A report on Lipid bilayer

This fluid lipid bilayer cross section is made up entirely of phosphatidylcholine.
The three main structures phospholipids form in solution; the liposome (a closed bilayer), the micelle and the bilayer.
Schematic cross sectional profile of a typical lipid bilayer. There are three distinct regions: the fully hydrated headgroups, the fully dehydrated alkane core and a short intermediate region with partial hydration. Although the head groups are neutral, they have significant dipole moments that influence the molecular arrangement.
TEM image of a bacterium. The furry appearance on the outside is due to a coat of long-chain sugars attached to the cell membrane. This coating helps trap water to prevent the bacterium from becoming dehydrated.
Diagram showing the effect of unsaturated lipids on a bilayer. The lipids with an unsaturated tail (blue) disrupt the packing of those with only saturated tails (black). The resulting bilayer has more free space and is, as a consequence, more permeable to water and other small molecules.
Illustration of a GPCR signaling protein. In response to a molecule such as a hormone binding to the exterior domain (blue) the GPCR changes shape and catalyzes a chemical reaction on the interior domain (red). The gray feature is the surrounding bilayer.
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) image of a lipid vesicle. The two dark bands around the edge are the two leaflets of the bilayer. Historically, similar images confirmed that the cell membrane is a bilayer
Human red blood cells viewed through a fluorescence microscope. The cell membrane has been stained with a fluorescent dye. Scale bar is 20μm.
3d-Adapted AFM images showing formation of transmembrane pores (holes) in supported lipid bilayer
Illustration of a typical AFM scan of a supported lipid bilayer. The pits are defects in the bilayer, exposing the smooth surface of the substrate underneath.
Structure of a potassium ion channel. The alpha helices penetrate the bilayer (boundaries indicated by red and blue lines), opening a hole through which potassium ions can flow
Schematic illustration of pinocytosis, a type of endocytosis
Exocytosis of outer membrane vesicles (MV) liberated from inflated periplasmic pockets (p) on surface of human Salmonella 3,10:r:- pathogens docking on plasma membrane of macrophage cells (M) in chicken ileum, for host-pathogen signaling in vivo.
Schematic showing two possible conformations of the lipids at the edge of a pore. In the top image the lipids have not rearranged, so the pore wall is hydrophobic. In the bottom image some of the lipid heads have bent over, so the pore wall is hydrophilic.
Illustration of lipid vesicles fusing showing two possible outcomes: hemifusion and full fusion. In hemifusion, only the outer bilayer leaflets mix. In full fusion both leaflets as well as the internal contents mix.
Schematic illustration of the process of fusion through stalk formation.
Diagram of the action of SNARE proteins docking a vesicle for exocytosis. Complementary versions of the protein on the vesicle and the target membrane bind and wrap around each other, drawing the two bilayers close together in the process.

Thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules.

- Lipid bilayer
This fluid lipid bilayer cross section is made up entirely of phosphatidylcholine.

37 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Cross section view of the structures that can be formed by phospholipids in aqueous solutions

Lipid bilayer mechanics

0 links

Cross section view of the structures that can be formed by phospholipids in aqueous solutions
Schematic showing two possible conformations of the lipids at the edge of a pore. In the top image the lipids have not rearranged, so the pore wall is hydrophobic. In the bottom image some of the lipid heads have bent over, so the pore wall is hydrophilic.

Lipid bilayer mechanics is the study of the physical material properties of lipid bilayers, classifying bilayer behavior with stress and strain rather than biochemical interactions.

Crystal structure of Potassium channel Kv1.2/2.1 Chimera. Calculated hydrocarbon boundaries of the lipid bilayer are indicated by red and blue lines.

Membrane protein

2 links

Membrane proteins are common proteins that are part of, or interact with, biological membranes.

Membrane proteins are common proteins that are part of, or interact with, biological membranes.

