Linear particle accelerator

linear acceleratorlinaclinear acceleratorslinear colliderlinear electron acceleratorLINACsparticle acceleratorelectron beamelectron linear acceleratorlinear
A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles or ions to a high speed by subjecting them to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.wikipedia
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Particle accelerator

particle acceleratorsacceleratoraccelerators
A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles or ions to a high speed by subjecting them to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.
Rolf Widerøe, Gustav Ising, Leó Szilárd, Max Steenbeck, and Ernest Lawrence are considered pioneers of this field, conceiving and building the first operational linear particle accelerator, the betatron, and the cyclotron.

Radiation therapy

radiotherapyradiation oncologyradiation
Linacs have many applications: they generate X-rays and high energy electrons for medicinal purposes in radiation therapy, serve as particle injectors for higher-energy accelerators, and are used directly to achieve the highest kinetic energy for light particles (electrons and positrons) for particle physics. Linac-based radiation therapy for cancer treatment began with the first patient treated in 1953 in London, UK, at the Hammersmith Hospital, with an 8 MV machine built by Metropolitan-Vickers and installed in 1952, as the first dedicated medical linac.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.

Beamline

beam linebeamlineshutch
A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles or ions to a high speed by subjecting them to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.

Gustav Ising

Gustaf Ising
The principles for such machines were proposed by Gustav Ising in 1924, while the first machine that worked was constructed by Rolf Widerøe in 1928 at the RWTH Aachen University.
He is best known for the invention of the linear accelerator concept in 1924, which is the progenitor of all modern accelerators based on oscillating electromagnetic fields.

Synchrotron

Synchotronelectron synchrotronsynchrotron facilities
The pre-acceleration can be realized by a chain of other accelerator structures like a linac, a microtron or another synchrotron; all of these in turn need to be fed by a particle source comprising a simple high voltage power supply, typically a Cockcroft-Walton generator.

Rolf Widerøe

Rolf Wideröe
The principles for such machines were proposed by Gustav Ising in 1924, while the first machine that worked was constructed by Rolf Widerøe in 1928 at the RWTH Aachen University.

Electron

electronse − electron mass
The design of a linac depends on the type of particle that is being accelerated: electrons, protons or ions.
Linear particle accelerators generate electron beams for treatment of superficial tumors in radiation therapy.

Cobalt therapy

Cobalt unitcobalt treatmentcobalt treatment unit
The versatility of LINAC is a potential advantage over cobalt therapy as a treatment tool.
Cobalt therapy was a revolutionary advance in radiotherapy in the post-World War II period but is now being replaced by other technologies such as linear accelerators.

Compact Linear Collider

CLICCompact Linear Collider (CLIC)
The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is a concept for a future linear particle accelerator that aims to explore the next energy frontier.

SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

SLACStanford Linear Accelerator CenterStanford Linear Accelerator
Linacs range in size from a cathode ray tube (which is a type of linac) to the 3.2 km linac at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in Menlo Park, California.
It is the site of the Stanford Linear Accelerator, a 3.2 kilometer (2 mile) linear accelerator constructed in 1966 and shut down in the 2000s, which could accelerate electrons to energies of 50 GeV.

International Linear Collider

ILClinear colliderNext Linear Collider
The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed linear particle accelerator.

Dielectric wall accelerator

The main conceptual difference to a conventional disk-loaded linac system is given by the additional dielectric wall and the coupler construction.

Hammersmith Hospital

HammersmithFulham HospitalHammersmith Hospitals
Linac-based radiation therapy for cancer treatment began with the first patient treated in 1953 in London, UK, at the Hammersmith Hospital, with an 8 MV machine built by Metropolitan-Vickers and installed in 1952, as the first dedicated medical linac.
The hospital was home to the first medical linear accelerator in the world at the MRC's Radiotherapeutic Research Unit, where the first patient was treated in 1953.

Electrostatic nuclear accelerator

electrostatic acceleratorelectrostatic particle acceleratorTandem accelerator
The linear accelerator could produce higher particle energies than the previous electrostatic particle accelerators (the Cockcroft-Walton accelerator and Van de Graaff generator) that were in use when it was invented.
Electrostatic accelerators are often confused with linear accelerators simply because they can (but do not always) accelerate particles in a line.

Accelerator physics

accelerator physicistacceleratorAcceleration
To circumvent this problem, linear particle accelerators operate using time-varying fields.

Van de Graaff generator

Van de GraaffVan de Graaff acceleratorTandem Van de Graaff accelerator
The linear accelerator could produce higher particle energies than the previous electrostatic particle accelerators (the Cockcroft-Walton accelerator and Van de Graaff generator) that were in use when it was invented.

Subatomic particle

subatomicparticlesubatomic particles
A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles or ions to a high speed by subjecting them to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.

Oscillation

oscillatorvibrationoscillators
A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles or ions to a high speed by subjecting them to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.

Electric potential

electrical potentialelectrostatic potentialCoulomb potential
A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles or ions to a high speed by subjecting them to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.

Line (geometry)

linestraight linelines
A linear particle accelerator (often shortened to linac) is a type of particle accelerator that accelerates charged subatomic particles or ions to a high speed by subjecting them to a series of oscillating electric potentials along a linear beamline.

RWTH Aachen University

RWTH AachenUniversity of AachenAachen University
The principles for such machines were proposed by Gustav Ising in 1924, while the first machine that worked was constructed by Rolf Widerøe in 1928 at the RWTH Aachen University.

Particle physics

high energy physicsparticle physicisthigh-energy physics
Linacs have many applications: they generate X-rays and high energy electrons for medicinal purposes in radiation therapy, serve as particle injectors for higher-energy accelerators, and are used directly to achieve the highest kinetic energy for light particles (electrons and positrons) for particle physics.

Proton

protonsH + p
The design of a linac depends on the type of particle that is being accelerated: electrons, protons or ions.

Cathode-ray tube

cathode ray tubeCRTcathode ray tubes
Linacs range in size from a cathode ray tube (which is a type of linac) to the 3.2 km linac at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in Menlo Park, California.

Menlo Park, California

Menlo ParkMenlo Park, CAMenlo
Linacs range in size from a cathode ray tube (which is a type of linac) to the 3.2 km linac at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in Menlo Park, California.