A report on Libya

Archaeological site of Sabratha, Libya
Leptis Magna
The Atiq Mosque in Awjila is the oldest mosque in the Sahara.
The Siege of Tripoli in 1551 allowed the Ottomans to capture the city from the Knights of St. John.
The USS Enterprise of the Mediterranean Squadron capturing a Tripolitan Corsair during the First Barbary War, 1801
A US Navy expedition under Commodore Edward Preble engaging gunboats and fortifications in Tripoli, 1804
Omar Mukhtar was a prominent leader of Libyan resistance in Cyrenaica against Italian colonization.
Italian propaganda postcard depicting the Italian invasion of Libya in 1911.
King Idris I of the Senussi order became the first head of state of Libya in 1951.
Gaddafi (left) with Egyptian President Nasser in 1969
Versions of the Libyan flag in modern history
The no-fly zone over Libya as well as bases and warships which were involved in the 2011 military intervention
Areas of control in the Civil War, updated 11 June 2020:
Location dot red.svg Tobruk-led Government Location dot lime.svg Government of National Accord Location dot blue.svg Petroleum Facilities Guard Location dot yellow.svg Tuareg tribes Location dot orange.svg Local forces
Libya has emerged as a major transit point for people trying to reach Europe
Field Marshal Khalifa Haftar, the head of the Libyan National Army, one of the main factions in the 2014 civil war.
A map of Libya
Libya map of Köppen climate classification
Libya is a predominantly desert country. Up to 90% of the land area is covered in desert.
UK Foreign Secretary William Hague with Libyan Prime Minister Ali Zeidan and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry, November 2013
Districts of Libya since 2007
Change in per capita GDP of Libya, 1950–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
A proportional representation of Libya exports, 2019
Pivot irrigation in Kufra, southeast Cyrenaica
Oil is the major natural resource of Libya, with estimated reserves of 43.6 billion barrels.
Libyan men in Bayda.
Al Manar Royal Palace in central Benghazi – the location of the University of Libya's first campus, founded by royal decree in 1955
A map indicating the ethnic composition of Libya in 1974
Mosque in Ghadames, close to the Tunisian and Algerian border.
Ancient Roman mosaic in Sabratha

Country in the Maghreb region in North Africa.

- Libya

185 related topics with Alpha


Gaddafi, pictured shortly after his seizure of power, on a visit to Yugoslavia in 1970

Muammar Gaddafi

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Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

Gaddafi, pictured shortly after his seizure of power, on a visit to Yugoslavia in 1970
Egyptian President Nasser was Gaddafi's political hero.
The flag of republican Libya used by Gaddafi's government from 1969 to 1972
Gaddafi at an Arab summit in Libya in 1969, shortly after the September Revolution that toppled King Idris I. Gaddafi sits in military uniform in the middle, surrounded by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser (left) and Syrian President Nureddin al-Atassi (right).
In 1971, Egypt's Anwar Sadat, Libya's Gaddafi and Syria's Hafez al-Assad signed an agreement to form a federal Union of Arab Republics. The agreement never materialized into a federal union between the three Arab states.
Gaddafi (left) with Egyptian President Nasser in 1969. Nasser privately described Gaddafi as "a nice boy, but terribly naïve".
Gaddafi with Romanian communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu in Bucharest, Romania 1974
Gaddafi in 1976 with a child on his lap
Flag of Libya (1977–2011)
Construction for the Great Man-Made River Project
Gaddafi wearing an insignia showing the image of the African continent
People protesting against Gaddafi in Dublin, Ireland, March 2011
Pro-Gaddafi protests in Tripoli, May 2011
A gold-plated and engraved Browning Hi-Power handgun. Of the few created, one of these models was in the possession of Gaddafi during the attack and later appropriated by rebels after his death. The engraving references the Khamis Brigade.
Gaddafi (right) with Nimeiry and Nasser in 1969
Gaddafi with Spanish Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero in 2010
13th Anniversary of 1 September Revolution on postage stamp, Libya 1982
An anti-Gaddafist placard being displayed by demonstrators in Ireland in 2011
A poster of Gaddafi in Ghadames

He was the de facto leader of Libya from 1969 to 2011, first as Revolutionary Chairman of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and then as the "Brotherly Leader" of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011.


