List of treaties to which the United States has been a party or which have had direct relevance to U.S. history.- List of United States treaties
The occupiers specifically cited their treatment under the Indian termination policy and they accused the U.S. government of breaking numerous Indian treaties.- Occupation of Alcatraz
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Native Americans, also known as First Americans, Indigenous Americans, American Indians, and other terms, are the Indigenous people of the United States, including Hawaii and territories of the United States, and other times limited to the mainland.
After its formation, the United States, as part of its policy of settler colonialism, continued to wage war and perpetrated massacres against many Native American peoples, removed them from their ancestral lands, and subjected them to one-sided treaties and to discriminatory government policies, later focused on forced assimilation, into the 20th century.
Military service and urban residency contributed to the rise of American Indian activism, particularly after the 1960s and the occupation of Alcatraz Island (1969–1971) by a student Indian group from San Francisco.
Native American grassroots movement founded in July 1968 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, initially centered in urban areas to address systemic issues of poverty, discrimination, and police brutality against Native Americans.
From November 1969 to June 1971, AIM participated in the occupation of the abandoned federal penitentiary known as Alcatraz, organized by seven Indian movements, including the Indians of All Tribes and Richard Oakes, a Mohawk activist. In October 1972, AIM and other Indian groups gathered members from across the United States for a protest in Washington, D.C., known as the Trail of Broken Treaties.
Small island in San Francisco Bay, 1.25 mi offshore from San Francisco, California, United States.
Beginning in November 1969, the island was occupied for more than 19 months by a group of Native Americans, initially primarily from San Francisco, who were later joined by AIM and other urban Indians from other parts of the country, who were part of a wave of Native American activists organizing public protests across the US through the 1970s.
Social movement led by Native American youth to demand self-determination for Native Americans in the United States.
Events that were part of the movement include the Occupation of Alcatraz, the Trail of Broken Treaties, the Occupation of Wounded Knee, along with intermittent protests and occupations throughout the era.
The Bannock tribe were originally Northern Paiute but are more culturally affiliated with the Northern Shoshone.
LaNada War Jack, leader of the Third World Strikes and the Occupation of Alcatraz, activist, tribal politician, and academic
Mohawk Native American activist.
The Occupation of Alcatraz is credited for opening a rediscovered unity among all Native American tribes.
Native American author, poet, actor, musician, and political activist.
He was the spokesperson for the Indians of All Tribes' takeover of Alcatraz beginning in 1969, broadcasting as Radio Free Alcatraz.
American actor and producer who has worked in film and on television.
An activist for Native American rights, his mother took Bratt (age 6) and her other children to participate in the 1969 Native American occupation of Alcatraz.
Oglala Lakota activist for the rights of Native Americans, libertarian political activist, actor, musician, and writer.
Means participated in the 1969 Alcatraz occupation.
American writer and activist.
A few months later, she became one of the organizers of the Occupation of Alcatraz in 1969.