Liberalism

liberalliberalssocially liberalpolitical liberalismLiberals (''Isabelinos'' or ''Cristinos'')anti-liberalAnti-liberalismliberalistliberal politicsliberal theory
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty, consent of the governed and equality before the law.wikipedia
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Equality before the law

equalityequal rightsequality under the law
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty, consent of the governed and equality before the law.
Equality before the law is one of the basic principles of liberalism.

Political colour

political colorcolorscolour red
Yellow is the political colour most commonly associated with liberalism.
For example, the colour red symbolises left-wing ideologies in many countries (see the red flag, Red Army and Red Scare) while the colour yellow is most commonly associated with liberalism and right-libertarianism.

Age of Enlightenment

Enlightenmentthe EnlightenmentFrench Enlightenment
Liberalism became a distinct movement in the Age of Enlightenment, when it became popular among Western philosophers and economists.
A variety of 19th-century movements, including liberalism and neoclassicism, trace their intellectual heritage to the Enlightenment.

Free trade

trade liberalizationfree-tradetrade liberalisation
Liberals also ended mercantilist policies, royal monopolies and other barriers to trade, instead promoting free trade and free markets.
In government, free trade is predominantly advocated by political parties that hold liberal economic positions while economically left-wing and nationalist political parties generally support protectionism, the opposite of free trade.

John Locke

LockeLockeanJ Locke
Philosopher John Locke is often credited with founding liberalism as a distinct tradition, based on the social contract, arguing that each man has a natural right to life, liberty and property and governments must not violate these rights.
His contributions to classical republicanism and liberal theory are reflected in the United States Declaration of Independence.

Liberalism in the United States

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The 19th century saw liberal governments established in nations across Europe and South America, whereas it was well-established alongside republicanism in the United States.
The fundamental liberal ideals of freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of religion for all belief systems and the separation of church and state, right to due process and equality under the law are widely accepted as a common foundation across the spectrum of liberal thought.

Liberal democracy

constitutional democracyliberal democraticliberal democracies
During the 20th century, liberal ideas also spread even further, especially in Western Europe, as liberal democracies found themselves on the winning side in both world wars.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.

Liberalism and conservatism in Latin America

LiberalLatin AmericaLiberal Party
The 19th century saw liberal governments established in nations across Europe and South America, whereas it was well-established alongside republicanism in the United States.
Liberalism and conservatism in Latin America have unique historical roots as Latin American independence began to occur in 1808 after the French Revolution and the subsequent Napoleonic Wars that eventually engulfed all of Europe.

Fascism

fascistfascistsFascist regime
Before 1920, the main ideological opponents of liberalism were Marxist communism, conservatism and socialism, but liberalism then faced major ideological challenges from new opponents, fascism and Marxism-Leninism.
Opposed to liberalism, Marxism, and anarchism, fascism is placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum.

Social liberalism

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In Europe and North America, the establishment of social liberalism (often called simply liberalism in the United States) became a key component in the expansion of the welfare state. The diversity of liberalism can be gleaned from the numerous adjectives that liberal thinkers and movements have attached to the very term "liberalism", including classical, egalitarian, economic, social, welfare state, ethical, humanist, deontological, perfectionist, democratic and institutional, to name a few.
Social liberalism, also known as left liberalism in Germany, modern liberalism in the United States and new liberalism in the United Kingdom, is a political ideology and a variety of liberalism that endorses a regulated market economy and the expansion of civil and political rights.

Modern liberalism in the United States

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In Europe and North America, the establishment of social liberalism (often called simply liberalism in the United States) became a key component in the expansion of the welfare state.
According to Ian Adams, all American parties are "liberal and always have been. Essentially, they espouse classical liberalism, that is a form of democratized Whig constitutionalism plus the free market. The point of difference comes with the influence of social liberalism".

Liberalism by country

List of liberal partiesLiberalism worldwideliberal party
Today, liberal parties continue to wield power and influence throughout the world.
This article gives information on liberalism worldwide.

