A report on Linus Pauling

Linus Pauling in 1962
Herman Henry William Pauling, Linus Pauling's father, c. 1900
Pauling's graduation photo from Oregon State University, 1922
Linus Pauling with an inset of his Nobel Prize in 1955
Pauling in 1941
An alpha helix in ultra-high-resolution electron density contours, with O atoms in red, N atoms in blue, and hydrogen bonds as green dotted lines (PDB file 2NRL, 17–32).
Pauling in 1948
Beckman D2 Oxygen Analyzer, ca.1950
Beckman Model 735 Dissolved O2 Analyzer, later model based on Pauling's design, 1968
Beckman Model D Oxygen Meter, based on Pauling's design, with infant incubator, 1959
Denial letter from Ruth B. Shipley, Chief Passport Division, Department of State to Linus Pauling on February 14, 1952
Pauling's beret on display at the Nobel Prize Museum
Pauling's book, How to Live Longer and Feel Better, advocated very high intake of Vitamin C.
The Pauling children at a gathering in celebration of the 1954 Nobel Prizes in Stockholm, Sweden. Seated from left: Linus Pauling, Jr., Peter Pauling and Linda Pauling. Standing from left: an unidentified person, and Crellin Pauling

American chemist, biochemist, chemical engineer, peace activist, author, and educator.

- Linus Pauling
Linus Pauling in 1962

105 related topics with Alpha

Overall

California Institute of Technology

7 links

Private research university in Pasadena, California.

Private research university in Pasadena, California.

Throop Polytechnic Institute on its original campus at downtown Pasadena
Throop Hall, 1912
Construction of Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics in 1921
Aerial view of Caltech in 1922
Richard C. Tolman and Albert Einstein at Caltech, 1932
The campus in 1944
The new Annenberg Center for Information Science and Technology
The Millikan Library, the tallest building on campus. In January 2021, the Caltech Board of Trustees authorized removal of Millikan's name from campus buildings.
The Beckman Auditorium
Beckman Institute at Caltech
The Bridge Laboratory of Physics
Breezeway of Arms Laboratory
The Kerckhoff Laboratory of the Biological Sciences
Doctoral regalia of the California Institute of Technology
Chemists working at Caltech in 1923
The new Schlinger Laboratory for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
The Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics
The Caltech Beavers' logo
The Fleming cannon
Aerial view of Caltech in Pasadena, California
Broad Center for Biological Sciences
Nobel laureate Carl David Anderson, BS 1927, PhD 1930, discoverer of the positron and the muon
Nobel laureate Douglas D. Osheroff, BS 1967
Nobel laureate William Shockley, BS 1932, co-inventor of the solid state transistor, father of Silicon Valley
Nobel laureate Edwin McMillan, BS 1928, MS 1929
Nobel laureate Vernon Smith, BS 1949
Turing Award laureate Fernando J. Corbató, BS 1950
Turing Award laureate Donald Knuth, PhD 1963, "father" of the analysis of algorithms, creator of TeX typesetting system
Turing Award laureate John McCarthy, BS 1948, inventor of the Lisp programming language
Astronaut C. Gordon Fullerton, BS 1957, MS 1958
Astronaut and United States Senator Harrison Schmitt, BS 1957, the only geologist to have walked on the moon
Libyan Deputy Prime Minister & Libyan Prime Minister-Elect Mustafa A.G. Abushagur, PhD 1984
Qian Xuesen, PhD 1939, co-founder of JPL, "Father" of Chinese rocketry
Arnold Orville Beckman, PhD 1928, inventor of the pH meter, founder of Beckman Instruments and the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Foundation
Gordon Moore, PhD 1954, co-founder of Intel
National Medal of Technology laureate Carver Mead, BS 1956, MS 1957, PhD 1960
Benoit Mandelbrot, MS 1948, Engineering 1949, father of fractal geometry, namesake of the Mandelbrot set
Charlie Munger, studied meteorology at Caltech, investor, Vice Chairman of Berkshire Hathaway
Frank Capra, BS Chemical Engineering 1918 (when Caltech was known as the "Throop Institute");<ref>{{cite web|url=http://alumni.caltech.edu/distinguished_alumni/search_results?search_text=Frank+Capra|title=Distinguished Alumni Award – Frank Capra|publisher=California Institute of Technology|access-date=May 7, 2010|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110719160205/http://alumni.caltech.edu/distinguished_alumni/search_results?search_text=Frank+Capra|archive-date=July 19, 2011|url-status=dead|df=mdy-all}}</ref> winner of six Academy Awards in directing and producing; producer and director of It's a Wonderful Life
Nobel laureate Kip Thorne, BS 1962, known for his prolific contributions in gravitation physics and astrophysics and co-founding of LIGO
Stephen Wolfram, PhD 1979, creator of Mathematica and Wolfram Alpha; one of the first MacArthur Fellows in 1981
Stanislav Smirnov, PhD 1996, 2010 Fields Medal winner for his work on the mathematical foundations of statistical physics, particularly finite lattice models
France A. Córdova, PhD 1978, Astrophysicist and 14th Director of the National Science Foundation
Nobel laureate Eric Betzig, BS 1983, known for his work on fluorescence microscopy and photoactivated localization microscopy

