Lilioid monocots

lilioid monocotpetaloid monocotsPetaloidealilioidpetaloid monocothexapetaloid monocotsliliaceouslily-like monocotsPetaloideae
Lilioid monocots (lilioids, liliid monocots, petaloid monocots, petaloid lilioid monocots) is an informal name used for a grade (grouping of taxa with common characteristics) of five monocot orders (Petrosaviales, Dioscoreales, Pandanales, Liliales and Asparagales) in which the majority of species have flowers with relatively large, coloured tepals.wikipedia
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Merosity

4-merouspentamerousmerous
Morphologically, the petaloid or lilioid monocots can be considered to possess five groups (pentacyclic) of three-fold (trimerous) whorls.

Flower

flowersfloralflowering
Lilioid monocots all have flowers which can be considered to have been derived from a lily-like flower with six relatively similar tepals, and six stamens.

Placentation

placentaepitheliochorialepitheliochorial placenta
three carpels fused into a superior trilocular (three-chambered) superior ovary, axile placentation, a single hollow style, and several ovules with anatropous orientation in one or two rows per locule and nectaries at the base.

Stigma (botany)

stylestigmastyles
three carpels fused into a superior trilocular (three-chambered) superior ovary, axile placentation, a single hollow style, and several ovules with anatropous orientation in one or two rows per locule and nectaries at the base.

Ovule

ovulesperispermembryo sac
three carpels fused into a superior trilocular (three-chambered) superior ovary, axile placentation, a single hollow style, and several ovules with anatropous orientation in one or two rows per locule and nectaries at the base.

Glossary of botanical terms

glabrouscoriaceousmidrib
three carpels fused into a superior trilocular (three-chambered) superior ovary, axile placentation, a single hollow style, and several ovules with anatropous orientation in one or two rows per locule and nectaries at the base.

Locule

uniloculartrilocularmultilocular
three carpels fused into a superior trilocular (three-chambered) superior ovary, axile placentation, a single hollow style, and several ovules with anatropous orientation in one or two rows per locule and nectaries at the base.

Synapomorphy and apomorphy

derivedsynapomorphiessynapomorphy
However, floral synapomorphy (shared characteristics) is rare since most conform to the general monocot pattern.

Plesiomorphy and symplesiomorphy

plesiomorphicplesiomorphsymplesiomorphy
This pattern is ancestral (plesiomorphic) for the lilioid monocots.

Floral symmetry

zygomorphicactinomorphicstar-symmetrical
Structural monosymmetry is rare, except for Orchidaceae.

Orchidaceae

orchidorchidsorchid family
Structural monosymmetry is rare, except for Orchidaceae.

Ovary (botany)

ovaryovariessuperior
three carpels fused into a superior trilocular (three-chambered) superior ovary, axile placentation, a single hollow style, and several ovules with anatropous orientation in one or two rows per locule and nectaries at the base.

Trillium

trilliumspainted trillium
In some groups (such as the genus Trillium in the Liliaceae), the tepals have become clearly differentiated so that the flower has three coloured petals and three smaller green sepals.

Palisota

Since some commelinids (e.g., Palisota in the Commelinaceae, Haemodoraceae, Philydraceae, and Pontederiaceae) have petaloid flowers, the term 'lilioid' is a more accurate one for the group which excludes them, since the term petaloid monocot is still occasionally used in describing commelinids.

Commelinaceae

dayflower familyspiderwort familyCommelinacées
Since some commelinids (e.g., Palisota in the Commelinaceae, Haemodoraceae, Philydraceae, and Pontederiaceae) have petaloid flowers, the term 'lilioid' is a more accurate one for the group which excludes them, since the term petaloid monocot is still occasionally used in describing commelinids.

Haemodoraceae

bloodwort family
Since some commelinids (e.g., Palisota in the Commelinaceae, Haemodoraceae, Philydraceae, and Pontederiaceae) have petaloid flowers, the term 'lilioid' is a more accurate one for the group which excludes them, since the term petaloid monocot is still occasionally used in describing commelinids.

Philydraceae

Since some commelinids (e.g., Palisota in the Commelinaceae, Haemodoraceae, Philydraceae, and Pontederiaceae) have petaloid flowers, the term 'lilioid' is a more accurate one for the group which excludes them, since the term petaloid monocot is still occasionally used in describing commelinids.

Pontederiaceae

water hyacinth familyPontederiacées
Since some commelinids (e.g., Palisota in the Commelinaceae, Haemodoraceae, Philydraceae, and Pontederiaceae) have petaloid flowers, the term 'lilioid' is a more accurate one for the group which excludes them, since the term petaloid monocot is still occasionally used in describing commelinids.

Pollination

pollinatedpollinatecross-pollination
The morphological concept of petaloid monocots has been equated with "animal-attracting" (that is, for pollination) as opposed to wind-pollinating plants (such as grasses) that have evolved very different floral structures.

Acorus

AcoralesAcoraceae
In the orders that branched off before the lilioid monocots, the Acorales and Alismatales, flowers differ in several ways.

Butomus

Butomaceaeflowering rushFlowering-rush
In others, like Butomus (Alismatales), they have six coloured tepals, and so could be called 'petaloid', but stamens and carpels are more numerous than in the lilioid monocots.

Poales

CyperalesGraminalesXyridales
In the order Poales, comprising grasses, rushes and sedges, flowers are either petal-less or have small, unshowy petals.

Zingiberales

ZingiberanaeCannalesZingiberales sp.
Many Zingiberales species have brightly coloured and showy flowers.

Canna (plant)

CannaCannaceaecannas
For example, the six tepals of cannas are small and hidden under expanded and brightly coloured stamens or staminodes which resemble petals and may be mistaken for them.

Stamen

antheranthersstamens
Lilioid monocots all have flowers which can be considered to have been derived from a lily-like flower with six relatively similar tepals, and six stamens. For example, the six tepals of cannas are small and hidden under expanded and brightly coloured stamens or staminodes which resemble petals and may be mistaken for them.