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Roman Arch of Marcus Aurelius
Historic map of Tripoli by Piri Reis
Tripoli, 1675, map by John Seller
Dutch ships off Tripoli by Reinier Nooms, ca.1650
The USS Philadelphia, heavy frigate of the United States Navy, burning at the Second Battle of Tripoli Harbor during the First Barbary War in 1804
Ottoman Clock tower in Tripoli's old town medina
Italian settlers and indigenous Libyans in Tripoli, 1930s
Fiera internazionale di Tripoli (Tripoli International Fair) in 1939
Front lines during the Battle of Tripoli (20–28 August 2011)
Satellite image of central Tripoli
Astronaut view of Tripoli
Tripoli's central business district, where many Libyan and international companies have offices.
The Archaeological Museum of Tripoli, is located inside the ancient Red Castle.
The House of Karamanly, or al-Qaramanli House, was built in 1750, during the reign of Ali Pasha Al-Qaramanli, and was used by Yousuf Pasha until his death.
Tripoli's Old City (El-Madina El-Kadima), situated in the city center, is one of the classical sites of the Mediterranean and an important tourist attraction.
Tripoli Stadium is the home stadium of both Al Ahly and Al Ittihad, and was the venue of the 1982 African Cup of Nations Final.
Tripoli International Airport
The An-Naga mosque is a 1610 reconstruction of a 10th-century mosque, it has original richly decorated Roman capitals crowning the forest of columns in its multi-domed hall.<ref>{{citation|url=https://howtospendit.ft.com/travel/2879-a-long-weekend-in-tripoli|title=A long weekend in… Tripoli|website=howtospendit.ft.com|author=Fiona Dunlop|date=29 October 2010}}</ref>
The old Tripoli Cathedral (now a mosque) and the former FIAT center (Algeria Square) during the 1960s
A corridor in Old Tripoli
A view of the Tripoli skyline from the Corinthia Hotel Tripoli
The old Red Castle
Former Royal Palace of Tripoli
Tripoli Beach
Istiqlal Street in central Tripoli

Tripoli (طرابلس, Ṭarābulus; ) is the capital and largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2019.


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Northernmost country in Africa.

Northernmost country in Africa.

Ruins of Dougga's World Heritage Site
statue of the Carthaginian general Hannibal barca
roman Mosaic Ulysses Bardo National Museum
Uqba ibn Nafi led the Umayyad conquest of Tunisia in the late 7th century
Domes of the Great Mosque of Kairouan. Founded in 670, it dates in its present form largely from the Aghlabid period (9th century). It is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb.
Conquest of Tunis by Charles V and liberation of Christian galley slaves in 1535
St Louis Cathedral - Carthage - Tunisia - 1899
British tank moves through Tunis after the city was taken from Axis troops, 8 May 1943
Habib Bourguiba was the first president of Tunisia, from 1957 to 1987
Tunis on 14 January 2011 during the Tunisian Revolution
Köppen climate classification in Tunisia. The climate is Mediterranean towards the coast in the north, while most of the country is desert.
View of the central Tunisian plateau at Téboursouk
Soldiers of the Tunisian Armed Forces
A proportional representation of Tunisia exports, 2019
GDP per capita development of Tunisia
Sidi Bou Said: a major tourist destination
Population pyramid
Arabs leaving mosque in Tunis c. 1899
Tunisian students
Al-Zaytuna Mosque in Tunis
Cathedral of St. Vincent de Paul, Tunis
Sadiki College in Tunis.
Literacy rate of Tunisia population, plus 15, 1985–2015 by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
City of Culture in Tunis
Abdelwahab Meddeb, a Tunisian French-language poet and novelist.
Rachidia orchestra playing traditional music in Tunis Theater
Headquarters of Télévision Tunisienne since March 2010
Stade Hammadi Agrebi in Radès.
Carthaginian Armor of the Ksour Essef 3rd century BC
Domes of the Great Mosque of Kairouan. Founded in 670, it dates in its present form largely from the Aghlabid period (9th century). It is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb.
Tunisian military force.

