Linux

GNU/LinuxLinLinux operating systemLinux-baseddesktop LinuxLinux desktopLinux kernelLinux on the DesktopLinux OS Linux x86
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds.wikipedia
9,044 Related Articles

Linux kernel

Linuxkernelkernels
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds.
The Linux family of operating systems is based on this kernel and deployed on both traditional computer systems such as personal computers and servers, usually in the form of Linux distributions, and on various embedded devices such as routers, wireless access points, PBXes, set-top boxes, FTA receivers, smart TVs, PVRs, and NAS appliances.

Free and open-source software

free and open-sourcefree and open source softwarefree and open source
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds.
Free and open-source operating systems such as Linux and descendants of BSD are widely utilized today, powering millions of servers, desktops, smartphones (e.g. Android), and other devices.

LAMP (software bundle)

LAMPLAMP stackLAMP "stack
Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, and include a solution stack such as LAMP.
LAMP is an archetypal model of web service stacks, named as an acronym of the names of its original four open-source components: the Linux operating system, the Apache HTTP Server, the MySQL relational database management system (RDBMS), and the PHP programming language.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
Linux was originally developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
These include Apple's macOS and free and open-source Unix-like operating systems such as Linux.

Supercomputer

high-performance computingsupercomputinghigh performance computing
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, and the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers (since November 2017, having gradually eliminated all competitors).
Since November 2017, all of the world's fastest 500 supercomputers run Linux-based operating systems.

Wayland (display server protocol)

WaylandWestonlibinput
Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, and a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma.
Wayland is developed by a group of volunteers initially led by Kristian Høgsberg as a free and open community-driven project with the aim of replacing the X Window System with a modern, simpler windowing system in Linux and other Unix-like operating systems.

GNU

GNU ProjectGNU operating systemThe GNU Project
Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy.
The combination of GNU software and the Linux kernel is commonly known as Linux (or less frequently GNU/Linux; see GNU/Linux naming controversy).

Operating system

operating systemsOScomputer operating system
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds.
macOS by Apple Inc. is in second place (13.23%), and the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place (1.57%).

Mainframe computer

mainframemainframesmainframe computers
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, and the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers (since November 2017, having gradually eliminated all competitors).
In addition, mainframes are more secure than other computer types: the NIST vulnerabilities database, US-CERT, rates traditional mainframes such as IBM Z (previously called z Systems, System z and zSeries), Unisys Dorado and Unisys Libra as among the most secure with vulnerabilities in the low single digits as compared with thousands for Windows, UNIX, and Linux.

FreeBSD

*BSDFreeBSD ProjectLinux emulation
Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux.
FreeBSD has similarities with Linux, with two major differences in scope and licensing: FreeBSD maintains a complete system, i.e. the project delivers a kernel, device drivers, userland utilities, and documentation, as opposed to Linux only delivering a kernel and drivers, and relying on third-parties for system software; and FreeBSD source code is generally released under a permissive BSD license, as opposed to the copyleft GPL used by Linux.

Solution stack

software stackstacktechnology stack
Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, and include a solution stack such as LAMP.
Linux with LVM (mass-storage device management)

Porting

portedportports
Linux was originally developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
In that same market, the choice of operating systems has effectively been reduced to three: Microsoft Windows, macOS, and Linux.

Linus Torvalds

Just for Fun Torvalds, LinusDavid Diamond
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds.
thesis was titled Linux: A Portable Operating System.

Tablet computer

tabletstablettablet PC
Many smartphones and tablet computers run Android and other Linux derivatives.
In 2001, Ericsson Mobile Communications announced an experimental product named the DelphiPad, which was developed in cooperation with the Centre for Wireless Communications in Singapore, with a touch-sensitive screen, Netscape Navigator as a web browser, and Linux as its operating system.

