Lingual nerve

linguallingual nervesnerve
The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V 3 ), which supplies general sensory innervation (not the gustative one) to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue.wikipedia
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Trigeminal nerve

trigeminalCN VV
The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V 3 ), which supplies general sensory innervation (not the gustative one) to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue.
Although it does not carry taste sensation (the chorda tympani is responsible for taste), one of its branches—the lingual nerve—carries sensation from the tongue.

Mandibular nerve

mandibular divisionmandibular division of the trigeminal nervemandibular
The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V 3 ), which supplies general sensory innervation (not the gustative one) to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue.
The posterior division gives off three main sensory branches, the auriculotemporal, lingual and inferior alveolar nerves and motor fibres to supply mylohyoid and the anterior belly of the digastric muscle.

Tongue

Glossusforamen cecumblade
The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (CN V 3 ), which supplies general sensory innervation (not the gustative one) to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue.
The pharyngeal part is supplied by the glossopharyngeal nerve and the oral part is supplied by the lingual nerve (a branch of the mandibular branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve) for somatosensory perception and by the chorda tympani (a branch of the facial nerve) for taste perception.

Submandibular ganglion

submaxillary ganglionsubmandibularsubmaxillary
The chorda tympani (a branch of the facial nerve, CN VII) joins it at an acute angle here, carrying taste fibers from the anterior two thirds of the tongue and parasympathetic fibers to the submandibular ganglion.
The ganglion 'hangs' by two nerve filaments from the lower border of the lingual nerve (itself a branch of the mandibular nerve, CN V 3 ).

Inferior alveolar nerve

inferior alveolarinferior alveolar branch of mandibular nerve [V3inferior dental nerve
The lingual nerve lies at first beneath the lateral pterygoid muscle, medial to and in front of the inferior alveolar nerve, and is occasionally joined to this nerve by a branch which may cross the internal maxillary artery.

Submandibular gland

submandibularsubmaxillary glandsublingual caruncle
The nerve then passes between the medial pterygoid muscle and the ramus of the mandible, and crosses obliquely to the side of the tongue beneath the constrictor pharyngis superior and styloglossus, and then between the hyoglossus and deep part of the submandibular gland; it finally runs from laterally to medially inferiorly crossing the duct of the submandibular gland, and along the tongue to its tip becoming the sublingual nerve, lying immediately beneath the mucous membrane.
The excretory ducts are then crossed by the lingual nerve, and ultimately drain into the sublingual caruncles – small prominences on either side of the lingual frenulum along with the major sublingual duct.

Chorda tympani

chorda tympani nervechorda tympani'' nerve
The chorda tympani (a branch of the facial nerve, CN VII) joins it at an acute angle here, carrying taste fibers from the anterior two thirds of the tongue and parasympathetic fibers to the submandibular ganglion. It also carries fibers from the facial nerve (CN VII), which carries taste information from the anterior two thirds of the tongue, via the chorda tympani. It also carries nerve fibers that are not part of the trigeminal nerve, including the chorda tympani nerve of the facial nerve, which provides special sensation (taste) to the anterior 2/3 part of the tongue as well as parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers.
It soon joins the pathway of the larger lingual nerve, a branch of the mandibular nerve.

Hyoglossus

hyoglossus musclehyoglossi
The nerve then passes between the medial pterygoid muscle and the ramus of the mandible, and crosses obliquely to the side of the tongue beneath the constrictor pharyngis superior and styloglossus, and then between the hyoglossus and deep part of the submandibular gland; it finally runs from laterally to medially inferiorly crossing the duct of the submandibular gland, and along the tongue to its tip becoming the sublingual nerve, lying immediately beneath the mucous membrane.
Laterally, in between the hyoglossus muscle and the mylohyoid muscle lay several important structures (from upper to lower): sublingual gland, submandibular duct, lingual nerve, vena comitans of hypoglossal nerve, and the hypoglossal nerve.

Hypoglossal nerve

hypoglossalXIILingual branches of hypoglossal nerve
* Lingual branches of hypoglossal nerve
The hypoglossal nerve moves forward lateral to the hyoglossus and medial to the stylohyoid muscles and lingual nerve.

Parasympathetic nervous system

parasympatheticparasympathetic nerveparasympathetic nerves
It also carries nerve fibers that are not part of the trigeminal nerve, including the chorda tympani nerve of the facial nerve, which provides special sensation (taste) to the anterior 2/3 part of the tongue as well as parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers.
The chorda tympani travels through the middle ear and attaches to the lingual nerve (mandibular division of trigeminal, CN V 3 ).

Facial nerve

facialcranial nerve VIIVII
It also carries fibers from the facial nerve (CN VII), which carries taste information from the anterior two thirds of the tongue, via the chorda tympani. It also carries nerve fibers that are not part of the trigeminal nerve, including the chorda tympani nerve of the facial nerve, which provides special sensation (taste) to the anterior 2/3 part of the tongue as well as parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers.

Lateral pterygoid muscle

lateral pterygoidPterygoideus externuslateral
The lingual nerve lies at first beneath the lateral pterygoid muscle, medial to and in front of the inferior alveolar nerve, and is occasionally joined to this nerve by a branch which may cross the internal maxillary artery.

Maxillary artery

internal maxillary arteryinternal maxillarymaxillary
The lingual nerve lies at first beneath the lateral pterygoid muscle, medial to and in front of the inferior alveolar nerve, and is occasionally joined to this nerve by a branch which may cross the internal maxillary artery.

Medial pterygoid muscle

medial pterygoidmedialpterygoideus internus
The nerve then passes between the medial pterygoid muscle and the ramus of the mandible, and crosses obliquely to the side of the tongue beneath the constrictor pharyngis superior and styloglossus, and then between the hyoglossus and deep part of the submandibular gland; it finally runs from laterally to medially inferiorly crossing the duct of the submandibular gland, and along the tongue to its tip becoming the sublingual nerve, lying immediately beneath the mucous membrane.

Mandible

dentarylower jawmandibular
The nerve then passes between the medial pterygoid muscle and the ramus of the mandible, and crosses obliquely to the side of the tongue beneath the constrictor pharyngis superior and styloglossus, and then between the hyoglossus and deep part of the submandibular gland; it finally runs from laterally to medially inferiorly crossing the duct of the submandibular gland, and along the tongue to its tip becoming the sublingual nerve, lying immediately beneath the mucous membrane.

Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

constrictor pharyngis superiorsuperior pharyngeal constrictorsuperior
The nerve then passes between the medial pterygoid muscle and the ramus of the mandible, and crosses obliquely to the side of the tongue beneath the constrictor pharyngis superior and styloglossus, and then between the hyoglossus and deep part of the submandibular gland; it finally runs from laterally to medially inferiorly crossing the duct of the submandibular gland, and along the tongue to its tip becoming the sublingual nerve, lying immediately beneath the mucous membrane.

Styloglossus

Styloglossus muscle
The nerve then passes between the medial pterygoid muscle and the ramus of the mandible, and crosses obliquely to the side of the tongue beneath the constrictor pharyngis superior and styloglossus, and then between the hyoglossus and deep part of the submandibular gland; it finally runs from laterally to medially inferiorly crossing the duct of the submandibular gland, and along the tongue to its tip becoming the sublingual nerve, lying immediately beneath the mucous membrane.

Mucous membrane

mucosamucous membranesmucosal
The nerve then passes between the medial pterygoid muscle and the ramus of the mandible, and crosses obliquely to the side of the tongue beneath the constrictor pharyngis superior and styloglossus, and then between the hyoglossus and deep part of the submandibular gland; it finally runs from laterally to medially inferiorly crossing the duct of the submandibular gland, and along the tongue to its tip becoming the sublingual nerve, lying immediately beneath the mucous membrane. The lingual nerve supplies general somatic afferent innervation from the mucous membrane of the anterior two-thirds (body) of the tongue, while the posterior one-third (root) is innervated by the glossopharyngeal.

General somatic afferent fibers

general somatic afferentSomatic afferentgeneral somatic
The lingual nerve supplies general somatic afferent innervation from the mucous membrane of the anterior two-thirds (body) of the tongue, while the posterior one-third (root) is innervated by the glossopharyngeal.

Wisdom tooth

wisdom teeththird molarmandibular third molar
The most common cause of lingual nerve injuries is third molar (wisdom tooth) surgery, less commonly the lingual nerve can be injured by local anaesthetic dental injections (particularly inferior dental block injections) and sublingual or submandibular surgery.

Dental anesthesia

anaestheticanesthesia, dentalanesthetic
The lingual nerve is also anesthetized through diffusion of the agent to produce a numb tongue as well as anesthetizing the floor of the mouth tissue, including that around the tongue side or lingual of the teeth.

Ageusia

loss of tasteAguesialoses her sense of taste
The lingual nerve (which is a branch of the trigeminal V3 nerve, but carries taste sensation back to the chorda tympani nerve to the geniculate ganglion of the facial nerve) can also be damaged during otologic surgery, causing a feeling of metal taste.