A report on X-ray and Light

Natural color x-ray photogram of a wine scene
A triangular prism dispersing a beam of white light. The longer wavelengths (red) and the shorter wavelengths (blue) are separated.
Example of a Crookes tube, a type of discharge tube that emitted X-rays
The electromagnetic spectrum, with the visible portion highlighted
Wilhelm Röntgen
800px
Hand mit Ringen (Hand with Rings): print of Wilhelm Röntgen's first "medical" X-ray, of his wife's hand, taken on 22 December 1895 and presented to Ludwig Zehnder of the Physik Institut, University of Freiburg, on 1 January 1896
Beam of sun light inside the cavity of Rocca ill'Abissu at Fondachelli-Fantina, Sicily
Taking an X-ray image with early Crookes tube apparatus, late 1800s. The Crookes tube is visible in center. The standing man is viewing his hand with a fluoroscope screen. The seated man is taking a radiograph of his hand by placing it on a photographic plate. No precautions against radiation exposure are taken; its hazards were not known at the time.
Due to refraction, the straw dipped in water appears bent and the ruler scale compressed when viewed from a shallow angle.
Surgical removal of a bullet whose location was diagnosed with X-rays (see inset) in 1897
Hong Kong illuminated by colourful artificial lighting.
Images by James Green, from "Sciagraphs of British Batrachians and Reptiles" (1897), featuring (from left) Rana esculenta (now Pelophylax lessonae), Lacerta vivipara (now Zootoca vivipara), and Lacerta agilis
Pierre Gassendi.
1896 plaque published in "Nouvelle Iconographie de la Salpetrière", a medical journal. In the left a hand deformity, in the right same hand seen using radiography. The authors named the technique Röntgen photography.
Christiaan Huygens.
A patient being examined with a thoracic fluoroscope in 1940, which displayed continuous moving images. This image was used to argue that radiation exposure during the X-ray procedure would be negligible.
Thomas Young's sketch of a double-slit experiment showing diffraction. Young's experiments supported the theory that light consists of waves.
Chandra's image of the galaxy cluster Abell 2125 reveals a complex of several massive multimillion-degree-Celsius gas clouds in the process of merging.
400x400px
Phase-contrast X-ray image of spider
X-rays are part of the electromagnetic spectrum, with wavelengths shorter than UV light. Different applications use different parts of the X-ray spectrum.
Ionizing radiation hazard symbol
Attenuation length of X-rays in water showing the oxygen absorption edge at 540 eV, the energy−3 dependence of photoabsorption, as well as a leveling off at higher photon energies due to Compton scattering. The attenuation length is about four orders of magnitude longer for hard X-rays (right half) compared to soft X-rays (left half).
Spectrum of the X-rays emitted by an X-ray tube with a rhodium target, operated at 60 kV. The smooth, continuous curve is due to bremsstrahlung, and the spikes are characteristic K lines for rhodium atoms.
Patient undergoing an x-ray exam in a hospital radiology room.
A chest radiograph of a female, demonstrating a hiatal hernia
Plain radiograph of the right knee
Head CT scan (transverse plane) slice – a modern application of medical radiography
Abdominal radiograph of a pregnant woman, a procedure that should be performed only after proper assessment of benefit versus risk
Each dot, called a reflection, in this diffraction pattern forms from the constructive interference of scattered X-rays passing through a crystal. The data can be used to determine the crystalline structure.
Using X-ray for inspection and quality control: the differences in the structures of the die and bond wires reveal the left chip to be counterfeit.
X-ray fine art photography of needlefish by Peter Dazeley

In this sense, gamma rays, X-rays, microwaves and radio waves are also light.

- Light

He based it on the electromagnetic theory of light.

- X-ray
Natural color x-ray photogram of a wine scene

8 related topics with Alpha

Overall

400x400px

Electromagnetic radiation

6 links

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EMR) consists of waves of the electromagnetic (EM) field, propagating through space, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EMR) consists of waves of the electromagnetic (EM) field, propagating through space, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

