Linux distribution

Linux distributionsdistributiondistributionsLinuxGNU/Linux distributionGNU/Linux distributionsDistroLinux distroLinux distrosLinux-based
A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.wikipedia
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OpenWrt

LEDEFreeWRTnetifd
Linux users usually obtain their operating system by downloading one of the Linux distributions, which are available for a wide variety of systems ranging from embedded devices (for example, OpenWrt) and personal computers (for example, Linux Mint) to powerful supercomputers (for example, Rocks Cluster Distribution).
Using this code as a base and later as a reference, developers created a Linux distribution that offers many features not previously found in consumer-level routers.

Linux kernel

LinuxLinux kernel mainlinekernel
A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system. Linus Torvalds developed the Linux kernel and distributed its first version, 0.01, in 1991.
The Linux family of operating systems is based on this kernel and deployed on both traditional computer systems such as personal computers and servers, usually in the form of Linux distributions, and on various embedded devices such as routers, wireless access points, PBXes, set-top boxes, FTA receivers, smart TVs, PVRs, and NAS appliances.

Linux Mint

MintLinux Mint Debian EditionMintPPC
Linux users usually obtain their operating system by downloading one of the Linux distributions, which are available for a wide variety of systems ranging from embedded devices (for example, OpenWrt) and personal computers (for example, Linux Mint) to powerful supercomputers (for example, Rocks Cluster Distribution).
Linux Mint is a community-driven Linux distribution based on Ubuntu or Debian that strives to be a "modern, elegant and comfortable operating system which is both powerful and easy to use."

Operating system

operating systemsOScomputer operating system
A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection, which is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system.
Linux distributions are dominant in the server and supercomputing sectors.

Rocks Cluster Distribution

Rocks
Linux users usually obtain their operating system by downloading one of the Linux distributions, which are available for a wide variety of systems ranging from embedded devices (for example, OpenWrt) and personal computers (for example, Linux Mint) to powerful supercomputers (for example, Rocks Cluster Distribution).
Rocks Cluster Distribution (originally called NPACI Rocks) is a Linux distribution intended for high-performance computing clusters.

List of Linux distributions

List of Ubuntu-based distributionsLinux distributionsderivatives
Almost six hundred Linux distributions exist, with close to five hundred out of those in active development.
This page provides general information about notable Linux distributions in the form of a categorized list.

Fedora (operating system)

FedoraFedora CoreFedora Linux
There are commercially backed distributions, such as Fedora (Red Hat), openSUSE (SUSE) and Ubuntu (Canonical Ltd.), and entirely community-driven distributions, such as Debian, Slackware, Gentoo and Arch Linux.
Fedora or Fedora Linux is a Linux distribution developed by the independent community-supported Fedora Project, sponsored primarily by Red Hat with substantial support by other companies.

OpenSUSE

openSUSE TumbleweedopenSUSE 13openSUSE distribution
There are commercially backed distributions, such as Fedora (Red Hat), openSUSE (SUSE) and Ubuntu (Canonical Ltd.), and entirely community-driven distributions, such as Debian, Slackware, Gentoo and Arch Linux.
openSUSE, formerly SUSE Linux and SuSE Linux Professional, is a Linux distribution sponsored by SUSE Linux GmbH and other companies.

Ubuntu

Ubuntu LinuxUbuntu operating systemUbuntu (operating system)
There are commercially backed distributions, such as Fedora (Red Hat), openSUSE (SUSE) and Ubuntu (Canonical Ltd.), and entirely community-driven distributions, such as Debian, Slackware, Gentoo and Arch Linux.
Ubuntu is a free and open-source Linux distribution based on Debian.

Debian

Debian GNU/LinuxDebian LinuxDebian Project
There are commercially backed distributions, such as Fedora (Red Hat), openSUSE (SUSE) and Ubuntu (Canonical Ltd.), and entirely community-driven distributions, such as Debian, Slackware, Gentoo and Arch Linux.
Debian, also known as Debian GNU/Linux, is a Linux distribution composed of free and open-source software, developed by the community-supported Debian Project, which was established by Ian Murdock on August 16, 1993.

Slackware

Slackware LinuxpkgtoolSlackintosh
There are commercially backed distributions, such as Fedora (Red Hat), openSUSE (SUSE) and Ubuntu (Canonical Ltd.), and entirely community-driven distributions, such as Debian, Slackware, Gentoo and Arch Linux. The SLS distribution was not well maintained, so in July 1993 a new distribution, called Slackware and based on SLS, was released by Patrick Volkerding.
Slackware is a Linux distribution created by Patrick Volkerding in 1993.

