Linotype machine

Linotypelinotype operatorlinotypistLinotype presslinotype printingMergenthaler linotype machinecastinghot metalIntertypeIntertype Ltd.
The Linotype machine was a "line casting" machine used in printing sold by the Mergenthaler Linotype Company and related companies.wikipedia
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Mergenthaler Linotype Company

LinotypeLinotype GmbHMergenthaler
The Linotype machine was a "line casting" machine used in printing sold by the Mergenthaler Linotype Company and related companies.
The Mergenthaler Linotype Company is a corporation founded in the United States in 1886 to market the Linotype machine, a system to cast metal type in lines (linecaster) invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler.

Typesetting

typesettercompositortypeset
Linotype became one of the mainstay methods to set type, especially small-size body text, for newspapers, magazines, and posters from the late 19th century to the 1970s and 1980s, when it was largely replaced by phototypesetting and computer typesetting.
The Linotype machine, invented in 1884, used a keyboard to assemble the casting matrices, and cast an entire line of type at a time (hence its name).

Hot metal typesetting

hot metalhot typehot-metal typesetting
It was a hot metal typesetting system that cast blocks of metal type for individual uses. The assembled line is then cast as a single piece, called a slug, of type metal in a process known as hot metal typesetting.

Ottmar Mergenthaler

MergenthalerOttmar Mergenthaler's Square Base Linotype Machine
Ottmar Mergenthaler invented the linotype in 1884. In 1876, a German clock maker, Ottmar Mergenthaler, who had emigrated to the United States in 1872, was approached by James O. Clephane and his associate Charles T. Moore, who sought a quicker way of publishing legal briefs.
Ottmar Mergenthaler (May 11, 1854 – October 28, 1899) was a German-born inventor who has been called a second Gutenberg, as Mergenthaler invented the linotype machine, the first device that could easily and quickly set complete lines of type for use in printing presses.

Phototypesetting

cold typephototypesetterphotocomposition
Linotype became one of the mainstay methods to set type, especially small-size body text, for newspapers, magazines, and posters from the late 19th century to the 1970s and 1980s, when it was largely replaced by phototypesetting and computer typesetting.
The major advancement presented by the phototypesetting machines over the Linotype machine hot-type machines was the elimination of metal type, an intermediate step no longer required once offset printing became the norm.

James O. Clephane

In 1876, a German clock maker, Ottmar Mergenthaler, who had emigrated to the United States in 1872, was approached by James O. Clephane and his associate Charles T. Moore, who sought a quicker way of publishing legal briefs.
James Ogilvie Clephane (February 21, 1842 – November 30, 1910 ) was an American court reporter and venture capitalist who was involved in improving, promoting and supporting several inventions of his age, including the typewriter, the graphophone, and the linotype machine.

Intertype Corporation

IntertypeImperialIntertype Machine
The Intertype Company produced the Intertype, a machine closely resembling the Linotype, and using the same matrices as the Linotype, started production around 1914.
The Intertype Corporation produced the Intertype, a typecasting machine closely resembling the Linotype, and using the same matrices as the Linotype.

Sort (typesetting)

metal typetypesort
It was a hot metal typesetting system that cast blocks of metal type for individual uses. The name of the machine comes from the fact that it produces an entire line of metal type at once, hence a line-o'-type, a significant improvement over the previous industry standard, i.e., manual, letter-by-letter typesetting using a composing stick and shallow subdivided trays, called "cases".
The popular Linotype cast entire lines of text at once rather than individual sorts, while the less popular competitor Monotype still cast the sorts individually.

Type metal

metalmetal type
The assembled line is then cast as a single piece, called a slug, of type metal in a process known as hot metal typesetting.
Most mechanical typesetting is divided basically into two different competing technologies: line casting (Linotype and Intertype) and single character casting (Monotype).

Typeface

fonttypefacesfonts
Each matrix contains the letter form for a single character of a font of type; i.e., a particular type design in a particular size.
The first machine of this type was the Linotype machine, invented by Ottmar Mergenthaler.

