Lipid signaling

signalingsignaling moleculesinositol phospholipidsignaling lipidlipid messengerlipid messengerslipid second messengerslipidsLPA signaling
Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein target, such as a receptor, kinase or phosphatase, which in turn mediate the effects of these lipids on specific cellular responses.wikipedia
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Lipid

lipidsglycerolipidfat
Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein target, such as a receptor, kinase or phosphatase, which in turn mediate the effects of these lipids on specific cellular responses. CERT is known to bind phosphatidylinositol phosphates, hinting its potential regulation via phosphorylation, a step of the ceramide metabolism that can be enzymatically regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases, and by inositol lipid metabolic pathways. Alternatively, this sphingosine-derived lipid (sphingolipid) can be synthesized from scratch (de novo) by the enzymes serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT) and ceramide synthase in organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and possibly, in the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) and the perinuclear membranes.
The functions of lipids include storing energy, signaling, and acting as structural components of cell membranes.

Ceramide

ceramidesN-acylsphingosineCer
Ceramide (Cer) can be generated by the breakdown of sphingomyelin (SM) by sphingomyelinases (SMases), which are enzymes that hydrolyze the phosphocholine group from the sphingosine backbone. The product sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) can be dephosphorylated in the ER to regenerate sphingosine by certain S1P phosphatase enzymes within cells, where the salvaged Sph is recycled to ceramide. Alternatively, this sphingosine-derived lipid (sphingolipid) can be synthesized from scratch (de novo) by the enzymes serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT) and ceramide synthase in organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and possibly, in the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) and the perinuclear membranes.
Contrary to previous assumptions that ceramides and other sphingolipids found in cell membrane were purely supporting structural elements, ceramide can participate in a variety of cellular signaling: examples include regulating differentiation, proliferation, and programmed cell death (PCD) of cells.

Sphingosine

Ceramide (Cer) can be generated by the breakdown of sphingomyelin (SM) by sphingomyelinases (SMases), which are enzymes that hydrolyze the phosphocholine group from the sphingosine backbone. The product sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) can be dephosphorylated in the ER to regenerate sphingosine by certain S1P phosphatase enzymes within cells, where the salvaged Sph is recycled to ceramide. Alternatively, this sphingosine-derived lipid (sphingolipid) can be synthesized from scratch (de novo) by the enzymes serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT) and ceramide synthase in organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and possibly, in the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) and the perinuclear membranes.
This leads to the formation of sphingosine-1-phosphate, a potent signaling lipid.

Sphingosine kinase

sphinganine kinase
Sph then is either recycled back to ceramide or phosphorylated by one of the sphingosine kinase enzymes, SK1 and SK2.
Sphingolipid metabolites, such as ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate, are lipid second messengers involved in diverse cellular processes.

Cell signaling

cell signallingsignallingsignaling pathway
Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein target, such as a receptor, kinase or phosphatase, which in turn mediate the effects of these lipids on specific cellular responses.

Phosphatidylinositol

phosphoinositidephosphoinositidesphosphatidyl inositol
CERT is known to bind phosphatidylinositol phosphates, hinting its potential regulation via phosphorylation, a step of the ceramide metabolism that can be enzymatically regulated by protein kinases and phosphatases, and by inositol lipid metabolic pathways.
Phosphorylated forms of phosphatidylinositol (PI) are called phosphoinositides and play important roles in lipid signaling, cell signaling and membrane trafficking.

Lysophosphatidic acid

LPALPA specieslysophosphatidic acid (LPA)
LPA is the result of phospholipase A2 action on phosphatidic acid.
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a phospholipid derivative that can act as a signaling molecule.

Lysophospholipid receptor

lysophospholipidlysophospholipidsEDG
LPA binds the high-affinity G-protein coupled receptors LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3 (also known as EDG2, EDG4, and EDG7, respectively).
The lysophospholipid receptor (LPL-R) group are members of the G protein-coupled receptor family of integral membrane proteins that are important for lipid signaling.

Diglyceride

diacylglycerolDAGdiacyl glycerol
The latter process results in the formation of diacylglycerol (DAG) from PC. Subsequently, another endocannabinoid was isolated, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, which is produced when phospholipase C releases diacylglycerol which is then converted to 2-AG by diacylglycerol lipase.
In biochemical signaling, diacylglycerol functions as a second messenger signaling lipid, and is a product of the hydrolysis of the phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP 2 ) by the enzyme phospholipase C (PLC) (a membrane-bound enzyme) that, through the same reaction, produces inositol trisphosphate (IP 3 ).

Cannabinoid

cannabinoidsendocannabinoidendocannabinoids
The endogenous cannabinoids, or endocannabinoids, are endogenous lipids that activate cannabinoid receptors.
Endocannabinoids serve as intercellular 'lipid messengers', signaling molecules that are released from one cell and activating the cannabinoid receptors present on other nearby cells.

