A polygon and its two normal vectors
The reflection of Mount Hood in Mirror Lake.
A triangular prism dispersing a beam of white light. The longer wavelengths (red) and the shorter wavelengths (blue) are separated.
A normal to a surface at a point is the same as a normal to the tangent plane to the surface at the same point.
Diagram of specular reflection
The electromagnetic spectrum, with the visible portion highlighted
A curved surface showing the unit normal vectors (blue arrows) to the surface
Refraction of light at the interface between two media.
A vector field of normals to a surface
An example of the law of reflection
Beam of sun light inside the cavity of Rocca ill'Abissu at Fondachelli-Fantina, Sicily
Diagram of specular reflection
General scattering mechanism which gives diffuse reflection by a solid surface
Due to refraction, the straw dipped in water appears bent and the ruler scale compressed when viewed from a shallow angle.
Working principle of a corner reflector
Hong Kong illuminated by colourful artificial lighting.
Multiple reflections in two plane mirrors at a 60° angle.
Pierre Gassendi.
Sound diffusion panel for high frequencies
Christiaan Huygens.
Thomas Young's sketch of a double-slit experiment showing diffraction. Young's experiments supported the theory that light consists of waves.

Common examples include the reflection of light, sound and water waves.

- Reflection (physics)

The normal is often used in 3D computer graphics (notice the singular, as only one normal will be defined) to determine a surface's orientation toward a light source for flat shading, or the orientation of each of the surface's corners (vertices) to mimic a curved surface with Phong shading.

- Normal (geometry)

By projecting an imaginary line through point O perpendicular to the mirror, known as the normal, we can measure the angle of incidence, θi and the angle of reflection, θr. The law of reflection states that θi = θ''r, or in other words, the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.

- Reflection (physics)

In reflection of light, the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection are respectively the angle between the normal and the incident ray (on the plane of incidence) and the angle between the normal and the reflected ray.

- Normal (geometry)

where θ1 is the angle between the ray and the surface normal in the first medium, θ2 is the angle between the ray and the surface normal in the second medium and n1 and n2 are the indices of refraction, n = 1 in a vacuum and n > 1 in a transparent substance.

- Light

Newton's theory could be used to predict the reflection of light, but could only explain refraction by incorrectly assuming that light accelerated upon entering a denser medium because the gravitational pull was greater.

- Light
A polygon and its two normal vectors

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