New-York Tribune

New York TribuneThe New York TribuneNew York Daily Tribune
In July, 1886, the first commercially used Linotype was installed in the printing office of the New York Tribune.
In 1886, with Reid's support, the Tribune became the first publication in the world to be printed on a linotype machine, which was invented by a German immigrant, inventor Ottmar Mergenthaler.

Monotype System

MonotypeBritish MonotypeMonotype composition caster

The Saguache Crescent

Saguache Crescent
, the last-known newspaper still using linotype in the United states, and possibly the world, is The Saguache Crescent.
The Saguache Crescent is a weekly newspaper published in Saguache, Colorado, notable for continuing to use linotype long after most newspapers have adopted more modern production methods.

Teleprinter

teletypeteletypewritertelex
This allowed the text to be typeset to be supplied over a telegraph line (TeleTypeSetter).
Originally these machines would simply punch paper tapes and these tapes could be read by a tape reader attached to a "Teletypesetter operating unit" installed on a Linotype machine.

Etaoin shrdlu

Shrdlue-t-a-o-i-n-s-h-r-d-l-uEtienne Cherdlu
The first two columns of keys are: e, t, a, o, i, n; and s, h, r, d, l, u. A Linotype operator would often deal with a typing error by running the fingers down these two rows, thus filling out the line with the nonsense words etaoin shrdlu.
The letters on type-casting machine keyboards (such as Linotype and Intertype) were arranged by descending letter frequency to speed up the mechanical operation of the machine, so lower-case and were the first two columns on the left side of the keyboard.

Monotype Imaging

MonotypeMonotype CorporationLanston Monotype
In contrast, the Linotype machine formed a complete line of type in one bar.

Antimony

Sbantimonialantimonium
The casting material is an alloy of lead (85%), antimony (11%), and tin (4%), and produces a one-piece casting slug capable of 300,000 impressions before the casting begins to develop deformities and imperfections, and the type must be cast again.
It is used in antifriction alloys (such as Babbitt metal), in bullets and lead shot, electrical cable sheathing, type metal (for example, for linotype printing machines ), solder (some "lead-free" solders contain 5% Sb), in pewter, and in hardening alloys with low tin content in the manufacturing of organ pipes.

Printing

Printprintedprinter
The Linotype machine was a "line casting" machine used in printing sold by the Mergenthaler Linotype Company and related companies.

Composing stick

The name of the machine comes from the fact that it produces an entire line of metal type at once, hence a line-o'-type, a significant improvement over the previous industry standard, i.e., manual, letter-by-letter typesetting using a composing stick and shallow subdivided trays, called "cases".

Glyph

glyphscharactercharacters
This allows much faster typesetting and composition than original hand composition in which operators place down one pre-cast glyph (metal letter, punctuation mark or space) at a time.

Germans

Germanethnic Germanethnic Germans
In 1876, a German clock maker, Ottmar Mergenthaler, who had emigrated to the United States in 1872, was approached by James O. Clephane and his associate Charles T. Moore, who sought a quicker way of publishing legal briefs.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
In 1876, a German clock maker, Ottmar Mergenthaler, who had emigrated to the United States in 1872, was approached by James O. Clephane and his associate Charles T. Moore, who sought a quicker way of publishing legal briefs.

Brief (law)

briefbriefslegal brief
In 1876, a German clock maker, Ottmar Mergenthaler, who had emigrated to the United States in 1872, was approached by James O. Clephane and his associate Charles T. Moore, who sought a quicker way of publishing legal briefs.

Steel

steel industrysteelworkersteels
Where Mergenthaler prided themselves on intricately formed cast-iron parts on their machine, Intertype machined many of their similar parts from steel and aluminum.

Aluminium

aluminumAlall-metal
Where Mergenthaler prided themselves on intricately formed cast-iron parts on their machine, Intertype machined many of their similar parts from steel and aluminum.