It is a part of the Maghreb region of North Africa, and is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east, covering 163610 km2, with a population of 12.1 million.

Destroyed tanks in a scrap yard outside Misrata

First Libyan Civil War

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Destroyed tanks in a scrap yard outside Misrata
Protests on Al Oroba Street, Bayda, 13 January 2011
The flag of the former Kingdom of Libya was used as an opposition flag.
Graffiti in Benghazi, drawing the connection to the Arab Spring
The first demonstrations in Bayda. A police car burns on 16 February 2011, at the crossroads of At-Talhi, now known as the Crossroads of the Spark.
A girl in Benghazi with a placard saying that the Libyan tribes are united, on 23 February 2011.
The Libyan National Transitional Council flag is flown from a communications tower in Bayda in July.
A few hundred anti-Gaddafi protesters in Benghazi, 25 February 2011
Court square in Benghazi, 19 April 2011. At the central place for gatherings and demonstrations the walls are draped with pictures of casualties, mourners passing by.
Rebel fighter in hospital in Tripoli
Caricature of Gaddafi, Al Bayda, April 2011
One of the two Dassault Mirage F1 that were flown to Malta.
A young Benghazian carrying (deposed) King Idris' photo. Support of the Senussi dynasty has traditionally been strong in Cyrenaica.
The course of the warBig battle symbol.svg Major campaigns Small battle symbol.svg Battles
Loyalist Palmaria howitzers destroyed by the French air force near Benghazi in Opération Harmattan on 19 March 2011
A rebel checkpoint in Tripoli on 26 August 2011
A rebel tank near Ajdabiya
Libyan rebels after entering the town of Bani Walid
People in Dublin, Ireland, protesting against Gaddafi (March 2011).
President Barack Obama speaking on the military intervention in Libya at the National Defense University.
US forces transport displaced Egyptian workers, March 2011
Libyan children at a refugee camp, April 2011
A total of 19 charter flights evacuated Chinese citizens from Libya via Malta. Here a chartered China Eastern Airlines Airbus A340 is seen at Malta International Airport on 26 February 2011.

The First Libyan Civil War was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya which was fought between forces which were loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and rebel groups that were seeking to oust his government.


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Country in North Africa.

Country in North Africa.