, there are 76 Nobel laureates who have been affiliated with Caltech, including 40 alumni and faculty members (41 prizes, with chemist Linus Pauling being the only individual in history to win two unshared prizes); in addition, 4 Fields Medalists and 6 Turing Award winners have been affiliated with Caltech.

Watson in January 2012

James Watson

7 links

American molecular biologist, geneticist, and zoologist.

American molecular biologist, geneticist, and zoologist.

Watson in January 2012
DNA model built by Crick and Watson in 1953, on display in the Science Museum, London
Watson's accomplishment is displayed on the monument at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. Because the monument memorializes only American laureates, Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins (who shared the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine) are omitted.
Watson in 1992
James Watson (February 2003)
Watson signing autographs after a speech at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on April 30, 2007
James D. Watson with the Othmer Gold Medal, 2005

In 1951, the chemist Linus Pauling in California published his model of the amino acid alpha helix, a result that grew out of Pauling's efforts in X-ray crystallography and molecular model building.

Three-dimensional structure of an alpha helix in the protein crambin

Alpha helix

6 links

Common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a right hand-helix conformation in which every backbone N−H group hydrogen bonds to the backbone C=O group of the amino acid located four residues earlier along the protein sequence.

Common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a right hand-helix conformation in which every backbone N−H group hydrogen bonds to the backbone C=O group of the amino acid located four residues earlier along the protein sequence.

Three-dimensional structure of an alpha helix in the protein crambin
Contrast of helix end views between α (offset squarish) vs 310 (triangular)
Ramachandran plot (φ, ψ plot), with data points for α-helical residues forming a dense diagonal cluster below and left of center, around the global energy minimum for backbone conformation.
An α-helix in ultrahigh-resolution electron density contours, with oxygen atoms in red, nitrogen atoms in blue, and hydrogen bonds as green dotted lines (PDB file 2NRL, 17–32). The N-terminus is at the top, here.
The Hemoglobin molecule has four heme-binding subunits, each made largely of α-helices.
Leucine zipper coiled-coil helices & DNA-binding helices: transcription factor Max (PDB file 1HLO)
Bovine rhodopsin (PDB file 1GZM), with a bundle of seven helices crossing the membrane (membrane surfaces marked by horizontal lines)
Julian Voss-Andreae's Alpha Helix for Linus Pauling (2004), powder coated steel, height 10 ft. The sculpture stands in front of Pauling's childhood home on 3945 SE Hawthorne Boulevard in Portland, Oregon, USA.

Although incorrect in their details, Astbury's models of these forms were correct in essence and correspond to modern elements of secondary structure, the α-helix and the β-strand (Astbury's nomenclature was kept), which were developed by Linus Pauling, Robert Corey and Herman Branson in 1951 (see below); that paper showed both right- and left-handed helices, although in 1960 the crystal structure of myoglobin showed that the right-handed form is the common one.

