List of Indo-European languages

languages and dialectsIndo-European language family
[[File:Indo-European branches map.svg|thumb|200x200px|The approximate present-day distribution of the Indo-European branches within their homelands of Europe and Asia:wikipedia
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Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
The Indo-European languages include some 449 (SIL estimate, 2018 edition ) languages and dialects spoken by about or more than 3.5 billion people (roughly half of the world population).
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

Indo-European migrations

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European expansionIndo-Europeans
The ancestral population and language, Proto-Indo-Europeans that spoke Proto-Indo-European, estimated to have lived about 4500 BCE (6500 BP), at some time in the past, starting about 4000 BCE (6000 BP) expanded through migration and cultural influence.
From his initial intuitions developed the establishment of the Indo-European language family, which consists of several hundred related languages and dialects.

Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-EuropeanPIEIndo-European
The ancestral population and language, Proto-Indo-Europeans that spoke Proto-Indo-European, estimated to have lived about 4500 BCE (6500 BP), at some time in the past, starting about 4000 BCE (6000 BP) expanded through migration and cultural influence.

Multilingualism

bilingualmultilingualpolyglot
Dotted/striped areas indicate where multilingualism is common.]]

SIL International

Summer Institute of LinguisticsSILInstituto de Lingüístico Verano
The Indo-European languages include some 449 (SIL estimate, 2018 edition ) languages and dialects spoken by about or more than 3.5 billion people (roughly half of the world population).

Europe

EuropeanEUEuropean continent
Most of the major languages belonging to language branches and groups of Europe, and Western and southern Asia, belong to the Indo-European language family.

Asia

AsianAsian continentAsian countries
Most of the major languages belonging to language branches and groups of Europe, and Western and southern Asia, belong to the Indo-European language family.

Language family

language familiesfamilyLanguage families and languages
Most of the major languages belonging to language branches and groups of Europe, and Western and southern Asia, belong to the Indo-European language family.

De facto

de facto relationshipde-factode facto'' segregation
One of these languages, English, is the de facto World Lingua Franca with an estimate of over one billion second language speakers.

Lingua franca

trade languagecommon languagelingua francas
One of these languages, English, is the de facto World Lingua Franca with an estimate of over one billion second language speakers.

Dialect continuum

dialect clusterdialect chaincontinuum
A distinction between a language and a dialect is not clear-cut and simple because there is, in many cases, several dialect continuums, transitional dialects and languages and also because there is no consensual standard to what amount of vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and prosody differences there is a language or there is a dialect (mutual intelligibility can be a standard but there are closely related languages that are also mutual intelligible to some degree, even if it is an asymmetric intelligibility).

Vocabulary

vocabularieslexicalactive vocabulary
A distinction between a language and a dialect is not clear-cut and simple because there is, in many cases, several dialect continuums, transitional dialects and languages and also because there is no consensual standard to what amount of vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and prosody differences there is a language or there is a dialect (mutual intelligibility can be a standard but there are closely related languages that are also mutual intelligible to some degree, even if it is an asymmetric intelligibility).

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
A distinction between a language and a dialect is not clear-cut and simple because there is, in many cases, several dialect continuums, transitional dialects and languages and also because there is no consensual standard to what amount of vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and prosody differences there is a language or there is a dialect (mutual intelligibility can be a standard but there are closely related languages that are also mutual intelligible to some degree, even if it is an asymmetric intelligibility).

Pronunciation

pronouncedpronouncepronouncing
A distinction between a language and a dialect is not clear-cut and simple because there is, in many cases, several dialect continuums, transitional dialects and languages and also because there is no consensual standard to what amount of vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and prosody differences there is a language or there is a dialect (mutual intelligibility can be a standard but there are closely related languages that are also mutual intelligible to some degree, even if it is an asymmetric intelligibility).

Prosody (linguistics)

prosodyprosodicsuprasegmental
A distinction between a language and a dialect is not clear-cut and simple because there is, in many cases, several dialect continuums, transitional dialects and languages and also because there is no consensual standard to what amount of vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and prosody differences there is a language or there is a dialect (mutual intelligibility can be a standard but there are closely related languages that are also mutual intelligible to some degree, even if it is an asymmetric intelligibility).

Mutual intelligibility

mutually intelligiblemutually unintelligibleintelligible
A distinction between a language and a dialect is not clear-cut and simple because there is, in many cases, several dialect continuums, transitional dialects and languages and also because there is no consensual standard to what amount of vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and prosody differences there is a language or there is a dialect (mutual intelligibility can be a standard but there are closely related languages that are also mutual intelligible to some degree, even if it is an asymmetric intelligibility).

Culture

culturalculturesculturally
The ancestral population and language, Proto-Indo-Europeans that spoke Proto-Indo-European, estimated to have lived about 4500 BCE (6500 BP), at some time in the past, starting about 4000 BCE (6000 BP) expanded through migration and cultural influence.

Acculturation

acculturatedacculturateacculturating
This started a complex process of population blend or population replacement, acculturation and language change of peoples in many regions of western and southern Eurasia.

Language change

corruptioncorruptedlinguistic corruption
This started a complex process of population blend or population replacement, acculturation and language change of peoples in many regions of western and southern Eurasia.

Eurasia

EurasianEurasian continentWestern Eurasia
This started a complex process of population blend or population replacement, acculturation and language change of peoples in many regions of western and southern Eurasia. At the end of the second millennium BC Indo-European speakers were many millions and lived in a vast geographical area in most of western and southern Eurasia (including western Central Asia).

Central Asia

Central AsianCentralCentral Asian Republics
At the end of the second millennium BC Indo-European speakers were many millions and lived in a vast geographical area in most of western and southern Eurasia (including western Central Asia).

North Asia

Northern AsiaAsian RussiaNorthern
However, in the second half of the second millennium AD, Indo-European languages expanded their territories to North Asia (Siberia), through Russian expansion, and North America, South America, Australia and New Zealand as the result of the age of European discoveries and European conquests through the expansions of the Portuguese, Spanish, French, English and the Dutch (these peoples had the biggest continental or maritime empires in the world and their countries were major powers).