Licinia Eudoxia

EudociaEmpress EudoxiadueEudokiaEudoxiaLicinia
Licinia Eudoxia [[#Notes|[p] ]] (422 – c. 493) was a Roman Empress, daughter of Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II. Her husbands included the Western Roman Emperors Valentinian III and Petronius Maximus.wikipedia
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Valentinian III

ValentinianEmperor Valentinian IIIPlacidus Valentinianus Caesar
Her husbands included the Western Roman Emperors Valentinian III and Petronius Maximus.
Theodosius also betrothed him to his own daughter Licinia Eudoxia (whom Valentinian would eventually marry in 437 when he was 18).

Theodosius II

TheodosiusEmperor Theodosius IITheodosius II the Younger, the Calligrapher
Licinia Eudoxia [[#Notes|[p] ]] (422 – c. 493) was a Roman Empress, daughter of Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II. Eudoxia was born in 422, the daughter of Theodosius II, Eastern Roman Emperor and his consort Aelia Eudocia, a woman of Greek origin.
The two had a daughter named Licinia Eudoxia.

Aelia Eudocia

EudociaEmpress EudociaAelia Licinia Eudocia
Eudoxia was born in 422, the daughter of Theodosius II, Eastern Roman Emperor and his consort Aelia Eudocia, a woman of Greek origin.
Eudocia had three children with Theodosius II. Licinia Eudoxia, born in 422, was the oldest.

Placidia

Galla PlacidiaGalla Placidia Valentiniana Minor
They also had a second daughter, Placidia.
Placidia was the second daughter of Valentinian III and Licinia Eudoxia, younger sister of Eudocia, who became the wife of Huneric, son of Gaiseric, king of the Vandals.

Eudocia (daughter of Valentinian III)

EudociaEudoxia
In 439, Eudoxia was granted the title of Augusta, with the birth of their first daughter Eudocia.
Eudocia or Eudoxia (439 – 466/474?) was the eldest daughter of Roman emperor Valentinian III and his wife, Licinia Eudoxia.

Petronius Maximus

PetroniusFlavius Petronius MaximusMaximus
Her husbands included the Western Roman Emperors Valentinian III and Petronius Maximus.
In particular, the army’s support was split among three main candidates: Maximianus, the former domesticus (bodyguard) of Aëtius, who was the son of an Egyptian merchant named Domninus who had become rich in Italy; the future emperor Majorian, who commanded the army after the death of Aetius and who had the backing of the Empress Licinia Eudoxia; and Maximus himself, who had the support of the Roman Senate and who secured the throne on 17 March by distributing money to the officials of the imperial palace.

Galla Placidia

PlacidiaAelia Galla PlacidiaEmpress Galla Placidia
Gibbon attributes the betrothal to "the agreement of the three females who governed the Roman world", meaning Galla Placidia, her niece Pulcheria, and Pulcheria's sister-in-law Eudocia.
In 424, Valentinian was betrothed to Licinia Eudoxia, his first cousin once removed.

Olybrius

Anicius OlybriusFlavius Anicius Olybrius
They also argue for placing the marriage of Placidia the Younger to Olybrius at this point, considering it to be the third marriage between a member of the Theodosian dynasty and a member of the extended Anicii family within the same year.
Olybrius married Placidia, younger daughter of Western Emperor Valentinian III and his wife Licinia Eudoxia, thus creating a bond between a member of the senatorial aristocracy and the House of Theodosius.

Majorian

Flavius Julius Valerius MajorianusJulius Majorianus AugustusMajorien
Eudoxia promoted her own candidate, in the person of Majorian.
Majorian played the role of the candidate for the throne of Licinia Eudoxia, Valentinian's widow, and of Ricimer, who reserved for himself a role similar to Aetius'.

Flavius Aetius

AetiusAëtiusEzio
According to the fragmentary chronicle of John of Antioch, a 7th-century monk tentatively identified with John of the Sedre, Syrian Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch from 641 to 648 "Maximus, failing in both his hopes, was bitterly angry. He summoned Optila and Thraustila, brave Scythians who had campaigned with Aëtius and had been assigned to attend on Valentinian, and talked to them. He gave and received guarantees, put the blame for Aëtius' murder on the Emperor, and urged that the better course would be to take revenge on them. Those who avenged the fallen man, he said, would justly have the greatest blessings. Not many days later, Valentinian rode in the Field of Ares with a few bodyguards and the followers of Optila and Thraustila. When he had dismounted from his horse and proceeded to archery, Optila and his friends attacked him.
The year 437 saw his second consulship and the wedding of Valentinian and Licinia Eudoxia in Constantinople; it is probable that Aetius attended the ceremony that marked the beginning of the direct rule of the Emperor.

Huneric

Hunneric
After he had returned, Gaiseric gave the younger Eudocia, a maiden, the daughter of the empress Eudoxia, to his son Huneric in marriage, and he held them both, the mother and the daughter, in great honor" (Chron. 366).
He was married to Eudocia, daughter of western Roman Emperor Valentinian III (419–455) and Licinia Eudoxia.