Francis Crick

6 links

English molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist.

English molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist.

Diagram that emphasises the phosphate backbone of DNA. Watson and Crick first made helical models with the phosphates at the centre of the helices.
Diagrammatic representation of some key structural features of DNA. The similar structures of guanine:cytosine and adenine:thymine base pairs is illustrated. The base pairs are held together by hydrogen bonds. The phosphate backbones are anti-parallel.
Crick and Watson DNA model built in 1953, was reconstructed largely from its original pieces in 1973 and donated to the National Science Museum in London.
Collagen triple helix.
Molecular model of a tRNA molecule. Crick predicted that such adaptor molecules might exist as the links between codons and amino acids.
Results from an fMRI experiment in which people made a conscious decision about a visual stimulus. The small region of the brain coloured orange shows patterns of activity that correlate with the decision making process. Crick stressed the importance of finding new methods to probe human brain function.
Stained glass window in the dining hall of Caius College, in Cambridge, commemorating Francis Crick and representing the double helical structure of B-DNA.

Bragg was influential in the effort to beat a leading American chemist, Linus Pauling, to the discovery of DNA's structure (after having been pipped at the post by Pauling's success in determining the alpha helix structure of proteins).

A powder X-ray diffractometer in motion

X-ray crystallography

6 links

Experimental science determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline structure causes a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

Experimental science determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline structure causes a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

A powder X-ray diffractometer in motion
Drawing of square (Figure A, above) and hexagonal (Figure B, below) packing from Kepler's work, Strena seu de Nive Sexangula.
As shown by X-ray crystallography, the hexagonal symmetry of snowflakes results from the tetrahedral arrangement of hydrogen bonds about each water molecule. The water molecules are arranged similarly to the silicon atoms in the tridymite polymorph of SiO2. The resulting crystal structure has hexagonal symmetry when viewed along a principal axis.
X-ray crystallography shows the arrangement of water molecules in ice, revealing the hydrogen bonds (1) that hold the solid together. Few other methods can determine the structure of matter with such precision (resolution).
The incoming beam (coming from upper left) causes each scatterer to re-radiate a small portion of its intensity as a spherical wave. If scatterers are arranged symmetrically with a separation d, these spherical waves will be in sync (add constructively) only in directions where their path-length difference 2d sin θ equals an integer multiple of the wavelength λ. In that case, part of the incoming beam is deflected by an angle 2θ, producing a reflection spot in the diffraction pattern.
Although diamonds (top left) and graphite (top right) are identical in chemical composition—being both pure carbon—X-ray crystallography revealed the arrangement of their atoms (bottom) accounts for their different properties. In diamond, the carbon atoms are arranged tetrahedrally and held together by single covalent bonds, making it strong in all directions. By contrast, graphite is composed of stacked sheets. Within the sheet, the bonding is covalent and has hexagonal symmetry, but there are no covalent bonds between the sheets, making graphite easy to cleave into flakes.
First X-ray diffraction view of Martian soil – CheMin analysis reveals feldspar, pyroxenes, olivine and more (Curiosity rover at "Rocknest", October 17, 2012).
The three-dimensional structure of penicillin, solved by Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin in 1945. The green, red, yellow and blue spheres represent atoms of carbon, oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen, respectively. The white spheres represent hydrogen, which were determined mathematically rather than by the X-ray analysis.
Ribbon diagram of the structure of myoglobin, showing alpha helices. Such proteins are long, linear molecules with thousands of atoms; yet the relative position of each atom has been determined with sub-atomic resolution by X-ray crystallography. Since it is difficult to visualize all the atoms at once, the ribbon shows the rough path of the protein's backbone from its N-terminus to its C-terminus.
Workflow for solving the structure of a molecule by X-ray crystallography.
A protein crystal seen under a microscope. Crystals used in X-ray crystallography may be smaller than a millimeter across.
Three methods of preparing crystals, A: Hanging drop. B: Sitting drop. C: Microdialysis
An X-ray diffraction pattern of a crystallized enzyme. The pattern of spots (reflections) and the relative strength of each spot (intensities) can be used to determine the structure of the enzyme.
Structure of a protein alpha helix, with stick-figures for the covalent bonding within electron density for the crystal structure at ultra-high-resolution (0.91 Å). The density contours are in gray, the helix backbone in white, sidechains in cyan, O atoms in red, N atoms in blue, and hydrogen bonds as green dotted lines.
3D depiction of electron density (blue) of a ligand (orange) bound to a binding site in a protein (yellow). The electron density is obtained from experimental data, and the ligand is modeled into this electron density.

