Lipid

lipidsglycerolipidfatfatsglycerolipidsbiolipidfattyLipid managementlipid metabolismlipidic fluid
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.wikipedia
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Biochemistry

biochemistbiochemicalbiological chemistry
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life.

Biomolecule

biochemicalbiomoleculesbiomolecular
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Biomolecules include large macromolecules (or polyanions) such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products.

Phospholipid

phospholipidsDOPEinterface region
Non-polar solvents are typically hydrocarbons used to dissolve other naturally occurring hydrocarbon lipid molecules that do not (or do not easily) dissolve in water, including fatty acids, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids also encompass molecules such as fatty acids and their derivatives (including tri-, di-, monoglycerides, and phospholipids), as well as other sterol-containing metabolites such as cholesterol. Glycerophospholipids, usually referred to as phospholipids (though sphingomyelins are also classified as phospholipids), are ubiquitous in nature and are key components of the lipid bilayer of cells, as well as being involved in metabolism and cell signaling.
Phospholipids are a class of lipids that are a major component of all cell membranes.

Wax

waxeswax candlecuticle wax
Non-polar solvents are typically hydrocarbons used to dissolve other naturally occurring hydrocarbon lipid molecules that do not (or do not easily) dissolve in water, including fatty acids, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids.
They include higher alkanes and lipids, typically with melting points above about 40 °C (104 °F), melting to give low viscosity liquids.

Lipid signaling

signalingsignaling moleculesinositol phospholipid
The functions of lipids include storing energy, signaling, and acting as structural components of cell membranes.
Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein target, such as a receptor, kinase or phosphatase, which in turn mediate the effects of these lipids on specific cellular responses.

Sterol

sterolssterylzoosterol
Non-polar solvents are typically hydrocarbons used to dissolve other naturally occurring hydrocarbon lipid molecules that do not (or do not easily) dissolve in water, including fatty acids, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids also encompass molecules such as fatty acids and their derivatives (including tri-, di-, monoglycerides, and phospholipids), as well as other sterol-containing metabolites such as cholesterol.
They are a type of lipid.

Metabolism

metabolicmetabolizedmetabolic pathways
Although humans and other mammals use various biosynthetic pathways both to break down and to synthesize lipids, some essential lipids can't be made this way and must be obtained from the diet. Glycerophospholipids, usually referred to as phospholipids (though sphingomyelins are also classified as phospholipids), are ubiquitous in nature and are key components of the lipid bilayer of cells, as well as being involved in metabolism and cell signaling.
The three main purposes of metabolism are: the conversion of food to energy to run cellular processes; the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates; and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes.

Cholesterol

total cholesteroldietary cholesterolserum cholesterol
Lipids also encompass molecules such as fatty acids and their derivatives (including tri-, di-, monoglycerides, and phospholipids), as well as other sterol-containing metabolites such as cholesterol.
It is a sterol (or modified steroid), a type of lipid.

Lecithin

soy lecithinsoya lecithinE322
Theodore Gobley (1847) discovered phospholipids in mammalian brain and hen egg, called by him as "lecithins".
Lecithin (, from the Greek lekithos "yolk") is a generic term to designate any group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues which are amphiphilic – they attract both water and fatty substances (and so are both hydrophilic and lipophilic), and are used for smoothing food textures, emulsifying, homogenizing liquid mixtures, and repelling sticking materials.

Unilamellar liposome

unilamellar vesicles
Scientists sometimes define lipids as hydrophobic or amphiphilic small molecules; the amphiphilic nature of some lipids allows them to form structures such as vesicles, multilamellar/unilamellar liposomes, or membranes in an aqueous environment.
An unilamellar liposome is a spherical chamber/vesicle, bounded by a single bilayer of an amphiphilic lipid or a mixture of such lipids, containing aqueous solution inside the chamber.

Fat

greasetotal fatdietary fat
Although the term "lipid" is sometimes used as a synonym for fats, fats are a subgroup of lipids called triglycerides.
The terms lipid, oil, and fat are often confused.

Hydrocarbon

hydrocarbonsliquid hydrocarbonHC
Non-polar solvents are typically hydrocarbons used to dissolve other naturally occurring hydrocarbon lipid molecules that do not (or do not easily) dissolve in water, including fatty acids, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids.
Hydrocarbons are hydrophobic like lipids.

Thromboxane

thromboxanesreceptors, thromboxanethromboxane A 2
Examples of biologically important fatty acids include the eicosanoids, derived primarily from arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, that include prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes.
Thromboxane is a member of the family of lipids known as eicosanoids.