2-Arachidonoylglycerol

2-AG2-arachidonoyl glycerol2-arachidonylglycerol
Subsequently, another endocannabinoid was isolated, 2-arachidonoylglycerol, which is produced when phospholipase C releases diacylglycerol which is then converted to 2-AG by diacylglycerol lipase.
2-Arachidonoylglycerol is synthesized from arachidonic acid-containing diacylglycerol (DAG), which is derived from the increase of inositol phospholipid metabolism by the action of diacylglycerol lipase.

Sphingosine-1-phosphate

sphingosine 1-phosphateS1PSonepcizumab
The product sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) can be dephosphorylated in the ER to regenerate sphingosine by certain S1P phosphatase enzymes within cells, where the salvaged Sph is recycled to ceramide.

Receptor (biochemistry)

receptorreceptorscellular receptors
Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein target, such as a receptor, kinase or phosphatase, which in turn mediate the effects of these lipids on specific cellular responses.

Kinase

kinaseskinase domainprotein kinase C
Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein target, such as a receptor, kinase or phosphatase, which in turn mediate the effects of these lipids on specific cellular responses.

Monoamine neurotransmitter

monoaminemonoaminesmonoamine neurotransmitters
Lipid signaling is thought to be qualitatively different from other classical signaling paradigms (such as monoamine neurotransmission) because lipids can freely diffuse through membranes (see osmosis.) One consequence of this is that lipid messengers cannot be stored in vesicles prior to release and so are often biosynthesized "on demand" at their intended site of action.

Neurotransmission

synaptic transmissioncotransmissionneuronal activity
Lipid signaling is thought to be qualitatively different from other classical signaling paradigms (such as monoamine neurotransmission) because lipids can freely diffuse through membranes (see osmosis.) One consequence of this is that lipid messengers cannot be stored in vesicles prior to release and so are often biosynthesized "on demand" at their intended site of action.

Molecular diffusion

concentration gradientdiffusion processesdiffusion
Lipid signaling is thought to be qualitatively different from other classical signaling paradigms (such as monoamine neurotransmission) because lipids can freely diffuse through membranes (see osmosis.) One consequence of this is that lipid messengers cannot be stored in vesicles prior to release and so are often biosynthesized "on demand" at their intended site of action.

Osmosis

osmoticosmoticallyosmotic gradient
Lipid signaling is thought to be qualitatively different from other classical signaling paradigms (such as monoamine neurotransmission) because lipids can freely diffuse through membranes (see osmosis.) One consequence of this is that lipid messengers cannot be stored in vesicles prior to release and so are often biosynthesized "on demand" at their intended site of action.

Vesicle (biology and chemistry)

vesiclesvesiclemembrane trafficking
Lipid signaling is thought to be qualitatively different from other classical signaling paradigms (such as monoamine neurotransmission) because lipids can freely diffuse through membranes (see osmosis.) One consequence of this is that lipid messengers cannot be stored in vesicles prior to release and so are often biosynthesized "on demand" at their intended site of action.

Biosynthesis

productionsynthesisbiosynthetic
Lipid signaling is thought to be qualitatively different from other classical signaling paradigms (such as monoamine neurotransmission) because lipids can freely diffuse through membranes (see osmosis.) One consequence of this is that lipid messengers cannot be stored in vesicles prior to release and so are often biosynthesized "on demand" at their intended site of action.

Serous fluid

serousserumsera
As such, many lipid signaling molecules cannot circulate freely in solution but, rather, exist bound to special carrier proteins in serum.

Sphingomyelin

sphingomyelin apoptotic pathwaysphingomyelinssphingophospholipid
Ceramide (Cer) can be generated by the breakdown of sphingomyelin (SM) by sphingomyelinases (SMases), which are enzymes that hydrolyze the phosphocholine group from the sphingosine backbone.

Sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase

sphingomyelinaseacid sphingomyelinaseSphingomyelinase D
Ceramide (Cer) can be generated by the breakdown of sphingomyelin (SM) by sphingomyelinases (SMases), which are enzymes that hydrolyze the phosphocholine group from the sphingosine backbone.

Phosphocholine

O-phosphocholine
Ceramide (Cer) can be generated by the breakdown of sphingomyelin (SM) by sphingomyelinases (SMases), which are enzymes that hydrolyze the phosphocholine group from the sphingosine backbone.

Serine C-palmitoyltransferase

serine palmitoyltransferaseserine palmitoyl transferaseserine-palmitoyltransferase
Alternatively, this sphingosine-derived lipid (sphingolipid) can be synthesized from scratch (de novo) by the enzymes serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT) and ceramide synthase in organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and possibly, in the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) and the perinuclear membranes.