Library catalog

The card catalog at Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library
Another view of the SML card catalog
The card catalog in Manchester Central Library
Finding aids are utilized to assist information professionals and help researchers find materials within an archive
The Card Catalog at the Library of Congress
Card catalog at Yale
Illustration from Manual of library classification and shelf arrangement, 1898
Sample card catalog record
Card from card catalog. The fine art of literary mayhem by Myrick Land
Hellenistic catalog of the Gymnasium of Taormina
The catalog of the Library of the Republic of Venice, published in 1624.
A card catalog in the University Library of Graz
Librarian at the card files at a senior high school in New Ulm, Minnesota (1974)
Dynix, an early but popular and long-lasting online catalog
Card Division, United States Library of Congress, 1910s or 1920s

Register of all bibliographic items found in a library or group of libraries, such as a network of libraries at several locations.

- Library catalog
The card catalog at Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library

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OCLC

American nonprofit cooperative organization "that provides shared technology services, original research, and community programs for its membership and the library community at large".

American nonprofit cooperative organization "that provides shared technology services, original research, and community programs for its membership and the library community at large".

OCLC offices in Leiden (the Netherlands)

Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog; the company printed its last catalog cards on October 1, 2015.

Subsets of the complex numbers

Collation

Assembly of written information into a standard order.

Assembly of written information into a standard order.

Subsets of the complex numbers

Collation is a fundamental element of most office filing systems, library catalogs, and reference books.

An index card in a library card catalog. This type of cataloging has mostly been supplanted by computerization.

Index card

An index card (or record card in British English and system cards in Australian English) consists of card stock (heavy paper) cut to a standard size, used for recording and storing small amounts of discrete data.

An index card (or record card in British English and system cards in Australian English) consists of card stock (heavy paper) cut to a standard size, used for recording and storing small amounts of discrete data.

An index card in a library card catalog. This type of cataloging has mostly been supplanted by computerization.
A hand-written American index card.
A ruled index card
Kardex index card filing system

A collection of such cards either serves as, or aids the creation of, an index for expedited lookup of information (such as a library catalog or a back-of-the-book index).

Nineteenth-century artistic rendering of the Library of Alexandria by the German artist O. Von Corven, based partially on the archaeological evidence available at that time

Library of Alexandria

One of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.

One of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world.

Nineteenth-century artistic rendering of the Library of Alexandria by the German artist O. Von Corven, based partially on the archaeological evidence available at that time
Bust excavated at the Villa of the Papyri depicting Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who is believed to have been the one to establish the Library as an actual institution, although plans for it may have been developed by his father Ptolemy I Soter
Map of ancient Alexandria. The Mouseion was located in the royal Broucheion quarter (listed on this map as "Bruchium") in the central part of the city near the Great Harbor ("Portus Magnus" on the map).
According to legend, the Syracusan inventor Archimedes invented the Archimedes' screw, a pump for transporting water, while studying at the Library of Alexandria.
Present-day ruins of the Serapeum of Alexandria, where the Library of Alexandria moved part of its collection after it ran out of storage space in the main building
The Roman general Julius Caesar was forced to set fire to his own ships during the Siege of Alexandria in 48 BC. Many ancient writers report that the fire spread and destroyed at least part of the Library of Alexandria's collections; however, the Library seems to have either at least partially survived or been quickly rebuilt.
This Latin inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. c. AD 79) mentions the "ALEXANDRINA BYBLIOTHECE" (line eight).
Drawing from the Alexandrian World Chronicle depicting Pope Theophilus of Alexandria, gospel in hand, standing triumphantly atop the Serapeum in 391 AD
Hypatia (1885) by Charles William Mitchell, believed to be a depiction of a scene in Charles Kingsley's 1853 novel Hypatia
Illustration by Yahyá al-Wasiti from 1237 depicting scholars at an Abbasid library in Baghdad
Interior of the modern Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Many important and influential scholars worked at the Library during the third and second centuries BC, including, among many others: Zenodotus of Ephesus, who worked towards standardizing the texts of the Homeric poems; Callimachus, who wrote the Pinakes, sometimes considered to be the world's first library catalogue; Apollonius of Rhodes, who composed the epic poem the Argonautica; Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who calculated the circumference of the earth within a few hundred kilometers of accuracy; Aristophanes of Byzantium, who invented the system of Greek diacritics and was the first to divide poetic texts into lines; and Aristarchus of Samothrace, who produced the definitive texts of the Homeric poems as well as extensive commentaries on them.