Sack of Rome (455)

Sack of Romesacked Romecaptured the city
According to the chronicler Malchus, "Around this time, the empress Eudoxia, the widow of the emperor Valentinian and the daughter of the emperor Theodosius and Eudocia, remained unhappily at Rome and, enraged at the tyrant Maximus because of the murder of her spouse, she summoned the Vandal Gaiseric, king of Africa, against Maximus, who was ruling Rome. He came suddenly to Rome with his forces and captured the city, and having destroyed Maximus and all his forces, he took everything from the palace, even the bronze statues. He even led away as captives surviving senators, accompanied by their wives; along with them he also carried off to Carthage in Africa the empress Eudoxia, who had summoned him; her daughter Placidia, the wife of the patrician Olybrius, who then was staying at Constantinople; and even the maiden Eudocia.
Petronius married Valentinian's widow, Licinia Eudoxia, and had his son Palladius marry Eudocia; in this way Petronius was to strengthen his bond with the Theodosian dynasty.

Vandals

VandalVandalicVandal Kingdom
According to the chronicler Malchus, "Around this time, the empress Eudoxia, the widow of the emperor Valentinian and the daughter of the emperor Theodosius and Eudocia, remained unhappily at Rome and, enraged at the tyrant Maximus because of the murder of her spouse, she summoned the Vandal Gaiseric, king of Africa, against Maximus, who was ruling Rome. He came suddenly to Rome with his forces and captured the city, and having destroyed Maximus and all his forces, he took everything from the palace, even the bronze statues. He even led away as captives surviving senators, accompanied by their wives; along with them he also carried off to Carthage in Africa the empress Eudoxia, who had summoned him; her daughter Placidia, the wife of the patrician Olybrius, who then was staying at Constantinople; and even the maiden Eudocia.
Diplomacy between the two factions broke down, and in 455 with a letter from the Empress Licinia Eudoxia, begging Genseric's son to rescue her, the Vandals took Rome, along with the Empress and her daughters Eudocia and Placidia.

Theodosian dynasty

TheodosianHouse of TheodosiusDidymus
The latter was not a member of the Theodosian dynasty and thus regarded a usurper by the Eastern court.
Later, both in the East and in the West, the dynasty briefly continued, but only through marriages: Marcian became emperor by marrying Pulcheria, the older sister of Theodosius II, after the death of the latter, Petronius Maximus was married to Licinia Eudoxia, the daughter of Theodosius II, and Olybrius was married to Placidia, the daughter of Valentinian III.

List of Roman and Byzantine Empresses

EmpressEmpress consortRoman Empress
Licinia Eudoxia [[#Notes|[p] ]] (422 – c. 493) was a Roman Empress, daughter of Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II.

Hilderic

They were parents to Hilderic, king of the Vandals from 523 to 530.
His father was Genseric's son Huneric, and his mother was Eudocia, the daughter of the Roman Emperor Valentinian III and Licinia Eudoxia.

Gaiseric

GeisericGeiserikGenseric
According to the chronicler Malchus, "Around this time, the empress Eudoxia, the widow of the emperor Valentinian and the daughter of the emperor Theodosius and Eudocia, remained unhappily at Rome and, enraged at the tyrant Maximus because of the murder of her spouse, she summoned the Vandal Gaiseric, king of Africa, against Maximus, who was ruling Rome. He came suddenly to Rome with his forces and captured the city, and having destroyed Maximus and all his forces, he took everything from the palace, even the bronze statues. He even led away as captives surviving senators, accompanied by their wives; along with them he also carried off to Carthage in Africa the empress Eudoxia, who had summoned him; her daughter Placidia, the wife of the patrician Olybrius, who then was staying at Constantinople; and even the maiden Eudocia.
He also took with him Empress Licinia Eudoxia, Valentinian's widow, and her daughters, Eudocia and Placidia.

Arcadius

Flavius ArcadiusArcadius the son of TheodosiusEmperor Arcadius
Their paternal grandparents were Arcadius and Aelia Eudoxia.

Aelia Eudoxia

EudoxiaEmpress Eudoxia
Their paternal grandparents were Arcadius and Aelia Eudoxia.

Sophist

sophistrysophistssophistic
Their maternal grandfather was Leontius, a sophist from Athens.

Athens

AthenianAtheniansAthens, Greece
Their maternal grandfather was Leontius, a sophist from Athens.

Socrates of Constantinople

SocratesSocrates ScholasticusSocr.
The identity of her maternal grandfather was first given by Socrates of Constantinople.

John Malalas

MalalasChronographiaJohn Malala
John Malalas later gave a more detailed account of her mother's history.

The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

Decline and Fall of the Roman EmpireHistory of the Decline and Fall of the Roman EmpireThe Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
As summarised in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon, "The celebrated Athenais was educated by her father Leontius in the religion and sciences of the Greeks; and so advantageous was the opinion which the Athenian philosopher entertained of his contemporaries, that he divided his patrimony between his two sons, bequeathing to his daughter a small legacy of one hundred pieces of gold, in the lively confidence that her beauty and merit would be a sufficient portion.