400x400px
Shows the relative wavelengths of the electromagnetic waves of three different colours of light (blue, green, and red) with a distance scale in micrometers along the x-axis.
In electromagnetic radiation (such as microwaves from an antenna, shown here) the term "radiation" applies only to the parts of the electromagnetic field that radiate into infinite space and decrease in intensity by an inverse-square law of power, so that the total radiation energy that crosses through an imaginary spherical surface is the same, no matter how far away from the antenna the spherical surface is drawn. Electromagnetic radiation thus includes the far field part of the electromagnetic field around a transmitter. A part of the "near-field" close to the transmitter, forms part of the changing electromagnetic field, but does not count as electromagnetic radiation.
Electromagnetic waves can be imagined as a self-propagating transverse oscillating wave of electric and magnetic fields. This 3D animation shows a plane linearly polarized wave propagating from left to right. The electric and magnetic fields in such a wave are in-phase with each other, reaching minima and maxima together.
Representation of the electric field vector of a wave of circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation.
James Clerk Maxwell
Electromagnetic spectrum with visible light highlighted
Rough plot of Earth's atmospheric absorption and scattering (or opacity) of various wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation

It includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared, (visible) light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays.

Hydrogen atomic orbitals at different energy levels. The more opaque areas are where one is most likely to find an electron at any given time.

Electron

4 links

Subatomic particle whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

Subatomic particle whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

Hydrogen atomic orbitals at different energy levels. The more opaque areas are where one is most likely to find an electron at any given time.
A beam of electrons deflected in a circle by a magnetic field
J. J. Thomson
Robert Millikan
The Bohr model of the atom, showing states of an electron with energy quantized by the number n. An electron dropping to a lower orbit emits a photon equal to the energy difference between the orbits.
In quantum mechanics, the behavior of an electron in an atom is described by an orbital, which is a probability distribution rather than an orbit. In the figure, the shading indicates the relative probability to "find" the electron, having the energy corresponding to the given quantum numbers, at that point.
Standard Model of elementary particles. The electron (symbol e) is on the left.
Example of an antisymmetric wave function for a quantum state of two identical fermions in a 1-dimensional box. If the particles swap position, the wave function inverts its sign.
A schematic depiction of virtual electron–positron pairs appearing at random near an electron (at lower left)
A particle with charge q (at left) is moving with velocity v through a magnetic field B that is oriented toward the viewer. For an electron, q is negative so it follows a curved trajectory toward the top.
Here, Bremsstrahlung is produced by an electron e deflected by the electric field of an atomic nucleus. The energy change E2 − E1 determines the frequency f of the emitted photon.
Probability densities for the first few hydrogen atom orbitals, seen in cross-section. The energy level of a bound electron determines the orbital it occupies, and the color reflects the probability of finding the electron at a given position.
A lightning discharge consists primarily of a flow of electrons. The electric potential needed for lightning can be generated by a triboelectric effect.
Lorentz factor as a function of velocity. It starts at value 1 and goes to infinity as v approaches c.
Pair production of an electron and positron, caused by the close approach of a photon with an atomic nucleus. The lightning symbol represents an exchange of a virtual photon, thus an electric force acts. The angle between the particles is very small.
An extended air shower generated by an energetic cosmic ray striking the Earth's atmosphere
Aurorae are mostly caused by energetic electrons precipitating into the atmosphere.
During a NASA wind tunnel test, a model of the Space Shuttle is targeted by a beam of electrons, simulating the effect of ionizing gases during re-entry.

In his 1924 dissertation Recherches sur la théorie des quanta (Research on Quantum Theory), French physicist Louis de Broglie hypothesized that all matter can be represented as a de Broglie wave in the manner of light.

An electron beam can be used to supplement the treatment of areas that have been irradiated by X-rays.

Fluorescent minerals emit visible light when exposed to ultraviolet light.

Fluorescence

3 links

Fluorescent minerals emit visible light when exposed to ultraviolet light.
Fluorescent marine organisms
Fluorescent clothes used in black light theater production, Prague
Lignum nephriticum cup made from the wood of the narra tree (Pterocarpus indicus), and a flask containing its fluorescent solution
Matlaline, the fluorescent substance in the wood of the tree Eysenhardtia polystachya
Jablonski diagram. After an electron absorbs a high-energy photon the system is excited electronically and vibrationally. The system relaxes vibrationally, and eventually fluoresces at a longer wavelength.
Fluorescent security strip in a US twenty dollar bill under UV light
Fluorescent coral
Fluorescence has multiple origins in the tree of life. This diagram displays the origins within actinopterygians (ray finned fish).
Fluorescent marine fish
Aequoria victoria, biofluorescent jellyfish known for GFP
Fluorescent polka-dot tree frog under UV-light
Fluorescing scorpion
Fluorescence of aragonite
Fluorescent paint and plastic lit by UV tubes. Paintings by Beo Beyond
Endothelial cells under the microscope with three separate channels marking specific cellular components

Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.