Roman ruins at Djémila
Ancient Roman ruins of Timgad on the street leading to the local Arch of Trajan
Masinissa (c. 238–148 BC), first king of Numidia
The lands which comprise modern day Algeria were part of the Byzantine Empire (The empire in 555 under Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire (vassals in pink))
Mansourah mosque, Tlemcen
Dihya memorial in Khenchela, Algeria
Fatimid Caliphate, a Shia Ismaili dynasty that ruled much of North Africa, c. 960–1100
Lands ruled by the Ifrenid dynasty of Tlemcen (Current day Algeria) Partially based on the book of Ibn Khaldun: The History of the Berbers
Map showing territories that were controlled by the Zirid Dynasty
Territories controlled by the Maghrawa
The Zayyanid Kingdom of Tlemcen during the rule of Abu Malek
The Zayyanid kingdom of Tlemcen in the fifteenth century and its neighbors
Hayreddin Barbarossa
Bombardment of Algiers by the Anglo-Dutch fleet, to support the ultimatum to release European slaves, August 1816
Kabyle Kingdoms at their height
Christian slaves in Algiers, 1706
The estimated extent of the Regency of Algiers in 1792 after taking possession of the Rif and Oujda
Battle of Somah in 1836
Emir Abdelkader, Algerian leader insurgent against French colonial rule, 1865
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: Rabah Bitat, Mostefa Ben Boulaïd, Didouche Mourad, Mohammed Boudiaf, Krim Belkacem and Larbi Ben M'Hidi.
Houari Boumediene
Massacres of over 50 people in 1997–1998. The Armed Islamic Group (GIA) claimed responsibility for many of them.
The Sahara, the Hoggar Mountains and the Atlas Mountains compose the Algerian relief.
The Algerian Desert makes up more than 90% of the country's total area.
Algeria map of Köppen climate classification.
The fennec fox is the national animal of Algeria
Abdelmadjid Tebboune, President of Algeria since 2019
The People's National Assembly
President Abdelaziz Bouteflika and George W. Bush exchange handshakes at the Windsor Hotel Toya Resort and Spa in Tōyako Town, Abuta District, Hokkaidō in 2008. With them are Dmitriy Medvedev, left, and Yasuo Fukuda, right.
A Djebel Chenoua-class corvette, designed and assembled in Algeria
GDP per capita development in Algeria
A proportional representation of Algeria exports, 2019
Pipelines across Algeria
The main highway connecting the Moroccan to the Tunisian border was a part of the Cairo–Dakar Highway project
Some of Algeria's traditional clothes
Signs in the University of Tizi Ouzou in three languages: Arabic, Berber, and French
Hassan Pasha Mosque in Oran
UIS literacy rate Algeria population plus 15 1985–2015
Algerian musicians in Tlemcen, Ottoman Algeria; by Bachir Yellès
Mohammed Racim; founder of the Algerian school for painting
Ahlam Mosteghanemi, the most widely read female writer in the Arab world.
El Hadj M'Hamed El Anka
Mohammed Lakhdar-Hamina, one of the most prominent figures in contemporary Arabic cinema.
A Bulgur-based salad
The Algeria national football team

Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia; to the east by Libya; to the southeast by Niger; to the southwest by Mali, Mauritania, and Western Sahara; to the west by Morocco; and to the north by the Mediterranean Sea.

The Berber ethnic flag


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The Berber ethnic flag
The Berber ethnic flag
Hoggar painting, Tassili n'Ajjer
An Egyptian statuette representing a Libyan Libu Berber from the reign of RamesesII (19th Dynasty) in 1279–1213 BCE. (Louvre Museum, Paris)
A faience tile from the throne of Pharaoh Ramesses III depicting a tattooed ancient Libyan chief c. undefined 1184 to 1153 BC
Ancient Libyan delegation at Persepolis
Heracles wrestling with the Libyan giant Antaeus
Berber Kingdoms in Numidia, c. 220 BC (green: Masaesyli under Syphax; gold: Massyli under Gala, father of Masinissa; further east: city-state of Carthage).
Masinissa (c. 240), King of Numidia, Berber and Roman script
A map of Numidia
Mauretanian cavalry under Lusius Quietus fighting in the Dacian wars, from the Column of Trajan
Fernández de Lugo presenting the captured Guanche kings of Tenerife to Ferdinand and Isabella, 1497
Tlemcen, Patio of the Zianids
Berber architecture as seen in the Grande Poste d'Alger building in Algiers
A statue of Dihya, a seventh-century female Berber religious and military leader
The Almohad Empire, a Berber empire that lasted from 1121 to 1269
Castillian ambassadors meeting Almohad caliph Abu Hafs Umar al-Murtada, contemporary depiction from the Cantigas de Santa Maria
Old fortress at Calatrava la Vieja. The site was used during the Muslim period from about 785 until the fall of the Caliphate of Cordova.
An old Amazigh room in Morocco
Origin and conquests of the Fatimids
The Almoravid realm at its greatest extent, c. 1120
Berber village in the High Atlas mountains of Morocco
Abd el-Krim featured in the magazine Time in 1925
Sanhaja Berber women in the 1970s
Berber village in the Atlas mountains
Areas in North Africa where Berber languages are spoken
Zinedine Zidane, born to Berber parents from Algeria (Kabyle; Berbers in France)
The mausoleum of Madghacen
Traditional Berber penannular brooch, a custom dating from the pre-Abrahamic era.
Saint Augustine
Tariq ibn Ziyad, Berber Muslim and Umayyad general who led the conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 711
Over a period of thirty years (1325–1354), Moroccan Berber traveller Ibn Battuta visited most of the known Islamic world as well as many non-Muslim lands.
The most common traditional music instruments
The fantasia festival, 19th-century illustration
Remains of Germa, a capital of the Garamantes (first millennium BC)
Numidian tomb of Medracen (c. 200-150 BC)
Numidian mausoleum of Dougga, example of a "tower tomb" (2nd century BC)
The Kutubiyya Mosque in Marrakesh, built by the Almohads in the 12th century
The ksar of Aït Benhaddou in Morocco
Ksar Ouled Soltane, an example of a multi-level ghorfa in southern Tunisia
The Fadhloun Mosque in Djerba (Tunisia), an example of a traditional "fortified mosque"
The central mosque in Ghardaïa, an example of local architecture in the M'zab region (Algeria)
Berber henna decoration
Detail of a traditional Berber carpet
Algerian Berber calendar
Ancient Tifinagh scripts in Algeria
Jewelry from Kabylia region, Algeria
Customized tajine
Turkey tajine
Demonstration of Kabyles in Paris, April 2016