Crystal structure of Potassium channel Kv1.2/2.1 Chimera. Calculated hydrocarbon boundaries of the lipid bilayer are indicated by red and blue lines.
Schematic representation of transmembrane proteins: 1. a single transmembrane α-helix (bitopic membrane protein) 2. a polytopic transmembrane α-helical protein 3. a polytopic transmembrane β-sheet protein The membrane is represented in light-brown.
Schematic representation of the different types of interaction between monotopic membrane proteins and the cell membrane: 1. interaction by an amphipathic α-helix parallel to the membrane plane (in-plane membrane helix) 2. interaction by a hydrophobic loop 3. interaction by a covalently bound membrane lipid (lipidation)  4. electrostatic or ionic interactions with membrane lipids (e.g. through a calcium ion)

Peripheral membrane proteins are temporarily attached either to the lipid bilayer or to integral proteins by a combination of hydrophobic, electrostatic, and other non-covalent interactions.

A calcite crystal laid upon a graph paper with blue lines showing the double refraction

Birefringence

0 links

Optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.

Optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.

A calcite crystal laid upon a graph paper with blue lines showing the double refraction
In this example, optic axis along the surface is shown perpendicular to plane of incidence. Incoming light in the s polarization (which means perpendicular to plane of incidence - and so in this example becomes "parallel polarisation" to optic axis, thus is called extraordinary ray) sees a greater refractive index than light in the p polarization (which becomes ordinary ray because "perpendicular polarisation" to optic axis) and so s polarization ray is undergoing greater refraction on entering and exiting the crystal.
Doubly refracted image as seen through a calcite crystal, seen through a rotating polarizing filter illustrating the opposite polarization states of the two images.
Comparison of positive and negative birefringence : In positive birefringence (figure 1), the ordinary ray (p-polarisation in this case w.r.t. magenta-coloured plane of incidence), perpendicular to optic axis A is the fast ray (F) while the extraordinary ray (s-polarisation in this case and parallel to optic axis A) is the slow ray (S). In negative birefringence (figure 2), it is the reverse.
View from under the Sky Pool, London with coloured fringes due to stress birefringence of partially polarised skylight through a circular polariser
Sandwiched in between crossed polarizers, clear polystyrene cutlery exhibits wavelength-dependent birefringence
Reflective twisted-nematic liquid-crystal display. Light reflected by the surface (6) (or coming from a backlight) is horizontally polarized (5) and passes through the liquid-crystal modulator (3) sandwiched in between transparent layers (2, 4) containing electrodes. Horizontally polarized light is blocked by the vertically oriented polarizer (1), except where its polarization has been rotated by the liquid crystal (3), appearing bright to the viewer.
Color pattern of a plastic box with "frozen in" mechanical stress placed between two crossed polarizers
Birefringent rutile observed in different polarizations using a rotating polarizer (or analyzer)
Surface of the allowed k vectors for a fixed frequency for a biaxial crystal (see ).

Birefringence of lipid bilayers can be measured using dual-polarization interferometry.

This diagram shows the nomenclature for the different phase transitions.

Phase transition

0 links

In chemistry, thermodynamics, and many other related fields, phase transitions (or phase changes) are the physical processes of transition between a state of a medium, identified by some parameters, and another one, with different values of the parameters.

In chemistry, thermodynamics, and many other related fields, phase transitions (or phase changes) are the physical processes of transition between a state of a medium, identified by some parameters, and another one, with different values of the parameters.

This diagram shows the nomenclature for the different phase transitions.
A typical phase diagram. The dotted line gives the anomalous behavior of water.
A small piece of rapidly melting solid argon showing the transition from solid to liquid. The white smoke is condensed water vapour, showing a phase transition from gas to liquid.
Comparison of phase diagrams of carbon dioxide (red) and water (blue) explaining their different phase transitions at 1 atmosphere

Examples include the lipid bilayer formation, the coil-globule transition in the process of protein folding and DNA melting, liquid crystal-like transitions in the process of DNA condensation, and cooperative ligand binding to DNA and proteins with the character of phase transition.

Self-assembly of lipids (a), proteins (b), and (c) SDS-cyclodextrin complexes. SDS is a surfactant with a hydrocarbon tail (yellow) and a SO4 head (blue and red), while cyclodextrin is a saccharide ring (green C and red O atoms).

Self-assembly

0 links

Process in which a disordered system of pre-existing components forms an organized structure or pattern as a consequence of specific, local interactions among the components themselves, without external direction.