Vitamin

vitaminsfat-soluble vitaminsfat-soluble vitamin
Non-polar solvents are typically hydrocarbons used to dissolve other naturally occurring hydrocarbon lipid molecules that do not (or do not easily) dissolve in water, including fatty acids, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids.
Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed through the intestinal tract with the help of lipids (fats).

Glycerol

glyceringlycerineE422
The first successful synthesis of a triglyceride molecule was by Théophile-Jules Pelouze in 1844, when he produced tributyrin by reacting butyric acid with glycerin in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid. Glycerolipids are composed of mono-, di-, and tri-substituted glycerols, the best-known being the fatty acid triesters of glycerol, called triglycerides.
The glycerol backbone is found in those lipids known as glycerides.

Lipid bilayer

phospholipid bilayerlipid membranelipid bilayers
Glycerophospholipids, usually referred to as phospholipids (though sphingomyelins are also classified as phospholipids), are ubiquitous in nature and are key components of the lipid bilayer of cells, as well as being involved in metabolism and cell signaling.
The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.

Ester

estersesterificationmonoester
Glycerolipids are composed of mono-, di-, and tri-substituted glycerols, the best-known being the fatty acid triesters of glycerol, called triglycerides. The hydrolysis of the ester bonds of triglycerides and the release of glycerol and fatty acids from adipose tissue are the initial steps in metabolizing fat.
Glycerides, which are fatty acid esters of glycerol, are important esters in biology, being one of the main classes of lipids, and making up the bulk of animal fats and vegetable oils.

Adipose tissue

adiposebody fatfat
The hydrolysis of the ester bonds of triglycerides and the release of glycerol and fatty acids from adipose tissue are the initial steps in metabolizing fat.
Its main role is to store energy in the form of lipids, although it also cushions and insulates the body.

N-Acylethanolamine

N''-acylethanolaminesN''-acylethanolamineN''-acyl ethanolamine
The fatty amides include N-acyl ethanolamines, such as the cannabinoid neurotransmitter anandamide.
All are members of the endocannabinoidome, a complex lipid signaling system composed of more than 100 of fatty acid-derived mediators and their receptors, its anabolic and catabolic enzymes of more than 50 proteins, which are deeply involved in the control of energy metabolism and its pathological deviations, as well as immunosuppression.

Sphingolipid

sphingolipidssphingolipid metabolismsphingoid base
Using this approach, lipids may be divided into eight categories: fatty acids, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids, and polyketides (derived from condensation of ketoacyl subunits); and sterol lipids and prenol lipids (derived from condensation of isoprene subunits). Sphingolipids are a complicated family of compounds that share a common structural feature, a sphingoid base backbone that is synthesized de novo from the amino acid serine and a long-chain fatty acyl CoA, then converted into ceramides, phosphosphingolipids, glycosphingolipids and other compounds.
Sphingolipids are a class of lipids containing a backbone of sphingoid bases, a set of aliphatic amino alcohols that includes sphingosine.

Ceramide

ceramidesN-acylsphingosineCer
Sphingolipids are a complicated family of compounds that share a common structural feature, a sphingoid base backbone that is synthesized de novo from the amino acid serine and a long-chain fatty acyl CoA, then converted into ceramides, phosphosphingolipids, glycosphingolipids and other compounds.
Ceramides are a family of waxy lipid molecules.

Saccharolipid

Using this approach, lipids may be divided into eight categories: fatty acids, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, saccharolipids, and polyketides (derived from condensation of ketoacyl subunits); and sterol lipids and prenol lipids (derived from condensation of isoprene subunits).
In the saccharolipids, a monosaccharide substitutes for the glycerol backbone present in glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids.

Hydrophile

hydrophilichydrophilicityHydrophilia
They are made of a hydrocarbon chain that terminates with a carboxylic acid group; this arrangement confers the molecule with a polar, hydrophilic end, and a nonpolar, hydrophobic end that is insoluble in water.
An example of these amphiphilic molecules is the lipids that comprise the cell membrane.

Eicosanoid

eicosanoidsarachidonic acid derivativesEicosanoid Metabolism
Examples of biologically important fatty acids include the eicosanoids, derived primarily from arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, that include prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes.

Acetyl-CoA

acetyl CoAacetyl coenzyme Aacetyl-coenzyme A
Fatty acids, or fatty acid residues when they are part of a lipid, are a diverse group of molecules synthesized by chain-elongation of an acetyl-CoA primer with malonyl-CoA or methylmalonyl-CoA groups in a process called fatty acid synthesis.