Gemstones, minerals, may have a distinctive fluorescence or may fluoresce differently under short-wave ultraviolet, long-wave ultraviolet, visible light, or X-rays.

Levels of ozone at various altitudes (DU/km) and blocking of different bands of ultraviolet radiation: In essence, all UVC is blocked by diatomic oxygen (100–200 nm) or by ozone (triatomic oxygen) (200–280 nm) in the atmosphere. The ozone layer then blocks most UVB. Meanwhile, UVA is hardly affected by ozone, and most of it reaches the ground. UVA makes up almost all UV light that penetrates the Earth's atmosphere.

Ultraviolet

2 links

Levels of ozone at various altitudes (DU/km) and blocking of different bands of ultraviolet radiation: In essence, all UVC is blocked by diatomic oxygen (100–200 nm) or by ozone (triatomic oxygen) (200–280 nm) in the atmosphere. The ozone layer then blocks most UVB. Meanwhile, UVA is hardly affected by ozone, and most of it reaches the ground. UVA makes up almost all UV light that penetrates the Earth's atmosphere.
A 380 nanometer UV LED makes some common household items fluoresce.
Ultraviolet photons harm the DNA molecules of living organisms in different ways. In one common damage event, adjacent thymine bases bond with each other, instead of across the "ladder". This "thymine dimer" makes a bulge, and the distorted DNA molecule does not function properly.
Sunburn effect (as measured by the UV index) is the product of the sunlight spectrum (radiation intensity) and the erythemal action spectrum (skin sensitivity) across the range of UV wavelengths. Sunburn production per milliwatt of radiation intensity is increased by nearly a factor of 100 between the near UV‑B wavelengths of 315–295 nm
Demonstration of the effect of sunscreen. The man's face has sunscreen on his right side only. The left image is a regular photograph of his face; the right image is of reflected UV light. The side of the face with sunscreen is darker because the sunscreen absorbs the UV light.
Signs are often used to warn of the hazard of strong UV sources.
UV damaged polypropylene rope (left) and new rope (right)
IR spectrum showing carbonyl absorption due to UV degradation of polyethylene
A portrait taken using only UV light between the wavelengths of 335 and 365 nanometers.
Aurora at Jupiter's north pole as seen in ultraviolet light by the Hubble Space Telescope.
A bird appears on many Visa credit cards when they are held under a UV light source
After a training exercise involving fake body fluids, a healthcare worker's personal protective equipment is checked with ultraviolet light to find invisible drops of fluids. These fluids could contain deadly viruses or other contamination.
A collection of mineral samples brilliantly fluorescing at various wavelengths as seen while being irradiated by UV light.
Effects of UV on finished surfaces in 0, 20 and 43 hours.
A low-pressure mercury vapor discharge tube floods the inside of a hood with shortwave UV light when not in use, sterilizing microbiological contaminants from irradiated surfaces.
Entomologist using a UV light for collecting beetles in Chaco, Paraguay.

Ultraviolet (UV) is a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelength from 10 nm (with a corresponding frequency around 30 PHz) to 400 nm (750 THz), shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays.

Fig. 1: Schematic diagram of Compton's experiment. Compton scattering occurs in the graphite target on the left. The slit passes X-ray photons scattered at a selected angle. The energy of a scattered photon is measured using Bragg scattering in the crystal on the right in conjunction with ionization chamber; the chamber could measure total energy deposited over time, not the energy of single scattered photons.

Compton scattering

3 links

Scattering of a high frequency photon after an interaction with a stationary charged particle, usually an electron.

Scattering of a high frequency photon after an interaction with a stationary charged particle, usually an electron.

Fig. 1: Schematic diagram of Compton's experiment. Compton scattering occurs in the graphite target on the left. The slit passes X-ray photons scattered at a selected angle. The energy of a scattered photon is measured using Bragg scattering in the crystal on the right in conjunction with ionization chamber; the chamber could measure total energy deposited over time, not the energy of single scattered photons.
Fig. 3: Energies of a photon at 500 keV and an electron after Compton scattering.

If it results in a decrease in energy (increase in wavelength) of the photon (which may be an X-ray or gamma ray photon), it is called the Compton effect.

At energies of a few eV to a few keV, corresponding to visible light through soft X-rays, a photon can be completely absorbed and its energy can eject an electron from its host atom, a process known as the photoelectric effect.

The emission of electrons from a metal plate caused by light quanta – photons.

