Linguisticswikipedia
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
linguisticslinguistlinguisticlinguistsgrammarianlinguisticallyverbal communicationlanguage studieslanguageslinguistic theory

Language

languagelanguageslinguistic
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
The scientific study of language is called linguistics.

Semantics

semanticssemanticsemantically
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context. Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning. While the study of semantics typically concerns itself with truth conditions, pragmatics deals with how situational context influences the production of meaning.
Semantics (from sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.

Theoretical linguistics

theoretical linguisticsgeneral linguisticstheoretical
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Theoretical linguistics, or general linguistics, is the branch of linguistics which inquires into the nature of language itself and seeks to answer fundamental questions as to what language is; how it works; how universal grammar (UG) as a domain-specific mental organ operates, if it exists at all; what are its unique properties; how does language relate to other cognitive processes, etc. Theoretical linguists are most concerned with constructing models of linguistic knowledge, and ultimately developing a linguistic theory.

Phonetics

phoneticsphoneticphonetically
Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning.
Phonetics (pronounced ) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.

Language documentation

language documentationdocumentationdocument
The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 6th century BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini, who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his .
Language documentation (also: documentary linguistics) is a subfield of linguistics which aims to describe the grammar and use of human languages.

Meaning (linguistics)

meaninglinguistic meaningmeanings
The study of language meaning, on the other hand, deals with how languages encode relations between entities, properties, and other aspects of the world to convey, process, and assign meaning, as well as manage and resolve ambiguity.
In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.

Grammar

grammargrammaticalgrammatically
Grammar is a system of rules which governs the production and use of utterances in a given language.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.

Pragmatics

pragmaticspragmaticpragmatically
While the study of semantics typically concerns itself with truth conditions, pragmatics deals with how situational context influences the production of meaning.
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.

Pāṇini

PaniniPāṇiniAṣṭādhyāyī
The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 6th century BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini, who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his .
Considered the father of Indian linguistics, Pāṇini likely lived in the northwest Indian subcontinent during the Mahajanapada era.

Noam Chomsky

Noam ChomskyChomskyChomsky, Noam
Modern theories that deal with the principles of grammar are largely based within Noam Chomsky's framework of generative linguistics. This distinction resembles the one made by Noam Chomsky between competence and performance in his theory of transformative or generative grammar.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, and social critic.

Syntax

syntaxsyntacticsyntactical
These rules apply to sound as well as meaning, and include componential subsets of rules, such as those pertaining to phonology (the organisation of phonetic sound systems), morphology (the formation and composition of words), and syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences).
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.

Phonology

phonologyphonologicalphonologically
These rules apply to sound as well as meaning, and include componential subsets of rules, such as those pertaining to phonology (the organisation of phonetic sound systems), morphology (the formation and composition of words), and syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences).
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

Morphology (linguistics)

morphologymorphologicalmorphologically
These rules apply to sound as well as meaning, and include componential subsets of rules, such as those pertaining to phonology (the organisation of phonetic sound systems), morphology (the formation and composition of words), and syntax (the formation and composition of phrases and sentences).
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.

Linguistic description

descriptivedescriptive linguisticslinguistic analysis
The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 6th century BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini, who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit language in his .
In the study of language, description or descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a speech community.

Ferdinand de Saussure

Ferdinand de SaussureSaussureSaussurian
In the early 20th century, Ferdinand de Saussure distinguished between the notions of langue and parole in his formulation of structural linguistics.
Ferdinand de Saussure (26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician.

Structural linguistics

structural linguisticsstructuraliststructuralism
In the early 20th century, Ferdinand de Saussure distinguished between the notions of langue and parole in his formulation of structural linguistics.
Structural linguistics is an approach to linguistics originating from the work of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and is part of the overall approach of structuralism.

Dialect

dialectdialect clusterdialects
The study of parole (which manifests through cultural discourses and dialects) is the domain of sociolinguistics, the sub-discipline that comprises the study of a complex system of linguistic facets within a certain speech community (governed by its own set of grammatical rules and laws).
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena:

Universal grammar

universal grammarnativismuniversal
This distinction resembles the one made by Noam Chomsky between competence and performance in his theory of transformative or generative grammar.
Universal grammar (UG) in linguistics, is the theory of the genetic component of the language faculty, usually credited to Noam Chomsky.

Corpus linguistics

corpus linguisticscorpuscorpora
This is done through the collection of linguistic data, or through the formal discipline of corpus linguistics, which takes naturally occurring texts and studies the variation of grammatical and other features based on such corpora (or corpus data).
Corpus linguistics is the study of language as expressed in corpora (bodies) of "real world" text.

Context (language use)

contextcontextscontextual
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
In semiotics, linguistics, sociology and anthropology, context refers to those objects or entities which surround a focal event, in these disciplines typically a communicative event, of some kind.

Computational linguistics

computational linguisticscomputational linguistmathematical linguistics
Computational linguistics is concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective.
In general, computational linguistics draws upon the involvement of linguists, computer scientists, experts in artificial intelligence, mathematicians, logicians, philosophers, cognitive scientists, cognitive psychologists, psycholinguists, anthropologists and neuroscientists, among others.

Lexicography

lexicographylexicographerlexicographical
Lexicography involves the documentation of words that form a vocabulary.
Some use "lexicology" as a synonym for theoretical lexicography; others use it to mean a branch of linguistics pertaining to the inventory of words in a particular language.

Cognitive linguistics

cognitive linguisticscognitivecognitive linguist
Related areas of study also includes the disciplines of semiotics (the study of direct and indirect language through signs and symbols), literary criticism (the historical and ideological analysis of literature, cinema, art, or published material), translation (the conversion and documentation of meaning in written/spoken text from one language or dialect onto another), and speech-language pathology (a corrective method to cure phonetic disabilities and dis-functions at the cognitive level).
Cognitive linguistics (CL) is an interdisciplinary branch of linguistics, combining knowledge and research from both psychology and linguistics.

Neurolinguistics

neurolinguisticsneurolinguisticneurolinguists
The formal study of language also led to the growth of fields like psycholinguistics, which explores the representation and function of language in the mind; neurolinguistics, which studies language processing in the brain; biolinguistics, which studies the biology and evolution of language; and language acquisition, which investigates how children and adults acquire the knowledge of one or more languages.
As an interdisciplinary field, neurolinguistics draws methods and theories from fields such as neuroscience, linguistics, cognitive science, communication disorders and neuropsychology.

Historical linguistics

historical linguisticsdiachronichistorical linguists
Research on language through the sub-branches of historical and evolutionary linguistics also focus on how languages change and grow, particularly over an extended period of time.
Western modern historical linguistics dates from the late 18th century.