Linus Pauling

PaulingLinus Carl PaulingLinus C. PaulingPauling, Linusalone with Linus Pauling as Nobel laureates in two fields eachL. PaulingPauling Appeal to the United NationsPauling principlePauling, Linus Carl
Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, chemical engineer, peace activist, author, and educator.wikipedia
688 Related Articles

Ava Helen Pauling

Ava HelenAva Helen MillerAva Pauling
He was married to the American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.
Ava Helen Pauling (née Miller; December 24, 1903 – December 7, 1981) was an American human rights activist and wife of Nobel Prize winner Linus Pauling.

Molecular model

atomic modelBall-and-stick modelmodel
Pauling's approach combined methods and results from X-ray crystallography, molecular model building, and quantum chemistry.
Models encompass a wide range of degrees of precision and engineering: some models such as J.D. Bernal's water are conceptual, while the macromodels of Pauling and Crick and Watson were created with much greater precision.

Orthomolecular medicine

orthomolecularorthomolecular therapyMega-vitamin therapy
In his later years he promoted nuclear disarmament, as well as orthomolecular medicine, megavitamin therapy, and dietary supplements.
American chemist Linus Pauling coined the term "orthomolecular" in the 1960s to mean "the right molecules in the right amounts" (ortho- in Greek implies "correct").

Alpha helix

alpha helicesα-helicesalpha-helices
Pauling also worked on the structures of biological molecules, and showed the importance of the alpha helix and beta sheet in protein secondary structure.
Although incorrect in their details, Astbury's models of these forms were correct in essence and correspond to modern elements of secondary structure, the α-helix and the β-strand (Astbury's nomenclature was kept), which were developed by Linus Pauling, Robert Corey and Herman Branson in 1951 (see below); that paper showed both right- and left-handed helices, although in 1960 the crystal structure of myoglobin showed that the right-handed form is the common one.

Beta sheet

β-sheetbeta sheetsbeta strand
Pauling also worked on the structures of biological molecules, and showed the importance of the alpha helix and beta sheet in protein secondary structure.
A refined version was proposed by Linus Pauling and Robert Corey in 1951.

Quantum chemistry

quantum chemistquantum chemicalquantum chemical calculations
Pauling's approach combined methods and results from X-ray crystallography, molecular model building, and quantum chemistry. Pauling was one of the founders of the fields of quantum chemistry and molecular biology.
In the following years much progress was accomplished by Robert S. Mulliken, Max Born, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Linus Pauling, Erich Hückel, Douglas Hartree, Vladimir Fock, to cite a few.

Lloyd A. Jeffress

JeffressJeffress, L.A.Hixon Symposium
Pauling attributes his interest in becoming a chemist to being amazed by experiments conducted by a friend, Lloyd A. Jeffress, who had a small chemistry lab kit.
Lloyd Alexander Jeffress (November 15, 1900 – April 2, 1986) was an acoustical scientist, a professor of Experimental Psychology at the University of Texas at Austin, a developer of mine-hunting models for the US Navy during World War II and after, and the man Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling credited with getting him interested in chemistry.

Delta Upsilon

Delta Upsilon FraternityΔΥ
He was active in campus life and founded the school's chapter of the Delta Upsilon fraternity.
Notable members include President of the United States James A. Garfield, president of Colombia Juan Manuel Santos, Canadian prime minister Lester B. Pearson, Linus Pauling, Joseph P. Kennedy, Lou Holtz, Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., Charles Evans Hughes, Les Aspin, and others.

Francis Crick

CrickFrancis Harry Compton CrickFrancis H.C. Crick
His discoveries inspired the work of James Watson, Francis Crick, and Rosalind Franklin on the structure of DNA, which in turn made it possible for geneticists to crack the DNA code of all organisms.
Bragg was influential in the effort to beat a leading American chemist, Linus Pauling, to the discovery of DNA's structure (after having been pipped at the post by Pauling's success in determining the alpha helix structure of proteins).

Pauling's rules

Pauling’s
He published approximately fifty papers in those five years, and created the five rules now known as Pauling's rules.
Pauling's rules are five rules published by Linus Pauling in 1929 for predicting and rationalizing the crystal structures of ionic compounds.

James Watson

James D. WatsonWatsonJames Dewey Watson
His discoveries inspired the work of James Watson, Francis Crick, and Rosalind Franklin on the structure of DNA, which in turn made it possible for geneticists to crack the DNA code of all organisms.
In 1951, the chemist Linus Pauling in California published his model of the amino acid alpha helix, a result that grew out of Pauling's efforts in X-ray crystallography and molecular model building.