Also in the 1920s, Victor Moritz Goldschmidt and later Linus Pauling developed rules for eliminating chemically unlikely structures and for determining the relative sizes of atoms.

Rosalind Franklin

6 links

British chemist and X-ray crystallographer whose work was central to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite.

British chemist and X-ray crystallographer whose work was central to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite.

Rosalind Franklin at work
A satirical death note of A-DNA helix by Franklin and Gosling.
An electron micrograph of tobacco mosaic virus
Mural inscription on King's College London's Franklin-Wilkins Building, co-named in honour of Rosalind Franklin's work
Blue plaque on 107 Drayton Gardens, London SW10
Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science at Illinois
A satirical death note of A-DNA helix by Franklin and Gosling.
Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science at Illinois

As vividly described Watson, he travelled to King's on 30 January 1953 carrying a preprint of Linus Pauling's incorrect proposal for DNA structure.

Maurice Wilkins with one of the cameras he developed specially for X-ray diffraction studies at King's College London

Maurice Wilkins

5 links

New Zealand-born British biophysicist and Nobel laureate whose research spanned multiple areas of physics and biophysics, contributing to the scientific understanding of phosphorescence, isotope separation, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and to the development of radar.

New Zealand-born British biophysicist and Nobel laureate whose research spanned multiple areas of physics and biophysics, contributing to the scientific understanding of phosphorescence, isotope separation, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and to the development of radar.

Maurice Wilkins with one of the cameras he developed specially for X-ray diffraction studies at King's College London
Monument to Maurice Wilkins, Main Street, Pongaroa, New Zealand
A plaque commemorating Maurice Wilkins and his discovery, beneath the monument, Pongaroa, New Zealand

This image, along with the knowledge that Linus Pauling had proposed an incorrect structure of DNA, "mobilised" Watson and Crick to restart model building.

Einstein in 1921, by Ferdinand Schmutzer

Albert Einstein

7 links

German-born theoretical physicist, widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest and most influential physicists of all time.

German-born theoretical physicist, widely acknowledged to be one of the greatest and most influential physicists of all time.

Einstein in 1921, by Ferdinand Schmutzer
Einstein at the age of three in 1882
Albert Einstein in 1893 (age 14)
Einstein's Matura certificate, 1896
Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić Einstein, 1912
Einstein in 1904 (age 25)
Olympia Academy founders: Conrad Habicht, Maurice Solovine and Albert Einstein
The New York Times reported confirmation of "the Einstein theory" (specifically, the bending of light by gravitation) based on 29 May 1919 eclipse observations in Principe (Africa) and Sobral (Brazil), after the findings were presented on 6 November 1919 to a joint meeting in London of the Royal Society and the Royal Astronomical Society. (Full text)
Einstein with his second wife, Elsa, in 1921
Einstein's official portrait after receiving the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics
Albert Einstein at a session of the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (League of Nations) of which he was a member from 1922 to 1932.
Albert Einstein (left) and Charlie Chaplin at the Hollywood premiere of City Lights, January 1931
Cartoon of Einstein after shedding his "pacifism" wings (Charles R. Macauley, c. 1933)
Albert Einstein's landing card (26 May 1933), when he landed in Dover (United Kingdom) from Ostend (Belgium) to visit Oxford.
Portrait of Einstein taken in 1935 at Princeton
Einstein accepting US citizenship certificate from judge Phillip Forman
Einstein in 1947
Albert Einstein (right) with writer, musician and Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore, 1930
Albert Einstein with his wife Elsa Einstein and Zionist leaders, including future President of Israel Chaim Weizmann, his wife Vera Weizmann, Menahem Ussishkin, and Ben-Zion Mossinson on arrival in New York City in 1921
Eddington's photograph of a solar eclipse
Einstein with Millikan and Georges Lemaître at the California Institute of Technology in January 1933.
Einstein at his office, University of Berlin, 1920
The photoelectric effect. Incoming photons on the left strike a metal plate (bottom), and eject electrons, depicted as flying off to the right.
Einstein during his visit to the United States
Newspaper headline on 4 May 1935
Einstein and Niels Bohr, 1925
The 1927 Solvay Conference in Brussels, a gathering of the world's top physicists. Einstein is in the center.
Einstein (second from left) at a picnic in Oslo during the visit to Denmark and Norway in 1920. Heinrich Goldschmidt (left), Ole Colbjørnsen (seated in center) and Jørgen Vogt behind Ilse Einstein.

