Lilioid monocots

lilioid monocotpetaloid monocotsPetaloidealilioidpetaloid monocothexapetaloid monocotsliliaceouslily-like monocotsPetaloideae
Lilioid monocots (lilioids, liliid monocots, petaloid monocots, petaloid lilioid monocots) is an informal name used for a grade (grouping of taxa with common characteristics) of five monocot orders (Petrosaviales, Dioscoreales, Pandanales, Liliales and Asparagales) in which the majority of species have flowers with relatively large, coloured tepals.wikipedia
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Dioscoreales

yam
Lilioid monocots (lilioids, liliid monocots, petaloid monocots, petaloid lilioid monocots) is an informal name used for a grade (grouping of taxa with common characteristics) of five monocot orders (Petrosaviales, Dioscoreales, Pandanales, Liliales and Asparagales) in which the majority of species have flowers with relatively large, coloured tepals.
Within the monocots Dioscoreales are grouped in the lilioid monocots where they are in a sister group relationship with the Pandanales.

Asparagales

IridalesAsparagalean
Lilioid monocots (lilioids, liliid monocots, petaloid monocots, petaloid lilioid monocots) is an informal name used for a grade (grouping of taxa with common characteristics) of five monocot orders (Petrosaviales, Dioscoreales, Pandanales, Liliales and Asparagales) in which the majority of species have flowers with relatively large, coloured tepals.
The order takes its name from the type family Asparagaceae and is placed in the monocots amongst the lilioid monocots.

Liliales

LiliaLiliinées
Lilioid monocots (lilioids, liliid monocots, petaloid monocots, petaloid lilioid monocots) is an informal name used for a grade (grouping of taxa with common characteristics) of five monocot orders (Petrosaviales, Dioscoreales, Pandanales, Liliales and Asparagales) in which the majority of species have flowers with relatively large, coloured tepals.
Liliales (older name: Lilia) is an order of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group and Angiosperm Phylogeny Web system, within the lilioid monocots.

Pandanales

PandananaeCyclanthalesPanama-hat palm
Lilioid monocots (lilioids, liliid monocots, petaloid monocots, petaloid lilioid monocots) is an informal name used for a grade (grouping of taxa with common characteristics) of five monocot orders (Petrosaviales, Dioscoreales, Pandanales, Liliales and Asparagales) in which the majority of species have flowers with relatively large, coloured tepals.
Within the monocots Pandanales are grouped in the lilioid monocots where they are in a sister group relationship with the Dioscoreales.

Liliaceae

lily familylilieslily
From the early nineteenth century many of the species in this group of plants were put into a very broadly defined family, Liliaceae sensu lato or s.l. (lily family).
First described in 1789, the lily family became a paraphyletic "catch-all" (wastebasket) group of petaloid monocots that did not fit into other families and included a great number of genera now included in other families and in some cases in other orders.

Monocotyledon

Monocotsmonocotmonocotyledonous
Lilioid monocots (lilioids, liliid monocots, petaloid monocots, petaloid lilioid monocots) is an informal name used for a grade (grouping of taxa with common characteristics) of five monocot orders (Petrosaviales, Dioscoreales, Pandanales, Liliales and Asparagales) in which the majority of species have flowers with relatively large, coloured tepals.
Monocot diversity includes perennial geophytes such as ornamental flowers including (orchids (Asparagales), tulips and lilies) (Liliales), rosette and succulent epiphytes (Asparagales), mycoheterotrophs (Liliales, Dioscoreales, Pandanales), all in the lilioid monocots, major cereal grains (maize, rice, barley, rye and wheat) in the grass family and forage grasses (Poales) as well as woody tree-like palm trees (Arecales), bamboo, reeds and bromeliads (Poales), bananas and ginger (Zingiberales) in the commelinid monocots, as well as both emergent (Poales, Acorales) and aroids, as well as floating or submerged aquatic plants such as seagrass (Alismatales).

Petal

corollapetalscorollas
Petaloid monocots refers to the flowers having tepals which all resemble petals (petaloid).
When the undifferentiated tepals resemble petals, they are referred to as "petaloid", as in petaloid monocots, orders of monocots with brightly coloured tepals.

Alismatales

AlismatanaeAlismalesAlismatiflorae
In the orders that branched off before the lilioid monocots, the Acorales and Alismatales, flowers differ in several ways.
Phylogenetically, they are basal monocots, diverging early in evolution relative to the lilioid and commelinid monocot lineages.

Lindley system

first taxonomic workPetaloideaeJohn Lindley
In one of the earliest monocot taxonomies, that of John Lindley (1830), the grouping corresponding to the lilioid monocots was the "tribe" Petaloideae.

Tepal

tepalsperigoneperianth
Lilioid monocots (lilioids, liliid monocots, petaloid monocots, petaloid lilioid monocots) is an informal name used for a grade (grouping of taxa with common characteristics) of five monocot orders (Petrosaviales, Dioscoreales, Pandanales, Liliales and Asparagales) in which the majority of species have flowers with relatively large, coloured tepals.
Tepals formed by similar sepals and petals are common in monocotyledons, particularly the "lilioid monocots".

