671: "It is widely accepted that 'modern science' arose in the Europe of the 17th century, introducing a new understanding of the natural world" — Peter Barrett
Antoine Lavoisier conducting an experiment related to combustion generated by amplified sun light
Masonic initiation ceremony
Statue of Cesare Beccaria, widely considered one of the greatest thinkers of the Age of Enlightenment.

A variety of 19th-century movements, including liberalism, communism, and neoclassicism, trace their intellectual heritage to the Enlightenment.

Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), from a detail of The School of Athens, a fresco by Raphael. Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Politics secured the two Greek philosophers as two of the most influential political philosophers.

Political philosophy

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Philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions and the relationships between them.

Philosophical study of government, addressing questions about the nature, scope, and legitimacy of public agents and institutions and the relationships between them.

Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), from a detail of The School of Athens, a fresco by Raphael. Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Politics secured the two Greek philosophers as two of the most influential political philosophers.
Portrait of Confucius, c. 1770
Eugène Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People (1830, Louvre), a painting created at a time when old and modern political philosophies came into violent conflict.
Political spectrum

The Marxist critique of capitalism—developed with Friedrich Engels—was, alongside liberalism and fascism, one of the defining ideological movements of the twentieth century.

A portrait highlighting the five leaders of early social democracy in Germany

Social democracy

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Political, social, and economic philosophy within socialism that supports political and economic democracy.

Political, social, and economic philosophy within socialism that supports political and economic democracy.

A portrait highlighting the five leaders of early social democracy in Germany
Vladimir Lenin, one revolutionary social democrat who paved the way for the split between Communists and Social Democrats
Anthony Crosland, who argued that traditional capitalism had been reformed and modified almost out of existence by the social democratic welfare policy regime after World War II

Bernstein described socialism and social democracy in particular as "organized liberalism"; in this sense, liberalism is the predecessor and precursor of socialism, whose restricted view of freedom is to be socialized, while democracy must entails social democracy.

Individualist anarchist Lysander Spooner, whose No Treason: The Constitution of No Authority greatly influenced libertarianism in the United States

Libertarianism in the United States

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Political philosophy promoting individual liberty.

Political philosophy promoting individual liberty.

Individualist anarchist Lysander Spooner, whose No Treason: The Constitution of No Authority greatly influenced libertarianism in the United States
Benjamin Tucker, an invidualist anarchist who contrapposed his anarchist socialism to state socialism
H. L. Mencken, one of the first people to privately call himself libertarian
Max Eastman, a former socialist who proposed the terms New Liberalism and liberal conservative
Murray Rothbard, who popularized the term libertarian in the 1960s
Barry Goldwater, whose libertarian-oriented challenge to authority had a major impact on the libertarian movement
David Nolan, founder of the Libertarian Party
Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia helped spread libertarian ideas worldwide in the 1970s
Ron Paul, former Texas Congressman and three-time presidential candidate
Former New Mexico Governor Gary Johnson, 2012 and 2016 Libertarian Party presidential nominee
Justin Amash, former Michigan Congressman and the first Libertarian Party member of Congress
Cato Institute building in Washington, D.C.
Campus of the Mises Institute in Auburn, Alabama
The Nolan Chart, a political spectrum diagram created by libertarian activist David Nolan

As a term, libertarian can include both the New Left and libertarian Marxists (who do not associate with a vanguard party) as well as extreme liberals (primarily concerned with civil liberties).

Portrait of Locke in 1697 by Godfrey Kneller

John Locke

6 links

Portrait of Locke in 1697 by Godfrey Kneller
John Locke's portrait by Godfrey Kneller, National Portrait Gallery, London
Portrait of John Locke by John Greenhill (died 1676)
John Locke by Richard Westmacott, University College London
Locke's signature in Bodleian Locke 13.12. Photo taken at the Bodleian Library, Oxford.
Page 1 of Locke's unfinished index in Bodleian Locke 13.12. Photo taken at the Bodleian Library, Oxford.

John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".