Screenshot of a Dynix menu. First introduced in 1983, Dynix was one of the first and most popular commercial library automation systems ever released, enjoying nearly twenty years of dominance in libraries worldwide.

Online public access catalog

Screenshot of a Dynix menu. First introduced in 1983, Dynix was one of the first and most popular commercial library automation systems ever released, enjoying nearly twenty years of dominance in libraries worldwide.

The online public access catalog (OPAC), now frequently synonymous with library catalog, is an online database of materials held by a library or group of libraries.

The card catalog at Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library

Union catalog

The card catalog at Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library

A union catalog is a combined library catalog describing the collections of a number of libraries.

Bibliographies at the University Library of Graz

Bibliography

Traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from ).

Traditionally the academic study of books as physical, cultural objects; in this sense, it is also known as bibliology (from ).

Bibliographies at the University Library of Graz
Bibliographer workplace in Russia
Paul Otlet, working in an office built at his home following the closure of the Palais Mondial, in June 1937

A library catalog, while not referred to as a "bibliography," is bibliographic in nature.

The Library of the Palais Bourbon in Paris

Library

Collection of materials, books or media that are accessible for use and not just for display purposes.

Collection of materials, books or media that are accessible for use and not just for display purposes.

The Library of the Palais Bourbon in Paris
Duke Humfrey's Library, Oxford, England
The Sistine Hall of the Vatican Library.
Poet Laureate Rita Dove's definition of a library at entrance to the Maine State Library in Augusta, Maine, United States
The round reading room of Maughan Library, the main university library of King's College London, London, England
The University Library at Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary
The Robarts Library at the University of Toronto, Canada
A children's library in Montreal, Quebec, Canada in 1943
Interior of the National Library of Finland in Helsinki, Finland
National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth
Raczyński Library, the public library of Poznań, Poland
A community library in Ethiopia
Bates Hall, the main reading room of the Boston Public Library, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Main reading room of the New York City Public Library on 5th Avenue c. 1910–1920
Quaid-e-Azam Library in Bagh-e-Jinnah, Lahore, Pakistan
Bookshelf at the Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library. The top floor contains 180,000 volumes. Since 1977, all new acquisitions are frozen at -33 °F to prevent the spread of insects and diseases.
The Long Room of the Trinity College Library in Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland. It is a legal deposit or "copyright library" and is entitled to receive a copy of all books published in the UK.
Library shelves in Hong Kong, showing numbers of the classification scheme to help readers locate works in that section
Card used by a user to sign out a book
Butler Library at Columbia University, est. 1759
National Library of India, Kolkata, est. 1836
Until the advent of digital catalogues, card catalogues were the traditional method of organizing the list of resources and their location within a large library.
Reading room at the State and University Library, the national library of Denmark
Dynix was an early, but long-lasting and popular, digital catalogue.
Interior of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, Alexandria, Egypt, showing both stacks and computer terminals
Stacks of the José Vasconcelos Library in Mexico City, Mexico
British Museum Reading Room

Before the computer age, this was accomplished by the card catalogue—a cabinet (or multiple cabinets) containing many drawers filled with index cards that identified books and other materials.

Portrait of Sir Francis Ronalds painted in 1867

Francis Ronalds

English scientist and inventor, and arguably the first electrical engineer.

English scientist and inventor, and arguably the first electrical engineer.

Portrait of Sir Francis Ronalds painted in 1867
Ronalds' experiment with eight miles of iron wire
Elements of the subterranean electric telegraph built by Francis Ronalds in 1816
The first successful camera for making continuous recordings of scientific instruments, built by Francis Ronalds in 1845. This example is an electrograph measuring atmospheric electricity

He was also already creating what would become the renowned Ronalds Library of electrical books and managing his collection with perhaps the first practical card catalogue.

Anthony Panizzi

Naturalised British citizen of Italian birth, and an Italian patriot.

Naturalised British citizen of Italian birth, and an Italian patriot.

Anthony Panizzi by Carlo Pellegrini in Vanity Fair

These rules served as the basis for all subsequent catalogue rules of the 19th and 20th centuries, and are at the origins of the ISBD and of digital cataloguing elements such as Dublin Core.