Linux

GNU/LinuxLinLinux operating systemLinux-basedLinux kernelLinux desktopdesktop LinuxLinux OSLinux on the desktopLinux-based operating systems
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.wikipedia
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Linux kernel

Linuxkernelkernels
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
The Linux family of operating systems is based on this kernel and deployed on both traditional computer systems such as personal computers and servers, usually in the form of Linux distributions, and on various embedded devices such as routers, wireless access points, PBXes, set-top boxes, FTA receivers, smart TVs, PVRs, and NAS appliances.

Supercomputer

high-performance computingsupercomputinghigh performance computing
Linux is also the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, and the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers (since November 2017, having gradually eliminated all competitors).
As of November 2017, all of the world's fastest 500 supercomputers run Linux-based operating systems.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
Linux was originally developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
These include Apple's macOS and free and open-source Unix-like operating systems such as Linux.

Free and open-source software

free and open-sourcefree and open source softwarefree and open source
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
Free and open-source operating systems such as Linux and descendants of BSD are widely utilized today, powering millions of servers, desktops, smartphones (e.g. Android), and other devices.

Operating system

operating systemsOScomputer operating system
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
macOS by Apple Inc. is in second place (13.23%), and the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place (1.57%).

LAMP (software bundle)

LAMPLAMP stackLAMP "stack
Distributions intended to run on servers may omit all graphical environments from the standard install, and instead include other software to set up and operate a solution stack such as LAMP.
LAMP is an archetypal model of web service stacks, named as an acronym of the names of its original four open-source components: the Linux operating system, the Apache HTTP Server, the MySQL relational database management system (RDBMS), and the PHP programming language.

Mir (software)

MirMir display serverwidespread objection from the open source desktop community
Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system, such as X11, Mir or a Wayland implementation, and an accompanying desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma; some distributions may also include a less resource-intensive desktop, such as LXDE or Xfce.
Mir is a computer display server and, recently, a Wayland compositor for the Linux operating system that is under development by Canonical Ltd. It was planned to replace the currently used X Window System for Ubuntu, however the plan changed and Mutter was adopted as part of GNOME Shell.

GNU

GNU ProjectThe GNU ProjectGNU operating system
The Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to refer to the operating system family, as well as specific distributions, to emphasize that most Linux distributions are not just the Linux kernel, and that they have in common not only the kernel, but also numerous utilities and libraries, a large proportion of which are from the GNU project.
The combination of GNU software and the Linux kernel is commonly known as Linux (or less frequently GNU/Linux; see GNU/Linux naming controversy).

FreeBSD

*BSDLinux emulationFreeBSD Project
Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux.
FreeBSD has similarities with Linux, with two major differences in scope and licensing: FreeBSD maintains a complete system, i.e. the project delivers a kernel, device drivers, userland utilities, and documentation, as opposed to Linux only delivering a kernel and drivers, and relying on third-parties for system software; and FreeBSD source code is generally released under a permissive BSD license, as opposed to the copyleft GPL used by Linux.

Wayland (display server protocol)

WaylandWestonlibinput
Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system, such as X11, Mir or a Wayland implementation, and an accompanying desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma; some distributions may also include a less resource-intensive desktop, such as LXDE or Xfce.
Wayland is developed by a group of volunteers initially led by Kristian Høgsberg as a free and open community-driven project with the aim of replacing the X Window System with a modern, simpler windowing system in Linux and other Unix-like operating systems.

Mainframe computer

mainframemainframesmainframe computers
Linux is also the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, and the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers (since November 2017, having gradually eliminated all competitors).
In addition, mainframes are more secure than other computer types: the NIST vulnerabilities database, US-CERT, rates traditional mainframes such as IBM Z (previously called z Systems, System z and zSeries), Unisys Dorado and Unisys Libra as among the most secure with vulnerabilities in the low single digits as compared with thousands for Windows, UNIX, and Linux.

Systemd

journaldeudevsystemd-logind
An init program, such as the traditional sysvinit and the newer systemd, OpenRC and Upstart. This is the first process launched by the Linux kernel, and is at the root of the process tree: in other terms, all processes are launched through init. It starts processes such as system services and login prompts (whether graphical or in terminal mode).
Systemd (stylized as systemd) is a software suite that provides fundamental building blocks for a Linux operating system.

BusyBox

busybox-w32busybox vibusybox-init
Basic Unix commands, with GNU coreutils being the standard implementation. Alternatives exist for embedded systems, such as the copyleft BusyBox, and the BSD-licensed Toybox.
It runs in a variety of POSIX environments such as Linux, Android, and FreeBSD, although many of the tools it provides are designed to work with interfaces provided by the Linux kernel.

Porting

portedportports
Linux was originally developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
In that same market, the choice of operating systems has effectively been reduced to three: Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux.

Booting

bootloaderbootboot loader
A bootloader, for example GNU GRUB, LILO, SYSLINUX, or Gummiboot. This is a program that loads the Linux kernel into the computer's main memory, by being executed by the computer when it is turned on and after the firmware initialization is performed.
The boot manager lets a user choose which operating system to run and set more complex parameters for it. The firmware or the boot manager then loads the boot loader into the memory and runs it. This piece of software is able to place an operating system kernel like Windows or Linux into the computers main memory and run it. Afterwards, the kernel runs so-called user space software – well known is the graphical user interface (GUI), which lets the user log in to the computer or run some other applications.