Photoelectric effect

3 links

The emission of electrons from a metal plate caused by light quanta – photons.
Schematic of the experiment to demonstrate the photoelectric effect. Filtered, monochromatic light of a certain wavelength strikes the emitting electrode (E) inside a vacuum tube. The collector electrode (C) is biased to a voltage VC that can be set to attract the emitted electrons, when positive, or prevent any of them from reaching the collector when negative.
Diagram of the maximum kinetic energy as a function of the frequency of light on zinc.
The gold leaf electroscope to demonstrate the photoelectric effect. When the electroscope is negatively charged, there is an excess of electrons and the leaves are separated. If short wavelength, high-frequency light (such as ultraviolet light obtained from an arc lamp, or by burning magnesium, or by using an induction coil between zinc or cadmium terminals to produce sparking) shines on the cap, the electroscope discharges, and the leaves fall limp. If, however, the frequency of the light waves is below the threshold value for the cap, the leaves will not discharge, no matter how long one shines the light at the cap.
Photomultiplier
Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) experiment. Helium discharge lamp shines ultraviolet light onto the sample in ultra-high vacuum. Hemispherical electron analyzer measures the distribution of ejected electrons with respect to energy and momentum.

The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons when electromagnetic radiation, such as light, hits a material.

Because the kinetic energy of the emitted electrons is exactly the energy of the incident photon minus the energy of the electron's binding within an atom, molecule or solid, the binding energy can be determined by shining a monochromatic X-ray or UV light of a known energy and measuring the kinetic energies of the photoelectrons.

A pendulum making 25 complete oscillations in 60 s, a frequency of 0.41 Hertz

Frequency

1 links

Number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

Number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

A pendulum making 25 complete oscillations in 60 s, a frequency of 0.41 Hertz
A pendulum with a period of 2.8 s and a frequency of 0.36 Hz
Diagram of the relationship between the different types of frequency and other wave properties.
Modern frequency counter
Complete spectrum of electromagnetic radiation with the visible portion highlighted
The sound wave spectrum, with rough guide of some applications

Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the temporal rate of change observed in oscillatory and periodic phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals (sound), radio waves, and light.

Even higher-frequency waves are called X-rays, and higher still are gamma rays.

Direct image of a supermassive black hole at the core of Messier 87

Black hole

0 links

Direct image of a supermassive black hole at the core of Messier 87
Animated simulation of a Schwarzschild black hole with a galaxy passing behind. Around the time of alignment, extreme gravitational lensing of the galaxy is observed.
Simulated view of a black hole in front of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Note the gravitational lensing effect, which produces two enlarged but highly distorted views of the Cloud. Across the top, the Milky Way disk appears distorted into an arc. Published in 2019.
Gravitational time dilation around a black hole
The ergosphere is a region outside of the event horizon, where objects cannot remain in place.
Gas cloud being ripped apart by black hole at the centre of the Milky Way (observations from 2006, 2010 and 2013 are shown in blue, green and red, respectively).
Artist's impression of supermassive black hole seed
Simulated event in the CMS detector: a collision in which a micro black hole may be created
This artist's impression depicts the paths of photons in the vicinity of a black hole. The gravitational bending and capture of light by the event horizon is the cause of the shadow captured by the Event Horizon Telescope.
Predicted appearance of a non-rotating black hole with toroidal ring of ionised matter, such as has been proposed as a model for Sagittarius A*. The asymmetry is due to the Doppler effect resulting from the enormous orbital speed needed for centrifugal balance of the powerful gravitational attraction of the hole.
Black hole with corona, X-ray source (artist's concept)
NASA simulated view from outside the horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole lit by a thin accretion disk.
Blurring of X-rays near black hole (NuSTAR; 12 August 2014)
A Chandra X-Ray Observatory image of Cygnus X-1, which was the first strong black hole candidate discovered
Magnetic waves, called Alfvén S-waves, flow from the base of black hole jets.
Detection of unusually bright X-Ray flare from Sagittarius A*, a black hole in the centre of the Milky Way galaxy on 5January 2015
Simulation of gas cloud after close approach to the black hole at the centre of the Milky Way.
An infographic explaining in detail the appearance of a black hole. The photon sphere surrounds the black hole's shadow.

A black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing – no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light – can escape from it.

Based on observations in Greenwich and Toronto in the early 1970s, Cygnus X-1, a galactic X-ray source discovered in 1964, became the first astronomical object commonly accepted to be a black hole.