Melanthiaceae

Melanthaceaecorn lily family
These included the removal of two tribes of Melanthiaceae (Melanthiales) and the inclusion of three additional families (Cyclanthaceae, Pandanaceae and Velloziaceae) from other superorders.
Along with many other lilioid monocots, early authors considered members of this family to belong to the family Liliaceae, in part because both their sepals and petals closely resemble each other and are often large and showy like those of lilies, while some more recent taxonomists have placed them in a family Trilliaceae.

Commelinids

Commelinidaecommelinidcommelinid monocots
This has resulted in treating monocots as three informal groups, alismatid, lilioid and commelinid monocots.
Also known as the commelinid monocots it forms one of three groupings within the monocots, and the final branch, the other two groups being the alismatid monocots and the lilioid monocots.

Amaryllidaceae

Amaryllis familyAmaryllidaceae sp.Amaryllid family
For example, the Amaryllidaceae contained species whose flowers had six stamens and an inferior ovary.
In his first taxonomic work, An Introduction to the Natural System of Botany (1830) he partly followed De Jussieu by describing a subclass he called 'Endogenae, or Monocotyledonous Plants' (preserving de Candolle's Endogenæ phanerogamæ) divided into two tribes, the Petaloidea and Glumaceae.

Petrosaviaceae

PetrosavialesJaponoliriaceae
Lilioid monocots (lilioids, liliid monocots, petaloid monocots, petaloid lilioid monocots) is an informal name used for a grade (grouping of taxa with common characteristics) of five monocot orders (Petrosaviales, Dioscoreales, Pandanales, Liliales and Asparagales) in which the majority of species have flowers with relatively large, coloured tepals.
Petrosaviales are monocots, and are grouped within the lilioid monocots.

Perianth

perianth tubecoronaperigone
Various successive taxonomies of the monocots also emphasized the grouping of species with petaloid (undifferentiated) perianths, such as Bentham and Hooker's Coronarieæ and Hutchinson's Corolliferae ("Corolla bearing") (1936).
When the undifferentiated tepals resemble petals, they are also referred to as "petaloid", as in petaloid monocots, orders of monocots with brightly coloured tepals.

Tapetum (botany)

tapetumtapetal celltapetal cells
Pollen structure shows that of the two main tapetum types, secretory and plasmodial, the lilioid monocots are nearly all secretory.
Amongst the late branching clades, the lilioid monocots are nearly all secretory while the commelinid monocots are diverse with respect to tapetal pattern.

Alismatid monocots

alismatid
This has resulted in treating monocots as three informal groups, alismatid, lilioid and commelinid monocots.
Monocots are frequently treated as three informal groupings based on their branching from ancestral monocots and shared characteristics: alismatid monocots, lilioid monocots (the five other non-commelinid monocots) and commelinid monocots.

Evolutionary grade

gradegradesgrade taxon
Lilioid monocots (lilioids, liliid monocots, petaloid monocots, petaloid lilioid monocots) is an informal name used for a grade (grouping of taxa with common characteristics) of five monocot orders (Petrosaviales, Dioscoreales, Pandanales, Liliales and Asparagales) in which the majority of species have flowers with relatively large, coloured tepals.

Taxon

taxagrouppolytypic
Lilioid monocots (lilioids, liliid monocots, petaloid monocots, petaloid lilioid monocots) is an informal name used for a grade (grouping of taxa with common characteristics) of five monocot orders (Petrosaviales, Dioscoreales, Pandanales, Liliales and Asparagales) in which the majority of species have flowers with relatively large, coloured tepals.

Lilium

lilyliliesLilium japonicum
This characteristic is similar to that found in lilies ("lily-like").

Lilianae

LiliifloraeJuncanae
The taxonomic terms Lilianae or Liliiflorae have also been applied to this assemblage at various times.

Glumaceae

Within the monocots the Liliaceae s.l. were distinguished from the Glumaceae.

Molecular phylogenetics

molecular phylogeneticmolecularmolecular phylogeny
The development of molecular phylogenetics, cladistic theory and phylogenetic methods in the 1990s resulted in a dismemberment of the Liliaceae and its subsequent redistribution across three lilioid orders (Liliales, Asparagales and Dioscoreales).

Cladistics

cladisticcladistic analysisclade
The development of molecular phylogenetics, cladistic theory and phylogenetic methods in the 1990s resulted in a dismemberment of the Liliaceae and its subsequent redistribution across three lilioid orders (Liliales, Asparagales and Dioscoreales).

Cyclic flower

pentacyclictetracycliccyclic
Morphologically, the petaloid or lilioid monocots can be considered to possess five groups (pentacyclic) of three-fold (trimerous) whorls.