GNU C Library

glibcGNU libcC library
The Project's implementation of the C library functions as a wrapper for the system calls of the Linux kernel necessary to the kernel-userspace interface, the toolchain is a broad collection of programming tools vital to Linux development (including the compilers used to build the Linux kernel itself), and the coreutils implement many basic Unix tools. Software libraries, which contain code that can be used by running processes. On Linux systems using ELF-format executable files, the dynamic linker that manages use of dynamic libraries is known as ld-linux.so. If the system is set up for the user to compile software themselves, header files will also be included to describe the interface of installed libraries. Besides the most commonly used software library on Linux systems, the GNU C Library (glibc), there are numerous other libraries, such as SDL and Mesa.
The GNU C Library project provides the core libraries for the GNU system and GNU/Linux systems, as well as many other systems that use Linux as the kernel.

LXDE

LXTerminal
Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system, such as X11, Mir or a Wayland implementation, and an accompanying desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma; some distributions may also include a less resource-intensive desktop, such as LXDE or Xfce. On desktop systems, the most popular user interfaces are the GUI shells, packaged together with extensive desktop environments, such as KDE Plasma, GNOME, MATE, Cinnamon, Unity, LXDE, Pantheon and Xfce, though a variety of additional user interfaces exist.
LXDE is written in the C programming language, using the GTK+ 2 toolkit, and runs on Unix and other POSIX-compliant platforms, such as Linux and BSDs.

MATE (software)

MATEMATE desktop environmentMarco
On desktop systems, the most popular user interfaces are the GUI shells, packaged together with extensive desktop environments, such as KDE Plasma, GNOME, MATE, Cinnamon, Unity, LXDE, Pantheon and Xfce, though a variety of additional user interfaces exist.
MATE is a desktop environment composed of free and open-source software that runs on Linux and most BSD derivatives.

NetBSD

BSDNetBSD/i386Cryptographic Device Driver
Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux.
In comparison, Linux device driver code often must be reworked for each new architecture.

Tablet computer

tabletstablettablet PC
Many smartphones and tablet computers run Android and other Linux derivatives.
In 2001, Ericsson Mobile Communications announced an experimental product named the DelphiPad, which was developed in cooperation with the Centre for Wireless Communications in Singapore, with a touch-sensitive screen, Netscape Navigator as a web browser, and Linux as its operating system.

Simple DirectMedia Layer

SDLSDL2SDL 2
Software libraries, which contain code that can be used by running processes. On Linux systems using ELF-format executable files, the dynamic linker that manages use of dynamic libraries is known as ld-linux.so. If the system is set up for the user to compile software themselves, header files will also be included to describe the interface of installed libraries. Besides the most commonly used software library on Linux systems, the GNU C Library (glibc), there are numerous other libraries, such as SDL and Mesa.
Software developers can use it to write high-performance computer games and other multimedia applications that can run on many operating systems such as Android, iOS, Linux, Mac OS X and Windows.

Netbook

netbooksmini laptop
Linux distributions have also become popular in the netbook market, with many devices shipping with customized Linux distributions installed, and Google releasing their own Chrome OS designed for netbooks.
The 6" Libretto 20 dates back to early 1996 and weighed only 840g. Apple also had a line of PowerBook Duos that were ultra-portable Macintosh laptops in the mid 90s. More recently, Psion's now-discontinued netBook line, the OLPC XO-1 (initially called US$100 laptop) and the Palm Foleo were all small, portable, network-enabled computers. The generic use of the term "netbook", however, began in 2007 when Asus unveiled the Asus Eee PC. Originally designed for emerging markets, the 23 x device weighed about 0.9 kg and featured a 7 in display, a keyboard approximately 85% the size of a normal keyboard, a solid-state drive and a custom version of Linux with a simplified user interface geared towards netbook use. Following the Eee PC, Everex launched its Linux-based CloudBook; Windows XP and Windows Vista models were also introduced and MSI released the Wind—others soon followed suit.

Computer cluster

clusterclusteringclusters
Adoption of Linux in production environments, rather than being used only by hobbyists, started to take off first in the mid-1990s in the supercomputing community, where organizations such as NASA started to replace their increasingly expensive machines with clusters of inexpensive commodity computers running Linux.
The developers used Linux, the Parallel Virtual Machine toolkit and the Message Passing Interface library to achieve high performance at a relatively low cost.

Xfce

xfwmMousepadTerminal
Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system, such as X11, Mir or a Wayland implementation, and an accompanying desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma; some distributions may also include a less resource-intensive desktop, such as LXDE or Xfce. On desktop systems, the most popular user interfaces are the GUI shells, packaged together with extensive desktop environments, such as KDE Plasma, GNOME, MATE, Cinnamon, Unity, LXDE, Pantheon and Xfce, though a variety of additional user interfaces exist.
Xfce (pronounced as four individual letters) is a free and open-source desktop environment for Unix and Unix-like operating systems, such as Linux, Solaris, and BSD.

Linux user group

LUGLinux Users GroupLinux Users' Group
In many cities and regions, local associations known as Linux User Groups (LUGs) seek to promote their preferred distribution and by extension free software.
A Linux User Group or Linux Users' Group (LUG) or GNU/Linux User Group (GLUG) is a private, generally non-profit or not-for-profit organization that provides support and/or education for Linux users, particularly for inexperienced users.