Gentoo Linux

GentooHardened GentooFuntoo
There are commercially backed distributions, such as Fedora (Red Hat), openSUSE (SUSE) and Ubuntu (Canonical Ltd.), and entirely community-driven distributions, such as Debian, Slackware, Gentoo and Arch Linux.
Gentoo Linux (pronounced ) is a Linux distribution built using the Portage package management system.

Software repository

repositoriesrepositorysoftware repositories
The software packages are available online in so-called repositories, which are storage locations usually distributed around the world.
For example, many Linux distributions use Advanced Packaging Tool (APT), commonly found in Debian based distributions, or yum found in Red Hat based distributions.

Debian-Installer

Debian installerDebian-Installer Loaderinstaller
Beside glue components, such as the distribution installers (for example, Debian-Installer and Anaconda) or the package management systems, there are only very few packages that are originally written from the ground up by the maintainers of a Linux distribution.
Debian-Installer is an installation program designed for the Debian Linux distribution.

Linus Torvalds

Linus Benedict TorvaldsJust for FunTorvalds, Linus
Linus Torvalds developed the Linux kernel and distributed its first version, 0.01, in 1991.
Linus Benedict Torvalds (, ; born December 28, 1969) is a Finnish-American software engineer who is the creator and, historically, the principal developer of the Linux kernel, which is the kernel for Linux operating systems (distributions) and other operating systems such as Android and Chrome OS.

MCC Interim Linux

MCC Interim Linux was a Linux distribution first released in February 1992 by Owen Le Blanc of the Manchester Computing Centre (MCC), part of the University of Manchester.

Yggdrasil Linux/GNU/X

Yggdrasil LinuxAdam RichterLGX
Yggdrasil Linux/GNU/X, or LGX (pronounced igg-drah-sill), is a discontinued early Linux distribution developed by Yggdrasil Computing, Incorporated, a company founded by Adam J. Richter in Berkeley, California.

Patrick Volkerding

The SLS distribution was not well maintained, so in July 1993 a new distribution, called Slackware and based on SLS, was released by Patrick Volkerding.
Patrick Volkerding (born October 20, 1966) is the founder and maintainer of the Slackware Linux distribution.

Softlanding Linux System

SLSSLS LinuxSoftlanding Linux System (SLS)
Softlanding Linux System (SLS) was one of the first Linux distributions.

Canonical (company)

CanonicalCanonical Ltd.Canonical Ltd
There are commercially backed distributions, such as Fedora (Red Hat), openSUSE (SUSE) and Ubuntu (Canonical Ltd.), and entirely community-driven distributions, such as Debian, Slackware, Gentoo and Arch Linux.

Linux From Scratch

Gerard BeekmansCLFSHardened Linux From Scratch
For example, see Linux From Scratch.
This is, naturally, a longer process than installing a pre-compiled Linux distribution.

GNOME

GNOME 3GNOME 2GNOME desktop environment
An example would be a newer version of a software application than that supplied with a distribution, or an alternative to that chosen by the distribution (for example, KDE Plasma Workspaces rather than GNOME or vice versa for the user interface layer).
GNOME 3 is the default desktop environment on many major Linux distributions including Fedora, Debian, Ubuntu, SUSE Linux Enterprise (exclusively), Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, Oracle Linux, SteamOS, Tails, Kali Linux and Endless OS, as well as Solaris, a major Unix operating system; and provided as an official edition by Manjaro; also the continued fork of the last GNOME 2 release that goes under the name MATE is default on many Linux distros that targets low usage of system resources.

GNU

GNU operating systemGNU ProjectThe GNU Project
A typical Linux distribution comprises a Linux kernel, GNU tools and libraries, additional software, documentation, a window system (the most common being the X Window System), a window manager, and a desktop environment.
Due to Hurd not being ready for production use, in practice these operating systems are Linux distributions.

Proprietary device driver

binary blobbinary blobsbinary kernel blobs
Usually, Linux distributions optionally include some proprietary software that may not be available in source code form, such as binary blobs required for some device drivers.
Projects following this policy include the Linux kernel itself, NetBSD, FreeBSD, DragonFly BSD, and most Linux distributions.

SuperGamer

Some distributions, including Knoppix, Puppy Linux, Devil-Linux, SuperGamer, SliTaz GNU/Linux and dyne:bolic, are designed primarily for live use.
SuperGamer is a Linux distribution for the x86 platform originally based on the PCLinuxOS distribution, and is currently based on VectorLinux.