Scheme of a liposome formed by phospholipids in an aqueous solution.
This fluid lipid bilayer cross section is made up entirely of phosphatidylcholine.
Sarfus image of lipid vesicles.
The three main structures phospholipids form in solution; the liposome (a closed bilayer), the micelle and the bilayer.
Electron micrograph of a cell containing a food vacuole (fv) and transport vacuole (tv) in a malaria parasite.
Schematic cross sectional profile of a typical lipid bilayer. There are three distinct regions: the fully hydrated headgroups, the fully dehydrated alkane core and a short intermediate region with partial hydration. Although the head groups are neutral, they have significant dipole moments that influence the molecular arrangement.
TEM image of a bacterium. The furry appearance on the outside is due to a coat of long-chain sugars attached to the cell membrane. This coating helps trap water to prevent the bacterium from becoming dehydrated.
Diagram showing the effect of unsaturated lipids on a bilayer. The lipids with an unsaturated tail (blue) disrupt the packing of those with only saturated tails (black). The resulting bilayer has more free space and is, as a consequence, more permeable to water and other small molecules.
Illustration of a GPCR signaling protein. In response to a molecule such as a hormone binding to the exterior domain (blue) the GPCR changes shape and catalyzes a chemical reaction on the interior domain (red). The gray feature is the surrounding bilayer.
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) image of a lipid vesicle. The two dark bands around the edge are the two leaflets of the bilayer. Historically, similar images confirmed that the cell membrane is a bilayer
Human red blood cells viewed through a fluorescence microscope. The cell membrane has been stained with a fluorescent dye. Scale bar is 20μm.
3d-Adapted AFM images showing formation of transmembrane pores (holes) in supported lipid bilayer
Illustration of a typical AFM scan of a supported lipid bilayer. The pits are defects in the bilayer, exposing the smooth surface of the substrate underneath.
Structure of a potassium ion channel. The alpha helices penetrate the bilayer (boundaries indicated by red and blue lines), opening a hole through which potassium ions can flow
Schematic illustration of pinocytosis, a type of endocytosis
Exocytosis of outer membrane vesicles (MV) liberated from inflated periplasmic pockets (p) on surface of human Salmonella 3,10:r:- pathogens docking on plasma membrane of macrophage cells (M) in chicken ileum, for host-pathogen signaling in vivo.
Schematic showing two possible conformations of the lipids at the edge of a pore. In the top image the lipids have not rearranged, so the pore wall is hydrophobic. In the bottom image some of the lipid heads have bent over, so the pore wall is hydrophilic.
Illustration of lipid vesicles fusing showing two possible outcomes: hemifusion and full fusion. In hemifusion, only the outer bilayer leaflets mix. In full fusion both leaflets as well as the internal contents mix.
Schematic illustration of the process of fusion through stalk formation.
Diagram of the action of SNARE proteins docking a vesicle for exocytosis. Complementary versions of the protein on the vesicle and the target membrane bind and wrap around each other, drawing the two bilayers close together in the process.

In cell biology, a vesicle is a structure within or outside a cell, consisting of liquid or cytoplasm enclosed by a lipid bilayer.

- Vesicle (biology and chemistry)

Vesicles made by model bilayers have also been used clinically to deliver drugs

- Lipid bilayer
Scheme of a liposome formed by phospholipids in an aqueous solution.

6 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Illustration of a Eukaryotic cell membrane

Cell membrane

4 links

Biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space) and protects the cell from its environment.

Biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space) and protects the cell from its environment.

Illustration of a Eukaryotic cell membrane
Comparison of Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes
Examples of the major membrane phospholipids and glycolipids: phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), phosphatidylserine (PtdSer).
A detailed diagram of the cell membrane
Illustration depicting cellular diffusion
Diagram of the arrangement of amphipathic lipid molecules to form a lipid bilayer. The yellow polar head groups separate the grey hydrophobic tails from the aqueous cytosolic and extracellular environments.
Alpha intercalated cell
Diagram of the Cell Membrane's structures.

The cell membrane consists of a lipid bilayer, made up of two layers of phospholipids with cholesterols (a lipid component) interspersed between them, maintaining appropriate membrane fluidity at various temperatures.