Liberalism in Turkey

liberalTurkish Liberalsliberalism in the Ottoman Empire
During 19th and early 20th century, liberalism in the Ottoman Empire and Middle East influenced periods of reform such as the Tanzimat and Al-Nahda as well as the rise of secularism, constitutionalism and nationalism.
He was highly influenced by French culture and was a liberal.

Socialism

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Before 1920, the main ideological opponents of liberalism were Marxist communism, conservatism and socialism, but liberalism then faced major ideological challenges from new opponents, fascism and Marxism-Leninism.
Simon coined the term as a contrast to the liberal doctrine of "individualism", which stressed that people act or should act as if they are in isolation from one another.

Conservatism

conservativeconservativesReligious conservatism
Before 1920, the main ideological opponents of liberalism were Marxist communism, conservatism and socialism, but liberalism then faced major ideological challenges from new opponents, fascism and Marxism-Leninism.
Liberal conservatism is a variant of conservatism that is strongly influenced by liberal stances.

French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary FranceRevolutionary
Leaders in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the American Revolution of 1776 and the French Revolution of 1789 used liberal philosophy to justify the armed overthrow of royal tyranny.
It became the focal point for the development of most modern political ideologies, leading to the spread of liberalism, radicalism, nationalism, and secularism, among many others.

Liberal

Liberal (disambiguation)Liberals
Words such as liberal, liberty, libertarian and libertine all trace their history to the Latin liber, which means "free".

Liberalism and radicalism in Spain

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In Spain, the liberales, the first group to use the liberal label in a political context, fought for decades for the implementation of the 1812 Constitution.
It is limited to liberal and radical parties with substantial support, mainly proved by having been represented in parliament.

Liberalism and radicalism in France

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While the British liberal tradition has emphasized expanding democracy, French liberalism has emphasized rejecting authoritarianism and is linked to nation-building.

Liberal Party of Canada

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The dominant Canadian party is the Liberal Party and the United States' Democratic Party is usually considered liberal.
The party espouses the principles of liberalism, and generally sits at the centre to centre-left of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Conservative Party positioned to the centre-right and the New Democratic Party (who at times aligned itself with the Liberals during minority governments), occupying the left.

Individualism

individualistindividualisticindividual freedom
Consequently, in the United States the ideas of individualism and laissez-faire economics previously associated with classical liberalism became the basis for the emerging school of libertarian thought and are key components of American conservatism.
Anarchism, existentialism, and liberalism are examples of movements that take the human individual as a central unit of analysis.

List of liberal theorists

Contributions to liberal theoryliberal theoristsliberal theorists and philosophers
The objectives of liberal theorists and philosophers have differed across various times, cultures and continents.
Individual contributors to classical liberalism and political liberalism are associated with philosophers of the Enlightenment.

Classical liberalism

classical liberalliberalclassical liberals
The diversity of liberalism can be gleaned from the numerous adjectives that liberal thinkers and movements have attached to the very term "liberalism", including classical, egalitarian, economic, social, welfare state, ethical, humanist, deontological, perfectionist, democratic and institutional, to name a few.
Classical liberalism is a political ideology and a branch of liberalism which advocates civil liberties under the rule of law with an emphasis on economic freedom.

Government

Form of governmentgovernmentsgovernmental
The early waves of liberalism popularised economic individualism while expanding constitutional government and parliamentary authority.
As Ribuffo notes, "what Americans now call conservatism much of the world calls liberalism or neoliberalism"; a "conservative" in Finland would be labeled a "socialist" in the United States.

Egalitarianism

egalitarianequalityEconomic egalitarianism
The diversity of liberalism can be gleaned from the numerous adjectives that liberal thinkers and movements have attached to the very term "liberalism", including classical, egalitarian, economic, social, welfare state, ethical, humanist, deontological, perfectionist, democratic and institutional, to name a few.
One argument is that liberalism provides democratic societies with the means to carry out civic reform by providing a framework for developing public policy and providing the right conditions for individuals to achieve civil rights.