A report on Life imprisonment

Mugshot of Burton Phillips, sentenced to life imprisonment for bank robbery, 1935
Life imprisonment laws around the world: 
Life imprisonment is a legal penalty
Life imprisonment is a legal penalty, but with certain restrictions
Life imprisonment is illegal
Unknown

Any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted people are to remain in prison for the rest of their natural lives or indefinitely until pardoned, paroled, or otherwise commuted to a fixed term.

- Life imprisonment
Mugshot of Burton Phillips, sentenced to life imprisonment for bank robbery, 1935

27 related topics with Alpha

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Anarchist Auguste Vaillant about to be guillotined in France in 1894

Capital punishment

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State-sanctioned practice of killing a person as a punishment for a crime.

State-sanctioned practice of killing a person as a punishment for a crime.

Anarchist Auguste Vaillant about to be guillotined in France in 1894
The Christian Martyrs' Last Prayer, by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1883). Roman Circus Maximus.
Beheading of John the Baptist, woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld, 1860
The Death of Socrates (1787), in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.
The breaking wheel was used during the Middle Ages and was still in use into the 19th century.
The burning of Jakob Rohrbach, a leader of the peasants during the German Peasants' War.
Antiporta of Dei delitti e delle pene (On Crimes and Punishments), 1766 ed.
Mexican execution by firing squad, 1916
50 Poles tried and sentenced to death by a Standgericht in retaliation for the assassination of 1 German policeman in Nazi-occupied Poland, 1944
Emperor Shomu banned the death penalty in Japan in 724.
Peter Leopold II abolished the death penalty throughout Tuscany in 1786, making it the first nation in modern history to do so.
Mother Catherine Cauchés (center) and her two daughters Guillemine Gilbert (left) and Perotine Massey (right) with her infant son burning for heresy
The Red Guard prisoners are being executed by the Whites in Varkaus, North Savonia, during the 1918 Finnish Civil War.
A sign at the Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport warns arriving travelers that drug trafficking is a capital crime in the Republic of China (photo taken in 2005)
Execution of a war criminal in Germany in 1946
A gurney at San Quentin State Prison in California formerly used for executions by lethal injection
Capital punishment was abolished in the United Kingdom in part because of the case of Timothy Evans, who was executed in 1950 after being wrongfully convicted of two murders that had in fact been committed by his landlord, John Christie. The case was considered vital in bolstering opposition, which limited the scope of the penalty in 1957 and abolished it completely, for murder, in 1965.
Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union affirms the prohibition on capital punishment in the EU
Signatories to the Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR: parties in dark green, signatories in light green, non-members in grey
Abolitionist countries: 109	
Abolitionist-in-law countries for all crimes except those committed under exceptional circumstances (such as crimes committed in wartime): 7	
Abolitionist-in-practice countries (have not executed anyone during the past 10 years or more and are believed to have a policy or established practice of not carrying out executions): 25
Retentionist countries: 54
Number of abolitionist and retentionist countries by year
Number of retentionist countries
Number of abolitionist countries
A map showing U.S. states where the death penalty is authorized for certain crimes, even if not recently used. The death penalty is also authorized for certain federal and military crimes.
States with a valid death penalty statute
States without the death penalty
Same-sex intercourse illegal: Death penalty for homosexuality
Death penalty in legislation, but not applied

The maximum penalty available to the International Criminal Court is life imprisonment.

Murder in the House by Jakub Schikaneder

Murder

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Unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human with malice aforethought.

Unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse, especially the unlawful killing of another human with malice aforethought.

Murder in the House by Jakub Schikaneder
Aaron Alexis holding a shotgun during his rampage
A group of Thugs strangling a traveller on a highway in the early 19th century.
International murder rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 2011
UNODC : Per 100,000 population (2011)
Lake Bodom murders in Espoo, Finland is the most famous unsolved homicide cases in Finnish criminal history. The tent is investigated immediately after the murders in 1960.
The scene of a murder in Rio de Janeiro. More than 800,000 people were murdered in Brazil between 1980 and 2004.
Intentional homicide rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 2009
The historical homicide rate in Stockholm since 1400 AD. The murder rate was very high in the Middle Ages. The rate has declined greatly: from 45/100,000 to a low of 0.6 in the 1950s. The last decades have seen the homicide rate rise slowly.

In most countries, a person convicted of murder generally faces a long-term prison sentence, a life sentence, or capital punishment.

The spiked heads of executed criminals once adorned the gatehouse of the medieval London Bridge.

Crime

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Unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.

Unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.

The spiked heads of executed criminals once adorned the gatehouse of the medieval London Bridge.
Kang Kek Iew before the Cambodian Genocide Tribunal on July 20, 2009
Religious sentiment often becomes a contributory factor of crime. In the 1819 anti-Jewish Hep-Hep riots in Würzburg, rioters attacked Jewish businesses and destroyed property.

If found guilty, an offender may be sentenced to a form of reparation such as a community sentence, or, depending on the nature of their offence, to undergo imprisonment, life imprisonment or, in some jurisdictions, death.

Changi Prison, where Singapore's death row is located

Capital punishment in Singapore

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Legal penalty in Singapore.

Legal penalty in Singapore.

Changi Prison, where Singapore's death row is located
The Singapore embarkation card contains a warning to visitors about the death penalty for drug trafficking. Warning signs can also be found at the Johor-Singapore Causeway and other border entries.

In 2010, the law was amended to allow judges to mete out life imprisonment to offenders who were convicted of capital offences but aged below 18 at the time of their crimes instead of subjecting them to indefinite imprisonment under TPP.