In 1954, a year before his death, Einstein said to his old friend, Linus Pauling, "I made one great mistake in my life—when I signed the letter to President Roosevelt recommending that atom bombs be made; but there was some justification—the danger that the Germans would make them ..."

A representation of the 3D structure of the protein myoglobin showing turquoise α-helices. This protein was the first to have its structure solved by X-ray crystallography. Toward the right-center among the coils, a prosthetic group called a heme group (shown in gray) with a bound oxygen molecule (red).

Protein

5 links

Proteins are large biomolecules and macromolecules that comprise one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

Proteins are large biomolecules and macromolecules that comprise one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

A representation of the 3D structure of the protein myoglobin showing turquoise α-helices. This protein was the first to have its structure solved by X-ray crystallography. Toward the right-center among the coils, a prosthetic group called a heme group (shown in gray) with a bound oxygen molecule (red).
John Kendrew with model of myoglobin in progress
Chemical structure of the peptide bond (bottom) and the three-dimensional structure of a peptide bond between an alanine and an adjacent amino acid (top/inset). The bond itself is made of the CHON elements.
Resonance structures of the peptide bond that links individual amino acids to form a protein polymer
A ribosome produces a protein using mRNA as template
The DNA sequence of a gene encodes the amino acid sequence of a protein
The crystal structure of the chaperonin, a huge protein complex. A single protein subunit is highlighted. Chaperonins assist protein folding.
Three possible representations of the three-dimensional structure of the protein triose phosphate isomerase. Left: All-atom representation colored by atom type. Middle: Simplified representation illustrating the backbone conformation, colored by secondary structure. Right: Solvent-accessible surface representation colored by residue type (acidic residues red, basic residues blue, polar residues green, nonpolar residues white).
Molecular surface of several proteins showing their comparative sizes. From left to right are: immunoglobulin G (IgG, an antibody), hemoglobin, insulin (a hormone), adenylate kinase (an enzyme), and glutamine synthetase (an enzyme).
The enzyme hexokinase is shown as a conventional ball-and-stick molecular model. To scale in the top right-hand corner are two of its substrates, ATP and glucose.
Ribbon diagram of a mouse antibody against cholera that binds a carbohydrate antigen
Proteins in different cellular compartments and structures tagged with green fluorescent protein (here, white)
Constituent amino-acids can be analyzed to predict secondary, tertiary and quaternary protein structure, in this case hemoglobin containing heme units

Linus Pauling is credited with the successful prediction of regular protein secondary structures based on hydrogen bonding, an idea first put forth by William Astbury in 1933.

Orthomolecular medicine

3 links

Form of alternative medicine that aims to maintain human health through nutritional supplementation.

Form of alternative medicine that aims to maintain human health through nutritional supplementation.

American chemist Linus Pauling coined the term "orthomolecular" in the 1960s to mean "the right molecules in the right amounts" (ortho- in Greek implies "correct").