Berbers or Imazighen (singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ ⵎⵣⵗ; أمازيغ-بربر) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, specifically Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, and Libya, and to a lesser extent Mauritania, northern Mali, and northern Niger.


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Transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

Transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia via a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

Temple of Derr ruins in 1960
The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and the only one still in existence.
Egyptian soldier of the Achaemenid army, c. 480 BCE. Xerxes I tomb relief.
The Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII and her son by Julius Caesar, Caesarion, at the Temple of Dendera
The Amr ibn al-As mosque in Cairo, recognized as the oldest in Africa
The Ibn Tulun Mosque in Cairo, of Ahmad Ibn Tulun
The Al-Hakim Mosque in Cairo, of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, the sixth caliph, as renovated by Dawoodi Bohra
Napoleon defeated the Mamluk troops in the Battle of the Pyramids, 21 July 1798, painted by Lejeune.
Egypt under Muhammad Ali dynasty
Muhammad Ali was the founder of the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the first Khedive of Egypt and Sudan.
The battle of Tel el-Kebir in 1882 during the Anglo-Egyptian War
Female nationalists demonstrating in Cairo, 1919
Fuad I of Egypt with Edward, Prince of Wales, 1932
British infantry near El Alamein, 17 July 1942
Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser in Mansoura, 1960
Smoke rises from oil tanks beside the Suez Canal hit during the initial Anglo-French assault on Egypt, 5 November 1956.
Egyptian tanks advancing in the Sinai desert during the Yom Kippur War, 1973
Celebrating the signing of the 1978 Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat
Cairo grew into a metropolitan area with a population of over 20 million.
Women in Cairo wear face masks during the COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt in March 2020.
Egypt's topography
The Qattara Depression in Egypt's north west
The Eastern Imperial Eagle is the national animal of Egypt.
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi is the current President of Egypt.
Egyptian honor guard soldiers during a visit of U.S. Navy Adm. Mike Mullen
President el-Sisi with US President Donald Trump, 21 May 2017
The High Court of Justice in Downtown Cairo
Protesters from the Third Square movement, which supported neither the former Morsi government nor the Armed Forces, 31 July 2013
Prominent Egyptian dissident Alaa Abd El-Fattah was sentenced to five years of imprisonment in December 2021.
1. Matrouh
2. Alexandria
3. Beheira
4. Kafr El Sheikh
5. Dakahlia
6. Damietta
7. Port Said
8. North Sinai
9. Gharbia
10. Monufia
11. Qalyubia
12. Sharqia
13. Ismailia
14. Giza
15. Faiyum
16. Cairo
17. Suez
18. South Sinai
19. Beni Suef
20. Minya
21. New Valley
22. Asyut
23. Red Sea
24. Sohag
25. Qena
26. Luxor
27. Aswan
Change in per capita GDP of Egypt, 1820–2018. Figures are inflation-adjusted to 2011 International dollars.
Smart Village, a business district established in 2001 to facilitate the growth of high-tech businesses
The Suez Canal
Tourists riding an Arabian camel in front of Pyramid of Khafre. The Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's main tourist attractions.
An offshore platform in the Darfeel Gas Field
The Cairo Metro (line 2)
The Suez Canal Bridge
Green irrigated land along the Nile amidst the desert and in the delta
Egypt's population density (people per km2)
St. Mark Coptic Cathedral in Alexandria
Cairo University
Egyptian literacy rate among the population aged 15 years and older by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Children's Cancer Hospital Egypt
Al-Azhar Park is listed as one of the world's sixty great public spaces by the Project for Public Spaces.
The "weighing of the heart" scene from the Book of the Dead
Naguib Mahfouz, the first Arabic-language writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature
Salah Zulfikar, film star
Soad Hosny, film star
Tanoura dancers performing in Wekalet El Ghoury, Cairo
The Egyptian Museum of Cairo
Tutankhamun's burial mask is one of the major attractions of the Egyptian Museum of Cairo.
Kushari, one of Egypt's national dishes
A crowd at Cairo Stadium watching the Egypt national football team

