Liquid-crystal display

LCDliquid crystal displayliquid crystal displaysLCD screenLCDsLCD displayLCD displaysliquid crystaldisplayliquid-crystal monitor
[[Image:LCD layers.svg|thumb|Reflective twisted nematic liquid crystal display.1.wikipedia
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Backlight

backlitbacklightingback-lit
Liquid crystals do not emit light directly, instead using a backlight or reflector to produce images in color or monochrome.
A backlight is a form of illumination used in liquid crystal displays (LCDs).

Plasma display

plasmaplasma screenplasma TV
LCD screens are available in a wider range of screen sizes than CRT and plasma displays, with LCD screens available in sizes ranging from tiny digital watches to very large television receivers.
Since then, they have lost nearly all market share due to competition from low-cost LCD displays and more expensive but high-contrast OLED flat-panel displays.

Clock

clockstimepiecemechanical clock
LCD screens are also used on consumer electronics products such as DVD players, video game devices and clocks.
Most digital clocks use electronic mechanisms and LCD, LED, or VFD displays.

OLED

organic light-emitting diodeorganic light-emitting diodesOLEDs
LCDs are slowly being replaced by OLEDs, which can be easily made into different shapes, and have a lower response time, wider color gamut, virtually infinite color contrast and viewing angles, lower weight for a given display size and a slimmer profile (because OLEDs use a single glass or plastic panel whereas LCDs use two glass panels; the thickness of the panels increases with size but the increase is more noticeable on LCDs) and potentially lower power consumption (as the display is only "on" where needed and there is no backlight).
Thus, it can display deep black levels and can be thinner and lighter than a liquid crystal display (LCD).

Image persistence

image retentionpersistenceStreaking
LCDs are, however, susceptible to image persistence.
Image persistence, or image retention, is the LCD and plasma display equivalent of screen burn.

Cathode-ray tube

CRTcathode ray tubecathode ray tubes
LCD screens have replaced heavy, bulky cathode ray tube (CRT) displays in nearly all applications.
Since the late 2000s, CRTs have been largely superseded by newer "flat panel" display technologies such as LCD, plasma display, and especially OLED displays, which in the case of LCD and OLED displays have lower manufacturing costs and power consumption, as well as significantly less weight and bulk.

Computer monitor

monitorcomputer displaymonitors
LCDs are used in a wide range of applications, including LCD televisions, computer monitors, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, and indoor and outdoor signage.
Until the 21st century most used cathode ray tubes but they have largely been superseded by LCD monitors.

Liquid crystal

liquid crystalsnematicsmectic
A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.
The next step to commercialization of liquid-crystal displays was the synthesis of further chemically stable substances (cyanobiphenyls) with low melting temperatures by George Gray.

Polarizer

polarizing filtercircular polarizerpolarized
Each pixel of an LCD typically consists of a layer of molecules aligned between two transparent electrodes, and two polarizing filters (parallel and perpendicular), the axes of transmission of which are (in most of the cases) perpendicular to each other.
Polarizers are used in many optical techniques and instruments, and polarizing filters find applications in photography and LCD technology.

Seven-segment display

7-segment displayseven segment displayseven-segment
LCDs are available to display arbitrary images (as in a general-purpose computer display) or fixed images with low information content, which can be displayed or hidden, such as preset words, digits, and seven-segment displays, as in a digital clock.
Seven-segment displays may use a liquid crystal display (LCD), a light-emitting diode (LED) for each segment, an electrochromic display, or other light-generating or controlling techniques such as cold cathode gas discharge (Panaplex), vacuum fluorescent, incandescent filaments (Numitron), and others.

Calculator

pocket calculatorcalculatorselectronic calculator
Small LCD screens are common in portable consumer devices such as digital cameras, watches, calculators, and mobile telephones, including smartphones.
Calculators usually have liquid-crystal displays (LCD) as output in place of historical light-emitting diode (LED) displays and vacuum fluorescent displays (VFD); details are provided in the section Technical improvements.

George H. Heilmeier

In 1964, George H. Heilmeier, then working at the RCA laboratories on the effect discovered by Williams achieved the switching of colors by field-induced realignment of dichroic dyes in a homeotropically oriented liquid crystal.
George Harry Heilmeier (May 22, 1936 – April 21, 2014) was an American engineer, manager, and a pioneering contributor to liquid crystal displays (LCDs), for which he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

Mobile phone

cell phonemobilemobile phones
Small LCD screens are common in portable consumer devices such as digital cameras, watches, calculators, and mobile telephones, including smartphones.
Liquid-crystal displays are the most common; others are IPS, LED, OLED, and AMOLED displays.

Twisted nematic field effect

twisted nematicTN(Twisted Nematic)
On December 4, 1970, the twisted nematic field effect (TN) in liquid crystals was filed for patent by Hoffmann-LaRoche in Switzerland, ( Swiss patent No. 532 261) with Wolfgang Helfrich and Martin Schadt (then working for the Central Research Laboratories) listed as inventors.
The twisted nematic effect (TN-effect) was a main technology breakthrough that made LCDs practical.

George William Gray

George GrayProfessor George Gray
In 1962, the first major English language publication on the subject "Molecular Structure and Properties of Liquid Crystals", by Dr. George W. Gray.
George William Gray (4 September 1926 – 12 May 2013) was a Professor of Organic Chemistry at the University of Hull who was instrumental in developing the long-lasting materials which made liquid crystal displays possible.

Smartphone

smartphonessmart phonesmart phones
Small LCD screens are common in portable consumer devices such as digital cameras, watches, calculators, and mobile telephones, including smartphones. In many applications IPS LCDs have replaced TN LCDs, in particular in smartphones such as iPhones.
Liquid-crystal displays are the most common; others are IPS, LED, OLED, and AMOLED displays.

Digital clock

digitalcomputer programmingDigital clocks
LCDs are available to display arbitrary images (as in a general-purpose computer display) or fixed images with low information content, which can be displayed or hidden, such as preset words, digits, and seven-segment displays, as in a digital clock.
Emulations of analog-style faces often use an LCD screen, and these are also sometimes described as "digital".

IPhone

iPhonesiPhone appApple iPhone
In many applications IPS LCDs have replaced TN LCDs, in particular in smartphones such as iPhones.
The touchscreen on the first five generations is a 9 cm (3.5 in) liquid crystal display with scratch-resistant glass, while the one on the iPhone 5 is four inches.

Dashboard

instrument panelinstrument clusterdash
LCDs are used in a wide range of applications, including LCD televisions, computer monitors, instrument panels, aircraft cockpit displays, and indoor and outdoor signage.
With the advent of the VFD, LED and LCD in consumer electronics, some manufacturers used instruments with digital readouts to make their cars appear more up to date, but this has faded from practice.

Television set

television receivertelevisionstelevision screen
LCD screens are available in a wider range of screen sizes than CRT and plasma displays, with LCD screens available in sizes ranging from tiny digital watches to very large television receivers.
Liquid-crystal-display televisions (LCD TV) are television sets that use Liquid-crystal displays to produce images.

Electro-optic modulator

electronically modulated optical deviceelecto-optic modulatorelectro-optic
A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.
Liquid crystal devices are electro-optical phase modulators if no polarizers are used.

James Fergason

James Fergason, while working with Sardari Arora and Alfred Saupe at Kent State University Liquid Crystal Institute, filed an identical patent in the United States on April 22, 1971.
A member of the National Inventors Hall of Fame, Fergason is best known for his work on an improved Liquid Crystal Display, or LCD.

Thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal display

TFTTFT LCDTFT-LCD
TFT LCDs similar to the prototypes developed by a Westinghouse team in 1972 were patented in 1976 by a team at Sharp consisting of Fumiaki Funada, Masataka Matsuura, and Tomio Wada, then improved in 1977 by a Sharp team consisting of Kohei Kishi, Hirosaku Nonomura, Keiichiro Shimizu, and Tomio Wada.
A thin-film-transistor liquid-crystal display (TFT LCD) is a variant of a liquid-crystal display (LCD) that uses thin-film-transistor (TFT) technology to improve image qualities such as addressability and contrast.

LXD Incorporated

In 1971, the company of Fergason, ILIXCO (now LXD Incorporated), produced LCDs based on the TN-effect, which soon superseded the poor-quality DSM types due to improvements of lower operating voltages and lower power consumption.
LXD, Incorporated is one of the first Liquid Crystal Display manufacturers in the world.

Wolfgang Helfrich

On December 4, 1970, the twisted nematic field effect (TN) in liquid crystals was filed for patent by Hoffmann-LaRoche in Switzerland, ( Swiss patent No. 532 261) with Wolfgang Helfrich and Martin Schadt (then working for the Central Research Laboratories) listed as inventors.
Wolfgang Helfrich (born March 25, 1932) is a German physicist and inventor recognized for his contributions to twisted-nematic liquid crystal technology, which is used to produce a variety of modern LCD electronic displays.