Fusion of intracellular vesicles with the membrane (exocytosis) not only excretes the contents of the vesicle but also incorporates the vesicle membrane's components into the cell membrane. The membrane may form blebs around extracellular material that pinch off to become vesicles (endocytosis).

Onion (Allium cepa) root cells in different phases of the cell cycle (drawn by E. B. Wilson, 1900)

Cell (biology)

4 links

Basic structural and functional unit of life forms.

Basic structural and functional unit of life forms.

Onion (Allium cepa) root cells in different phases of the cell cycle (drawn by E. B. Wilson, 1900)
Structure of a typical prokaryotic cell
Structure of a typical animal cell
Structure of a typical plant cell
Detailed diagram of lipid bilayer of cell membrane
A fluorescent image of an endothelial cell. Nuclei are stained blue, mitochondria are stained red, and microfilaments are stained green.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
Human cancer cells, specifically HeLa cells, with DNA stained blue. The central and rightmost cell are in interphase, so their DNA is diffuse and the entire nuclei are labelled. The cell on the left is going through mitosis and its chromosomes have condensed.
Diagram of the endomembrane system
Prokaryotes divide by binary fission, while eukaryotes divide by mitosis or meiosis.
An outline of the catabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
An overview of protein synthesis.
Within the nucleus of the cell (light blue), genes (DNA, dark blue) are transcribed into RNA. This RNA is then subject to post-transcriptional modification and control, resulting in a mature mRNA (red) that is then transported out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm (peach), where it undergoes translation into a protein. mRNA is translated by ribosomes (purple) that match the three-base codons of the mRNA to the three-base anti-codons of the appropriate tRNA. Newly synthesized proteins (black) are often further modified, such as by binding to an effector molecule (orange), to become fully active.
Staining of a Caenorhabditis elegans highlights the nuclei of its cells.
Stromatolites are left behind by cyanobacteria, also called blue-green algae. They are the oldest known fossils of life on Earth. This one-billion-year-old fossil is from Glacier National Park in the United States.
Robert Hooke's drawing of cells in cork, 1665

This membrane serves to separate and protect a cell from its surrounding environment and is made mostly from a double layer of phospholipids, which are amphiphilic (partly hydrophobic and partly hydrophilic).

Lipids are known to spontaneously form bilayered vesicles in water, and could have preceded RNA, but the first cell membranes could also have been produced by catalytic RNA, or even have required structural proteins before they could form.

Eukaryote

4 links

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within a nuclear envelope.

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within a nuclear envelope.

The endomembrane system and its components
Simplified structure of a mitochondrion
Longitudinal section through the flagellum of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
Structure of a typical animal cell
Structure of a typical plant cell
Fungal Hyphae cells: 1 – hyphal wall, 2 – septum, 3 – mitochondrion, 4 – vacuole, 5 – ergosterol crystal, 6 – ribosome, 7 – nucleus, 8 – endoplasmic reticulum, 9 – lipid body, 10 – plasma membrane, 11 – spitzenkörper, 12 – Golgi apparatus
This diagram illustrates the twofold cost of sex. If each individual were to contribute the same number of offspring (two), (a) the sexual population remains the same size each generation, where the (b) asexual population doubles in size each generation.
Phylogenetic and symbiogenetic tree of living organisms, showing a view of the origins of eukaryotes and prokaryotes
One hypothesis of eukaryotic relationships – the Opisthokonta group includes both animals (Metazoa) and fungi, plants (Plantae) are placed in Archaeplastida.
A pie chart of described eukaryote species (except for Excavata), together with a tree showing possible relationships between the groups
The three-domains tree and the Eocyte hypothesis
Phylogenetic tree showing a possible relationship between the eukaryotes and other forms of life; eukaryotes are colored red, archaea green and bacteria blue
Eocyte tree.
Diagram of the origin of life with the Eukaryotes appearing early, not derived from Prokaryotes, as proposed by Richard Egel in 2012. This view implies that the UCA was relatively large and complex.

Simple compartments, called vesicles and vacuoles, can form by budding off other membranes.