It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip (Palestine) and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west.


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Satellite image of Libya with Cyrenaica on the right side, showing the green Mediterranean coast in the north and the large desert in the centre and south
Creta et Cyrenaica within the Roman Empire in the 2nd century
Map of and in the Roman era (Samuel Butler, 1907)
Roman ruins of Ptolemais, Cyrenaica
Emir Idris as-Senussi (left), and behind him (from left) Hussein Maziq, Muhammad Sakizli and Mustafa Ben Halim, formed the government of Cyrenaica in late 1940s
Littorio Palace in Benghazi was the seat of the Cyrenaican assembly
Flag of the short-lived emirate of Cyrenaica, 1949–1951.
The city of Benghazi was traditionally the centre of Cyrenaica

Cyrenaica (برقة;, after the city of Cyrene) is the eastern coastal region of Libya.

National Transitional Council

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Opposition meeting in Bayda, 24 February 2011
Countries that recognised the NTC as the sole legitimate representative of Libya during the civil war
Countries that have yet to formally recognise the NTC, but voted in favor of it to take Libya's UN seat
Countries that formally opposed recognition of the NTC at the UN
Countries that voted against the transfer of Libya's UN seat to the NTC

The National Transitional Council of Libya (المجلس الوطني الإنتقالي al-majlis al-waṭanī al-intiqālī), sometimes known as the Transitional National Council, was the de facto government of Libya for a period during and after the Libyan Civil War, in which rebel forces overthrew the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya of Muammar Gaddafi.

Maghreb head ornament (Morocco)


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Western part of North Africa and the Arab world.

Western part of North Africa and the Arab world.

Maghreb head ornament (Morocco)
Roman trireme on a mosaic in the Bardo Museum, Tunisia
The Great Mosque of Kairouan, founded by the Arab general Uqba Ibn Nafi (in 670), is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb city of Kairouan, Tunisia.
1707 map of northwest Africa by Guillaume Delisle, including the Maghreb
After the Middle Ages, the Ottoman Empire loosely controlled the area east of Morocco.
People of Maghreb
The mausoleum of Madghacen
Christian Berber family from Kabylia
Dwarf fan palm, grown in Maghrebi countries

The region includes Algeria, Libya, Mauritania (also considered part of West Africa), Morocco, and Tunisia.