California Institute of Technology

CaltechCalifornia Institute of Technology (Caltech)Cal Tech
He went on to graduate school at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, California, under the guidance of Roscoe Dickinson and Richard Tolman.
, Caltech alumni, faculty and researchers include [[List_of_Nobel_laureates_by_university_affiliation#California_Institute_of_Technology|74 Nobel Laureates]] (chemist Linus Pauling being the only individual in history to win two unshared prizes), 4 Fields Medalists, and 6 Turing Award winners.

Megavitamin therapy

Fred R. KlennerMegadosemegavitamin
In his later years he promoted nuclear disarmament, as well as orthomolecular medicine, megavitamin therapy, and dietary supplements.
Megavitamin therapies were also publicly advocated by Linus Pauling in the late 1960s.

Orbital hybridisation

hybridizationhybridizedorbital hybridization
His contributions to the theory of the chemical bond include the concept of orbital hybridisation and the first accurate scale of electronegativities of the elements.
Chemist Linus Pauling first developed the hybridisation theory in 1931 to explain the structure of simple molecules such as methane (CH 4 ) using atomic orbitals.

Rosalind Franklin

FranklinContribution of King's College London to the discovery of the structure of DNADr Rosalind Franklin
His discoveries inspired the work of James Watson, Francis Crick, and Rosalind Franklin on the structure of DNA, which in turn made it possible for geneticists to crack the DNA code of all organisms.
As vividly described in The Double Helix, on 30 January 1953, Watson travelled to King's carrying a preprint of Linus Pauling's incorrect proposal for DNA structure.

Roscoe G. Dickinson

DickinsonRoscoe DickinsonRoscoe Gilkey Dickinson
He went on to graduate school at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, California, under the guidance of Roscoe Dickinson and Richard Tolman.
As professor of chemistry at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), he was the doctoral advisor of Nobel laureate Linus Pauling and of Arnold O. Beckman, inventor of the pH meter.

X-ray crystallography

X-ray diffractionprotein crystallographyX-ray
Pauling's approach combined methods and results from X-ray crystallography, molecular model building, and quantum chemistry.
Also in the 1920s, Victor Moritz Goldschmidt and later Linus Pauling developed rules for eliminating chemically unlikely structures and for determining the relative sizes of atoms.

Electronegativity

electronegativeelectropositiveelectronegativities
His contributions to the theory of the chemical bond include the concept of orbital hybridisation and the first accurate scale of electronegativities of the elements.
In spite of its long history, an accurate scale of electronegativity was not developed until 1932, when Linus Pauling proposed an electronegativity scale, which depends on bond energies, as a development of valence bond theory.

J. Robert Oppenheimer

Robert OppenheimerOppenheimerRobert J. Oppenheimer
At Caltech, Pauling struck up a close friendship with theoretical physicist Robert Oppenheimer, who spent part of his research and teaching schedule away from U.C. Berkeley at Caltech every year.
At Caltech he struck up a close friendship with Linus Pauling, and they planned to mount a joint attack on the nature of the chemical bond, a field in which Pauling was a pioneer, with Oppenheimer supplying the mathematics and Pauling interpreting the results.

American Chemical Society

ACSACS PublicationsAmerican Chemical Society (ACS)
In 1931, the American Chemical Society awarded Pauling the Langmuir Prize for the most significant work in pure science by a person 30 years of age or younger.

Oregon State University

Oregon StateOregon State CollegeOregon Agricultural College
At age 15, the high school senior had enough credits to enter Oregon State University (OSU), known then as Oregon Agricultural College.
Among over 200,000 OSU alumni, scientist and peace activist Linus Pauling may be the most famous.

Richard C. Tolman

Richard TolmanRichard Chace TolmanRichard Chase Tolman
He went on to graduate school at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, California, under the guidance of Roscoe Dickinson and Richard Tolman.
One of Tolman's early students at Caltech was the theoretical chemist Linus Pauling, to whom Tolman taught the old quantum theory.

William Astbury

William Thomas AstburyAstburyAstbury, William Thomas
The best X-ray pictures of proteins in the 1930s had been made by the British crystallographer William Astbury, but when Pauling tried, in 1937, to account for Astbury's observations quantum mechanically, he could not.
His work on keratin provided the foundation for Linus Pauling's discovery of the alpha helix.

Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease

In November 1949, Pauling, Harvey Itano, S. J. Singer and Ibert Wells published "Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease" in the journal Science.
"Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease" is a 1949 scientific paper by Linus Pauling, Harvey A. Itano, Seymour J. Singer and Ibert C. Wells that established sickle-cell anemia as a genetic disease in which affected individuals have a different form of the metalloprotein hemoglobin in their blood.

Marie Curie

MarieMaria Skłodowska-CurieMadame Curie
He is one of four individuals to have won more than one Nobel Prize (the others being Marie Curie, John Bardeen and Frederick Sanger).
She was the first person to win or share two Nobel Prizes, and remains alone with Linus Pauling as Nobel laureates in two fields each.