Systemd

journaldeudevlogind
An init program, such as the traditional sysvinit and the newer systemd, OpenRC and Upstart. This is the first process launched by the Linux kernel, and is at the root of the process tree: in other terms, all processes are launched through init. It starts processes such as system services and login prompts (whether graphical or in terminal mode).
Systemd (stylized as systemd) is a software suite that provides fundamental building blocks for a Linux operating system.

System software

systems softwareSystem utilitysystem
Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project.
The operating system (prominent examples being Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux, and z/OS), allows the parts of a computer to work together by performing tasks like transferring data between memory and disks or rendering output onto a display device.

Computing platform

platformplatformssoftware platform
Linux was originally developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
Linux

NetBSD

BSDCryptographic Device DriverNetBSD Foundation
Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux.
In comparison, Linux device driver code often must be reworked for each new architecture.

TOP500

fastest supercomputerstop 500fastest
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, and the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers (since November 2017, having gradually eliminated all competitors).
All the fastest supercomputers in the decade since the Earth Simulator supercomputer have used operating systems based on Linux.

Laptop

laptop computerlaptopsnotebook computer
The Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US.
Devices of this form are commonly called a 'traditional laptop' or notebook, particularly if they have a screen size of 11 to 17 inches measured diagonally and run a full-featured operating system like Windows 10, macOS, or Linux.

Booting

bootloaderbootboot loader
A bootloader, for example GNU GRUB, LILO, SYSLINUX, or Gummiboot. This is a program that loads the Linux kernel into the computer's main memory, by being executed by the computer when it is turned on and after the firmware initialization is performed.
The boot manager lets a user choose which operating system to run and set more complex parameters for it. The firmware or the boot manager then loads the boot loader into the memory and runs it. This piece of software is able to place an operating system kernel like Windows or Linux into the computer's main memory and run it. Afterwards, the kernel runs so-called user space software – well known is the graphical user interface (GUI), which lets the user log in to the computer or run some other applications.

GNU C Library

glibcGNU libcC library
The Project's implementation of the C library functions as a wrapper for the system calls of the Linux kernel necessary to the kernel-userspace interface, the toolchain is a broad collection of programming tools vital to Linux development (including the compilers used to build the Linux kernel itself), and the coreutils implement many basic Unix tools.
The GNU C Library project provides the core libraries for the GNU system and GNU/Linux systems, as well as many other systems that use Linux as the kernel.

Computer cluster

clusterclusteringclusters
Adoption of Linux in production environments, rather than being used only by hobbyists, started to take off first in the mid-1990s in the supercomputing community, where organizations such as NASA started to replace their increasingly expensive machines with clusters of inexpensive commodity computers running Linux.
The developers used Linux, the Parallel Virtual Machine toolkit and the Message Passing Interface library to achieve high performance at a relatively low cost.

Desktop environment

desktopdesktop environmentsdesktops
Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, and a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma.
When compared with the X-based desktop environments available for Unix-like operating systems such as Linux and FreeBSD, the proprietary desktop environments included with Windows and macOS have relatively fixed layouts and static features, with highly integrated "seamless" designs that aim to provide mostly consistent customer experiences across installations.

Netbook

netbooksmini laptop
Linux distributions have also become popular in the netbook market, with many devices shipping with customized Linux distributions installed, and Google releasing their own Chrome OS designed for netbooks.
The 6" Libretto 20 dates back to early 1996 and weighed only 840g. Apple also had a line of PowerBook Duos that were ultra-portable Macintosh laptops in the mid 90s. More recently, Psion's now-discontinued netBook line, the OLPC XO-1 (initially called US$100 laptop) and the Palm Foleo were all small, portable, network-enabled computers. The generic use of the term "netbook", however, began in 2007 when Asus unveiled the Asus Eee PC. Originally designed for emerging markets, the 23 x device weighed about 0.9 kg and featured a 7 in display, a keyboard approximately 85% the size of a normal keyboard, a solid-state drive and a custom version of Linux with a simplified user interface geared towards netbook use. Following the Eee PC, Everex launched its Linux-based CloudBook; Windows XP and Windows Vista models were also introduced and MSI released the Wind—others soon followed suit.