Lipase

lipaseslipase LIPFfat-splitting enzymeligaseTAG lipases
A lipase is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids).wikipedia
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Fat

greasetotal fatdietary fat
A lipase is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids). For example, human pancreatic lipase (HPL), which is the main enzyme that breaks down dietary fats in the human digestive system, converts triglyceride substrates found in ingested oils to monoglycerides and two fatty acids. Lipases perform essential roles in digestion, transport and processing of dietary lipids (e.g. triglycerides, fats, oils) in most, if not all, living organisms.
Fats and other lipids are broken down in the body by enzymes called lipases produced in the pancreas.

Human digestive system

digestive systemdigestivedigestive tract
For example, human pancreatic lipase (HPL), which is the main enzyme that breaks down dietary fats in the human digestive system, converts triglyceride substrates found in ingested oils to monoglycerides and two fatty acids. The main lipases of the human digestive system are pancreatic lipase (PL) and pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2), which are secreted by the pancreas.
Lipase is a digestive enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of lipids (fats).

Catalytic triad

triadactive sitecatalytic tryad
Although a diverse array of genetically distinct lipase enzymes are found in nature; and, they represent several types of protein folds and catalytic mechanisms, most of them are built on an alpha/beta hydrolase fold and employ a chymotrypsin-like hydrolysis mechanism using a catalytic triad consisting of a serine nucleophile, a histidine base, and an acid residue (usually aspartic acid).
Catalytic triads are most commonly found in hydrolase and transferase enzymes (e.g. proteases, amidases, esterases, acylases, lipases and β-lactamases).

Alpha/beta hydrolase superfamily

alpha/beta hydrolase foldalpha/beta hydrolaseα/β hydrolase
Although a diverse array of genetically distinct lipase enzymes are found in nature; and, they represent several types of protein folds and catalytic mechanisms, most of them are built on an alpha/beta hydrolase fold and employ a chymotrypsin-like hydrolysis mechanism using a catalytic triad consisting of a serine nucleophile, a histidine base, and an acid residue (usually aspartic acid).
The alpha/beta hydrolase fold includes proteases, lipases, peroxidases, esterases, epoxide hydrolases and dehalogenases.

Lipolysis

lipolyticlipolyzedbreakdown of fat
In particular, Candida albicans has a large number of different lipases, possibly reflecting broad-lipolytic activity, which may contribute to the persistence and virulence of C. albicans in human tissue.
When lipases are phosphorylated, they access lipid droplets and through multiple steps of hydrolysis, breakdown triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol.

Lysosomal lipase

lysosomal acid lipase
In the example of lysosomal lipase, the enzyme is confined within an organelle called the lysosome.
Lysosomal lipase is a form of lipase which functions intracellularly, in the lysosomes.

Lipoprotein lipase

LPLlipoprotein
Humans also have several other related enzymes, including hepatic lipase, endothelial lipase, and lipoprotein lipase.
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a member of the lipase gene family, which includes pancreatic lipase, hepatic lipase, and endothelial lipase.

Hepatic lipase

LIPCLIPA'' gene
Humans also have several other related enzymes, including hepatic lipase, endothelial lipase, and lipoprotein lipase.
Hepatic lipase (HL), also called hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) or LIPC (for "lipase, hepatic"), is a form of lipase, catalyzing the hydrolysis of triacylglyceride.

Pancreatic lipase family

pancreatic lipasehuman pancreatic lipaselipase
For example, human pancreatic lipase (HPL), which is the main enzyme that breaks down dietary fats in the human digestive system, converts triglyceride substrates found in ingested oils to monoglycerides and two fatty acids. The main lipases of the human digestive system are pancreatic lipase (PL) and pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2), which are secreted by the pancreas.
As the primary lipase enzyme that hydrolyzes (breaks down) dietary fat molecules in the human digestive system, it is one of the main digestive enzymes, converting triglyceride substrates found in ingested oils to monoglycerides and free fatty acids.