Process in which a disordered system of pre-existing components forms an organized structure or pattern as a consequence of specific, local interactions among the components themselves, without external direction.

Self-assembly of lipids (a), proteins (b), and (c) SDS-cyclodextrin complexes. SDS is a surfactant with a hydrocarbon tail (yellow) and a SO4 head (blue and red), while cyclodextrin is a saccharide ring (green C and red O atoms).
Transmission electron microscopy image of an iron oxide nanoparticle. Regularly arranged dots within the dashed border are columns of Fe atoms. Left inset is the corresponding electron diffraction pattern. Scale bar: 10 nm.
Iron oxide nanoparticles can be dispersed in an organic solvent (toluene). Upon its evaporation, they may self-assemble (left and right panels) into micron-sized mesocrystals (center) or multilayers (right). Each dot in the left image is a traditional "atomic" crystal shown in the image above. Scale bars: 100 nm (left), 25 μm (center), 50 nm (right).
AFM imaging of self-assembly of 2-aminoterephthalic acid molecules on (104)-oriented calcite.
The DNA structure at left (schematic shown) will self-assemble into the structure visualized by atomic force microscopy at right.

Important examples of self-assembly in materials science include the formation of molecular crystals, colloids, lipid bilayers, phase-separated polymers, and self-assembled monolayers.

"Current Clamp" is a common technique in electrophysiology. This is a whole-cell current clamp recording of a neuron firing due to it being depolarized by current injection

Electrophysiology

1 links

Branch of physiology that studies the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.

Branch of physiology that studies the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.

"Current Clamp" is a common technique in electrophysiology. This is a whole-cell current clamp recording of a neuron firing due to it being depolarized by current injection
The voltage clamp uses a negative feedback mechanism. The membrane potential amplifier measures membrane voltage and sends output to the feedback amplifier. The feedback amplifier subtracts the membrane voltage from the command voltage, which it receives from the signal generator. This signal is amplified and returned into the cell via the recording electrode.
The cell-attached patch clamp uses a micropipette attached to the cell membrane to allow recording from a single ion channel.
A schematic diagram showing a field potential recording from rat hippocampus. At the left is a schematic diagram of a presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic neuron. This is meant to represent a large population of synapses and neurons. When the synapse releases glutamate onto the postsynaptic cell, it opens ionotropic glutamate receptor channels.  The net flow of current is inward, so a current sink is generated.  A nearby electrode (#2) detects this as a negativity.  An intracellular electrode placed inside the cell body (#1) records the change in membrane potential that the incoming current causes.
Schematic drawing of the classical patch clamp configuration. The patch pipette is moved to the cell using a micromanipulator under optical control. Relative movements between the pipette and the cell have to be avoided in order to keep the cell-pipette connection intact.
Scanning electron microscope image of a patch pipette.
In planar patch configuration, the cell is positioned by suction. Relative movements between cell and aperture can then be excluded after sealing. An antivibration table is not necessary.
Scanning electron microscope image of a planar patch clamp chip. Both the pipette and the chip are made from borosilicate glass.

These are mainly molecular dynamics simulations in which a model system like a lipid bilayer is subjected to an externally applied voltage.

Cuvettes for in-vitro electroporation. These are plastic with aluminium electrodes and a blue lid. They hold a maximum of 400 μl.

Electroporation

0 links

Microbiology technique in which an electrical field is applied to cells in order to increase the permeability of the cell membrane, allowing chemicals, drugs, electrode arrays or DNA to be introduced into the cell .

Microbiology technique in which an electrical field is applied to cells in order to increase the permeability of the cell membrane, allowing chemicals, drugs, electrode arrays or DNA to be introduced into the cell .

Cuvettes for in-vitro electroporation. These are plastic with aluminium electrodes and a blue lid. They hold a maximum of 400 μl.
Schematic cross-section showing the theoretical arrangement of lipids in a hydrophobic pore (top) and a hydrophilic pore (bottom).
775x775px

Electroporation allows cellular introduction of large highly charged molecules such as DNA which would never passively diffuse across the hydrophobic bilayer core.