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Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and it involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
The scientific study of language is called linguistics.

Semantics

semanticsemanticallymeaning
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and it involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context. Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning. While the study of semantics typically concerns itself with truth conditions, pragmatics deals with how situational context influences the production of meaning.
Semantics (from sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.

Theoretical linguistics

general linguisticstheoreticallinguistic theory
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and it involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Theoretical linguistics, or general linguistics, is the branch of linguistics which inquires into the nature of language itself and seeks to answer fundamental questions as to what language is; how it works; how universal grammar (UG) as a domain-specific mental organ operates, if it exists at all; what are its unique properties; how does language relate to other cognitive processes, etc. Theoretical linguists are most concerned with constructing models of linguistic knowledge, and ultimately developing a linguistic theory.

Language documentation

documentationdocumentdocumented
The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 6th century BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his .
Language documentation (also: documentary linguistics) is a subfield of linguistics which aims to describe the grammar and use of human languages.

Phonetics

phoneticphoneticallyphonetician
Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning.
Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.

Pāṇini

PaniniAṣṭādhyāyīPaninian
The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 6th century BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his .
Considered the father of linguistics, Pāṇini likely lived in the northwest Indian subcontinent during the Mahajanapada era.

Linguistic description

descriptivedescriptive linguisticslinguistic analysis
The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 6th century BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his .
In the study of language, description or descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a speech community.

Meaning (linguistics)

meaninglinguistic meaningmeanings
The study of language meaning, on the other hand, deals with how languages encode relations between entities, properties, and other aspects of the world to convey, process, and assign meaning, as well as manage and resolve ambiguity.
In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.

Pragmatics

pragmaticpragmaticallylinguistic pragmatics
While the study of semantics typically concerns itself with truth conditions, pragmatics deals with how situational context influences the production of meaning.
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
Grammar is a system of rules which governs the production and use of utterances in a given language.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.

Phonology

phonologicalphonologicallyphonologist
These rules apply to sound as well as meaning, and include componential subsets of rules, such as those pertaining to phonology (the organisation of phonetic sound systems), morphology (the formation and composition of words), and syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences).
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
These rules apply to sound as well as meaning, and include componential subsets of rules, such as those pertaining to phonology (the organisation of phonetic sound systems), morphology (the formation and composition of words), and syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences).
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences (sentence structure) in a given language, usually including word order.

Morphology (linguistics)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
These rules apply to sound as well as meaning, and include componential subsets of rules, such as those pertaining to phonology (the organisation of phonetic sound systems), morphology (the formation and composition of words), and syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences).
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

Context (language use)

contextcontextscontextual
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and it involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
In semiotics, linguistics, sociology and anthropology, context refers to those objects or entities which surround a focal event, in these disciplines typically a communicative event, of some kind.

Structural linguistics

structuraliststructuralismstructural
In the early 20th century, Ferdinand de Saussure distinguished between the notions of langue and parole in his formulation of structural linguistics.
Structural linguistics is an approach to linguistics originating from the work of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and is part of the overall approach of structuralism.

Dialect

dialect clusterdialectslanguage cluster
The study of parole (which manifests through cultural discourses and dialects) is the domain of sociolinguistics, the sub-discipline that comprises the study of a complex system of linguistic facets within a certain speech community (governed by its own set of grammatical rules and laws).
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena:

Corpus linguistics

corpuscorporacorpus analysis
This is done through the collection of linguistic data, or through the formal discipline of corpus linguistics, which takes naturally occurring texts and studies the variation of grammatical and other features based on such corpora (or corpus data).
Corpus linguistics is the study of language as expressed in corpora (samples) of "real world" text.

Neurolinguistics

neurolinguisticneurolinguistsneurological bases of language
The formal study of language also led to the growth of fields like psycholinguistics, which explores the representation and function of language in the mind; neurolinguistics, which studies language processing in the brain; biolinguistics, which studies the biology and evolution of language; and language acquisition, which investigates how children and adults acquire the knowledge of one or more languages.
As an interdisciplinary field, neurolinguistics draws methods and theories from fields such as neuroscience, linguistics, cognitive science, communication disorders and neuropsychology.

Psycholinguistics

psycholinguisticpsycholinguistPsycholinguists
The formal study of language also led to the growth of fields like psycholinguistics, which explores the representation and function of language in the mind; neurolinguistics, which studies language processing in the brain; biolinguistics, which studies the biology and evolution of language; and language acquisition, which investigates how children and adults acquire the knowledge of one or more languages.
Modern research makes use of biology, neuroscience, cognitive science, linguistics, and information science to study how the brain processes language, and less so the known processes of social sciences, human development, communication theories and infant development, among others.

Stylistics

stylestylistichigh style
Stylistics also involves the study of written, signed, or spoken discourse through varying speech communities, genres, and editorial or narrative formats in the mass media.
As a discipline, stylistics links literary criticism to linguistics.

Discourse analysis

discoursediscourse analystDiscourse Studies
The study of parole (which manifests through cultural discourses and dialects) is the domain of sociolinguistics, the sub-discipline that comprises the study of a complex system of linguistic facets within a certain speech community (governed by its own set of grammatical rules and laws).
Discourse analysis has been taken up in a variety of disciplines in the humanities and social sciences, including linguistics, education, sociology, anthropology, social work, cognitive psychology, social psychology, area studies, cultural studies, international relations, human geography, communication studies, biblical studies, and translation studies, each of which is subject to its own assumptions, dimensions of analysis, and methodologies.

Lexicography

lexicographerlexicographerslexicographical
Lexicography involves the documentation of words that form a vocabulary.
Some use "lexicology" as a synonym for theoretical lexicography; others use it to mean a branch of linguistics pertaining to the inventory of words in a particular language.

Computational linguistics

computational linguistmathematical linguisticscomputer linguistics
Computational linguistics is concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective.
In general, computational linguistics draws upon the involvement of linguists, computer scientists, experts in artificial intelligence, mathematicians, logicians, philosophers, cognitive scientists, cognitive psychologists, psycholinguists, anthropologists and neuroscientists, among others.

Historical linguistics

diachronichistorical linguistshistorical linguist
Research on language through the sub-branches of historical and evolutionary linguistics also focus on how languages change and grow, particularly over an extended period of time.
Western modern historical linguistics dates from the late 18th century.

Biolinguistics

Biolinguistbiology
The formal study of language also led to the growth of fields like psycholinguistics, which explores the representation and function of language in the mind; neurolinguistics, which studies language processing in the brain; biolinguistics, which studies the biology and evolution of language; and language acquisition, which investigates how children and adults acquire the knowledge of one or more languages.
It is a highly interdisciplinary field, including linguists, biologists, neuroscientists, psychologists, mathematicians, and others.