Esterase

esterasesmethylesterasecarboxylesterase
Lipases are a subclass of the esterases.
Lipase

Endothelial lipase

Humans also have several other related enzymes, including hepatic lipase, endothelial lipase, and lipoprotein lipase.
Endothelial lipase is a form of lipase secreted by vascular endothelial cells in tissues with high metabolic rates and vascularization, such as the liver, lung, kidney, and

Hormone-sensitive lipase

hormone sensitive lipasehormone sensitive lipase (HSL)LIPE
HSL is an intracellular neutral lipase that is capable of hydrolyzing a variety of esters.

Phospholipid

phospholipidsDOPEinterface region
As biological membranes are integral to living cells and are largely composed of phospholipids, lipases play important roles in cell biology.
Phospholipids also intervene in prostaglandin signal pathways as the raw material used by lipase enzymes to produce the prostaglandin precursors.

Dandruff

scurfanti-dandruffantidandruff
Malassezia globosa, a fungus that is thought to be the cause of human dandruff, uses lipase to break down sebum into oleic acid and increase skin cell production, causing dandruff.
While this species does occur naturally on the skin surface of both healthy people and those with dandruff, in 2007 it was discovered that the responsible agent is a scalp specific fungus, Malassezia globosa, that metabolizes triglycerides present in sebum by the expression of lipase, resulting in a lipid byproduct oleic acid.

Gastric lipase

gastric
Gastric lipase is an acidic lipase secreted by the gastric chief cells in the fundic mucosa in the stomach.

Saliva

salivationspitspittle
Human saliva comprises 99.5% water plus electrolytes, mucus, white blood cells, epithelial cells (from which DNA can be extracted), enzymes (such as amylase and lipase), antimicrobial agents such as secretory IgA and lysozyme.

Triglyceride

triglyceridestriacylglyceroltriacylglyceride
For example, human pancreatic lipase (HPL), which is the main enzyme that breaks down dietary fats in the human digestive system, converts triglyceride substrates found in ingested oils to monoglycerides and two fatty acids. Lipases perform essential roles in digestion, transport and processing of dietary lipids (e.g. triglycerides, fats, oils) in most, if not all, living organisms.
In the intestine, following the secretion of lipases and bile, triglycerides are split into monoacylglycerol and free fatty acids in a process called lipolysis.

Malassezia

M. globosaM. restrictaMalassezia furfur
Malassezia globosa, a fungus that is thought to be the cause of human dandruff, uses lipase to break down sebum into oleic acid and increase skin cell production, causing dandruff.
M. globosa uses eight different types of lipase, along with three phospholipases, to break down the oils on the scalp.

Breast milk

human milkbreastmilkhuman breast milk
Lipase may cause thawed milk to taste soapy or rancid due to milk fat breakdown.

Pancreas

pancreaticexocrine pancreashead of the pancreas
The main lipases of the human digestive system are pancreatic lipase (PL) and pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (PLRP2), which are secreted by the pancreas.
Detection of some of these enzymes, such as amylase and lipase in the blood, along with symptoms and findings on x-ray, are often used to indicate that a person has pancreatitis.

Triglyceride lipase

lipase
Triglyceride lipase
Triglyceride lipases are lipases that hydrolyse ester linkages of triglycerides.

Peripheral membrane protein

peripheralperipheral membraneperipheral proteins
Peripheral membrane proteins
Lipases can also digest lipids that form micelles or nonpolar droplets in water.

Lipid

lipidsglycerolipidfat
A lipase is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids).
The adipocyte, or fat cell, is designed for continuous synthesis and breakdown of triglycerides in animals, with breakdown controlled mainly by the activation of hormone-sensitive enzyme lipase.

Acute pancreatitis

acuteacute hemorrhagic pancreatitispancreatic necrosis
Blood tests for lipase may be used to help investigate and diagnose acute pancreatitis and other disorders of the pancreas.
Elevated serum amylase and lipase levels, in combination with severe abdominal pain, often trigger the initial diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. However, they have no role in assessing disease severity.

Enzyme

enzymologyenzymesenzymatic
A lipase is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids).