Liquid breathing

Liquid ventilationliquid-breathingallowing breathing to continuebreathable fluidbreathable oxygenated liquidbreatheable liquidgreen oxygenated liquidliquid fluorocarbon respirationLiquiVentPartial liquid ventilation
Liquid breathing is a form of respiration in which a normally air-breathing organism breathes an oxygen-rich liquid (such as a perfluorocarbon), rather than breathing air.wikipedia
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Liquid ventilator

Consequently, the total liquid ventilation necessitates a dedicated liquid ventilator similar to a medical ventilator except that it uses a breathable liquid.
A liquid ventilator is similar to a medical ventilator except that it should be able to ensure reliable total liquid ventilation with a breatheable liquid (a perfluorocarbon),.

Respiration (physiology)

respirationrespiratoryrespiratory physiology
Liquid breathing is a form of respiration in which a normally air-breathing organism breathes an oxygen-rich liquid (such as a perfluorocarbon), rather than breathing air.

Perfluorooctane

PF5080
With aerosolized perfluorooctane, significant improvement of oxygenation and pulmonary The aerosol device is of decisive importance for the efficacy of PFC aerosolization, as aerosolization of PF5080 (a less purified FC77) has been shown to be ineffective using a different aerosol device in surfactant-depleted rabbits.
In addition to heat transfer applications, it has also been used as a breathable fluid in partial liquid ventilation.

Lung

lungspulmonaryright lung
In theory, liquid breathing could assist in the treatment of patients with severe pulmonary or cardiac trauma, especially in pediatric cases.

Perfluorohexane

Tetradecafluorohexane (Perfluorohexane)
Vaporization of perfluorohexane with two anesthetic vaporizers calibrated for perfluorohexane has been shown to improve gas exchange in oleic acid-induced lung injury in sheep.
This effect has led to the experimental use of perfluorohexane in treating burn victims, as their lungs can be filled with either perfluorohexane vapor or in extreme cases liquid perfluorohexane, allowing breathing to continue without the problems normally seen with pulmonary edema that sometimes occur when the inside of the lungs have been burnt e.g. by inhalation of hot smoke.

Fluorinert

FC77
The aerosol device is of decisive importance for the efficacy of PFC aerosolization, as aerosolization of PF5080 (a less purified FC77) has been shown to be ineffective using a different aerosol device in surfactant-depleted rabbits.
The science-fiction film The Abyss (1989) depicted an experimental liquid-breathing system, in which the use of highly oxygenated Fluorinert enabled a diver to descend to great depths.

The Abyss

movieThe Abyss'' (Card novel)The Abyss: Special Edition
One SEAL, Ensign Monk, helps Bud use an experimental diving suit equipped with a liquid breathing apparatus to survive to that depth, though he will only be able to communicate through a keypad on the suit.

The Lost Symbol

Trent AndersonPeter SolomonPeter Solomon (The Lost Symbol)
After a near-death experience, Langdon is revealed to have survived due to the "water" in the tank actually being breathable oxygenated liquid and the tank being a device for meditation.

Fluorocarbon

perfluorocarbonperfluorocarbonsfluorocarbons
Liquid breathing is a form of respiration in which a normally air-breathing organism breathes an oxygen-rich liquid (such as a perfluorocarbon), rather than breathing air. Liquid breathing was used in clinical trials after the development by Alliance Pharmaceuticals of the fluorochemical perfluorooctyl bromide, or perflubron for short. Although total liquid ventilation (TLV) with completely liquid-filled lungs can be beneficial, the complex liquid-filled tube system required is a disadvantage compared to gas ventilation—the system must incorporate a membrane oxygenator, heater, and pumps to deliver to, and remove from the lungs tidal volume aliquots of conditioned perfluorocarbon (PFC).

Perflubron

ImagentPerfluorooctyl bromide
Liquid breathing was used in clinical trials after the development by Alliance Pharmaceuticals of the fluorochemical perfluorooctyl bromide, or perflubron for short.
Perflubron has also been tested experimentally for use in liquid breathing in premature infants with respiratory distress.

Artificial gills (human)

Artificial gill
One proposed method is the use of liquid breathing with a membrane oxygenator to solve the problem of carbon dioxide retention, the major limiting factor in liquid breathing.

UFO (TV series)

UFOReflections in the WaterSHADO
Their faces are stained green by the hue of a green oxygenated liquid, which is believed to cushion their lungs against the extreme acceleration of interstellar flight; this liquid is contained in their helmets.

Modes of mechanical ventilation

positive pressure ventilationmode of mechanical ventilationpositive-pressure ventilation
Current methods of positive-pressure ventilation can contribute to the development of lung disease in pre-term neonates, leading to diseases such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

Oxygen

OO 2 molecular oxygen
Liquid breathing is a form of respiration in which a normally air-breathing organism breathes an oxygen-rich liquid (such as a perfluorocarbon), rather than breathing air. In fact, these liquids carry more oxygen and carbon dioxide than blood.

Liquid

liquidsliquid phaseliquid state
Liquid breathing is a form of respiration in which a normally air-breathing organism breathes an oxygen-rich liquid (such as a perfluorocarbon), rather than breathing air.

Atmosphere of Earth

airEarth's atmosphereatmosphere
Liquid breathing is a form of respiration in which a normally air-breathing organism breathes an oxygen-rich liquid (such as a perfluorocarbon), rather than breathing air.

Carbon dioxide

CO 2 CO2carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
In fact, these liquids carry more oxygen and carbon dioxide than blood.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
In theory, liquid breathing could assist in the treatment of patients with severe pulmonary or cardiac trauma, especially in pediatric cases.

Underwater diving

divingdiversdiver
Liquid breathing has also been proposed for use in deep diving and space travel.

Human spaceflight

space travelmannedmanned spaceflight
Liquid breathing has also been proposed for use in deep diving and space travel.

Torr

mmHgmm Hgmillimeters of mercury
Total liquid ventilation, however, has difficulty moving enough liquid to carry away CO 2, because no matter how great the total pressure is, the amount of partial CO 2 gas pressure available to dissolve CO 2 into the breathing liquid can never be much more than the pressure at which CO 2 exists in the blood (about 40 mm of mercury (Torr)).

Membrane oxygenator

membrane oxygenation
Although total liquid ventilation (TLV) with completely liquid-filled lungs can be beneficial, the complex liquid-filled tube system required is a disadvantage compared to gas ventilation—the system must incorporate a membrane oxygenator, heater, and pumps to deliver to, and remove from the lungs tidal volume aliquots of conditioned perfluorocarbon (PFC).

Tidal volume

end tidallung capacity
Although total liquid ventilation (TLV) with completely liquid-filled lungs can be beneficial, the complex liquid-filled tube system required is a disadvantage compared to gas ventilation—the system must incorporate a membrane oxygenator, heater, and pumps to deliver to, and remove from the lungs tidal volume aliquots of conditioned perfluorocarbon (PFC).

Aliquot

aliquots
Although total liquid ventilation (TLV) with completely liquid-filled lungs can be beneficial, the complex liquid-filled tube system required is a disadvantage compared to gas ventilation—the system must incorporate a membrane oxygenator, heater, and pumps to deliver to, and remove from the lungs tidal volume aliquots of conditioned perfluorocarbon (PFC).

Microprocessor

microprocessorsprocessorprocessors
One research group led by Thomas H. Shaffer has maintained that with the use of microprocessors and new technology, it is possible to maintain better control of respiratory variables such as liquid functional residual capacity and tidal volume during TLV than with gas ventilation.