They have two surrounding membranes, each a phospholipid bi-layer; the inner of which is folded into invaginations called cristae where aerobic respiration takes place.

Archaea

3 links

Archaea (singular archaeon ) constitute a domain of single-celled organisms.

Archaea (singular archaeon ) constitute a domain of single-celled organisms.

Archaea were found in volcanic hot springs. Pictured here is Grand Prismatic Spring of Yellowstone National Park.
The ARMAN are a group of archaea recently discovered in acid mine drainage.
Membrane structures. Top, an archaeal phospholipid: 1, isoprene chains; 2, ether linkages; 3, L-glycerol moiety; 4, phosphate group. Middle, a bacterial or eukaryotic phospholipid: 5, fatty acid chains; 6, ester linkages; 7, D-glycerol moiety; 8, phosphate group. Bottom: 9, lipid bilayer of bacteria and eukaryotes; 10, lipid monolayer of some archaea.
Bacteriorhodopsin from Halobacterium salinarum. The retinol cofactor and residues involved in proton transfer are shown as ball-and-stick models.
Sulfolobus infected with the DNA virus STSV1. Bar is 1 micrometer.
Archaea that grow in the hot water of the Morning Glory Hot Spring in Yellowstone National Park produce a bright colour
Methanogenic archaea form a symbiosis with termites.

Most have a single plasma membrane and cell wall, and lack a periplasmic space; the exception to this general rule is Ignicoccus, which possess a particularly large periplasm that contains membrane-bound vesicles and is enclosed by an outer membrane.

The major structure in cell membranes is a double layer of these phospholipids, which is called a lipid bilayer.

Micrograph of rough endoplasmic reticulum network around the nucleus (shown in the lower right-hand area of the picture). Dark small circles in the network are mitochondria.

Endoplasmic reticulum

2 links

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is, in essence, the transportation system of the eukaryotic cell, and has many other important functions such as protein folding.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is, in essence, the transportation system of the eukaryotic cell, and has many other important functions such as protein folding.

Micrograph of rough endoplasmic reticulum network around the nucleus (shown in the lower right-hand area of the picture). Dark small circles in the network are mitochondria.
1 Nucleus
2 Nuclear pore
3 Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)
4 Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)
5 Ribosome on the rough ER
6 Proteins that are transported
7 Transport vesicle
8 Golgi apparatus
9 Cis face of the Golgi apparatus
10 Trans face of the Golgi apparatus
11 Cisternae of the Golgi apparatus
3D rendering of endoplasmic reticulum
A 2-minute animation showing how a protein destined for the secretory pathway is synthesized into the rough endoplasmic reticulum, which appears at the upper right approximately halfway through the animation.
Electron micrograph showing smooth ER (arrow) in mouse tissue, at 110,510× magnification.
Skeletal muscle fiber, with sarcoplasmic reticulum colored in blue.
Ca2+-antagonized transport into the endoplasmic reticulum (CaATiER) model

The phospholipid membrane encloses the cisternal space (or lumen), which is continuous with the perinuclear space but separate from the cytosol.

Although there is no continuous membrane between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus, membrane-bound transport vesicles shuttle proteins between these two compartments.

Scheme of a liposome formed by phospholipids in an aqueous solution.

Liposome

1 links

Scheme of a liposome formed by phospholipids in an aqueous solution.
Liposomes are composite structures made of phospholipids and may contain small amounts of other molecules. Though liposomes can vary in size from low micrometer range to tens of micrometers, unilamellar liposomes, as pictured here, are typically in the lower size range with various targeting ligands attached to their surface allowing for their surface-attachment and accumulation in pathological areas for treatment of disease.
A micrograph of phosphatidylcholine liposomes, which were stained with fluorochrome acridine orange. Method of fluorescence microscopy (1250-fold magnification).
Various types of phosphatidylcholine liposomes in suspension. Method of phase-contrast microscopy (1000-fold magnification). The following types of liposomes are visible: small monolamellar vesicles, large monolamellar vesicles, multilamellar vesicles, oligolamellar vesicles.
Pictorial representation of targeted theranostics liposomal delivery

A liposome is a spherical vesicle having at least one lipid bilayer.