A 17th-century illustration of the leaders of the Gunpowder Plot, a failed assassination attempt against James I of England.

Treason

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Crime of attacking a state authority to which one owes allegiance.

Crime of attacking a state authority to which one owes allegiance.

A 17th-century illustration of the leaders of the Gunpowder Plot, a failed assassination attempt against James I of England.
Cartoon depicting Václav Bělský (1818–1878), Mayor of Prague from 1863 until 1867, in charge of the city during Prussian occupation in July 1866. Some forces wanted to try him for high treason (left: "What some men wished" – "Dr. Bělský for high treason"), but he got a full confidence from the Council of Prague (right: "but what they did not expect" – "address of confidence from the city of Prague").
5 January 1895: The treason conviction of Captain Alfred Dreyfus.
The Czechoslovak legionnaires in Italy executed after being captured by the Austro-Hungarian forces.
Engraving depicting the execution of Sir Thomas Armstrong in 1684 for complicity in the Rye House Plot; he was hanged, drawn and quartered.
The Indische Legion attached to the German Army was created in 1941, mainly from disaffected Indian soldiers of the British Indian Army.
Iva Toguri, known as Tokyo Rose, was tried for treason after World War II for her broadcasts to American troops.
A young Harki, an Algerian who served the French during the Algerian War, circa 1961

The maximum penalty for treason is life imprisonment.

Kho Jabing

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Malaysian of mixed Chinese and Iban descent from Sarawak, Malaysia, who partnered with a friend to rob and murder a Chinese construction worker named Cao Ruyin in Singapore on 17 February 2008.

Malaysian of mixed Chinese and Iban descent from Sarawak, Malaysia, who partnered with a friend to rob and murder a Chinese construction worker named Cao Ruyin in Singapore on 17 February 2008.

He was hanged

Later, when the changes to Singapore's death penalty laws took effect in January 2013, Kho Jabing was granted a re-trial, and thus have his death sentence commuted to life imprisonment and 24 strokes of the cane on 14 August of that same year.

Three-strikes law

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In the United States, habitual offender laws (commonly referred to as three-strikes laws) have been implemented since at least 1952, and are part of the United States Justice Department's Anti-Violence Strategy.

In the United States, habitual offender laws (commonly referred to as three-strikes laws) have been implemented since at least 1952, and are part of the United States Justice Department's Anti-Violence Strategy.

These laws require a person who is convicted of an offense and who has one or two other previous serious convictions to serve a mandatory life sentence in prison, with or without parole depending on the jurisdiction.

Martin Bryant

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Convicted Australian mass shooter who murdered 35 people and injured 23 others in the Port Arthur massacre, one of the world's deadliest shooting sprees, in Port Arthur, Tasmania, between 28 and 29 April 1996.

Convicted Australian mass shooter who murdered 35 people and injured 23 others in the Port Arthur massacre, one of the world's deadliest shooting sprees, in Port Arthur, Tasmania, between 28 and 29 April 1996.

He is concurrently serving 35 life sentences, plus 1,652 years, all without the possibility of parole, at Risdon Prison in Hobart.

U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration agents in a training exercise

Prohibition of drugs

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Common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain intoxicating substances.

Common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain intoxicating substances.

U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration agents in a training exercise
Huichol religion worshiped the god of Peyote, a drug.
A painting of opium ships sailing into China. Chinese attempts to suppress opium smuggling sparked the First Opium War.
Papaver somniferum. The sale of drugs in the UK was regulated by the Pharmacy Act of 1868.
Thomas Brassey was appointed the head of the Royal Opium Commission in 1893 to investigate the opium trade and make recommendations on its legality.
Newspaper article from The Daily Picayune, New Orleans, Louisiana in 1912 reporting on a drug arrest, a month after the International Opium Convention was signed and ratified at The Hague.
American drug law enforcement agents detain a man in 2005.
Opium poppies growing in Afghanistan, a major source of drugs today.
People marching in the streets of Cape Town against the prohibition of cannabis in South Africa, May 2015
Total incarceration in the United States by year
US cannabis arrests by year
Coffeeshop in Amsterdam
Dareton police search the vehicle of a suspected drug smuggler in Wentworth, New South Wales, Australia
Protest against the Philippine drug war. The protesters are holding placards which urge Rodrigo Duterte to stop killing drug users.

In 1973, New York introduced mandatory minimum sentences of 15 years to life imprisonment for possession of more than 4 oz of a so-called hard drug, called the Rockefeller drug laws after New York Governor and later Vice President Nelson Rockefeller.

Madame Minna Craucher (right), a Finnish socialite and spy, with her chauffeur Boris Wolkowski (left) in 1930s

Espionage

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Act of obtaining secret or confidential information from non-disclosed sources or divulging of the same without the permission of the holder of the information for a tangible benefit.

Act of obtaining secret or confidential information from non-disclosed sources or divulging of the same without the permission of the holder of the information for a tangible benefit.

Madame Minna Craucher (right), a Finnish socialite and spy, with her chauffeur Boris Wolkowski (left) in 1930s
An intelligence officer's clothing, accessories, and behavior must be as unremarkable as possible—their lives (and others') may depend on it.
Painting of French spy captured during the Franco-Prussian War

For example, Aldrich Hazen Ames is an American CIA analyst, turned KGB mole, who was convicted of espionage in 1994; he is serving a life sentence without the possibility of parole in the high-security Allenwood U.S. Penitentiary.