The Moroccan-American Treaty of Peace and Friendship, sealed by Sultan Mohammed III.
Graffiti from the occupation of Alcatraz as it appeared in 2010
Graffiti on the Water Tower
Graffiti from the occupation, featuring a Navajo greeting, "Yata Hey"

List of treaties to which the United States has been a party or which have had direct relevance to U.S. history.

- List of United States treaties

The occupiers specifically cited their treatment under the Indian termination policy and they accused the U.S. government of breaking numerous Indian treaties.

- Occupation of Alcatraz

95 related topics


Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans, also known as First Americans, Indigenous Americans, American Indians, and other terms, are the Indigenous people of the United States, including Hawaii and territories of the United States, and other times limited to the mainland.

Comanche Indians Chasing Buffalo with Lances and Bows, by George Catlin
The Cultural areas of pre-Columbian North America, according to Alfred Kroeber
This map shows the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites (Clovis theory).
A Folsom point for a spear
Artists conception of Ohio Hopewell culture Shriver Circle with the Mound City Group to the left
Cahokia, the largest Mississippian culture site
Map showing the approximate locations of the Native American nations circa 16th century
Discovery of the Mississippi by William Henry Powell (1823–1879) is a Romantic depiction of Spanish explorer de Soto's seeing the Mississippi River for the first time. It hangs in the United States Capitol rotunda.
1882 studio portrait of the (then) last surviving Six Nations warriors who fought with the British in the War of 1812
Early Native American tribal territories color-coded by linguistic group
The Treaty of Penn with the Indians by Benjamin West, painted in 1771
Yamacraw Creek Native Americans meet with the Trustee of the colony of Georgia in England, July 1734. The painting shows a Native American boy (in a blue coat) and woman (in a red dress) in European clothing.
Benjamin Hawkins, seen here on his plantation, teaches Creek Native Americans how to use European technology, painted in 1805
Native-controlled territories in the West, 1836
Tecumseh was the Shawnee leader of Tecumseh's War who attempted to organize an alliance of Native American tribes throughout North America.
The Rescue sculpture stood outside the U.S. Capitol between 1853 and 1958. A work commissioned by the U.S. government, its sculptor Horatio Greenough wrote that it was "to convey the idea of the triumph of the whites over the savage tribes".
Mass grave for the dead Lakota following the 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre, which took place during the Indian Wars in the 19th century
Ely Parker (of the Seneca people) was a Union Civil War general who wrote the terms of surrender between the United States and the Confederate States of America.
Republican Charles Curtis, of Kaw, Osage, Potawatomi, French and British ancestry from Kansas, was 31st vice president of the United States, 1929–1933, serving with Republican Herbert Hoover.
General Douglas MacArthur meeting Navajo, Pima, Pawnee and other Native American troops
A Navajo man on horseback in Monument Valley, Arizona, United States
Byron Mallott, an Alaskan Native, was the lieutenant governor of Alaska.
Proportion of Indigenous Americans in each U.S. state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico as of the 2020 United States Census
This Census Bureau map depicts the locations of differing Native American groups, including Indian reservations, as of 2000. Note the concentration (blue) in modern-day Oklahoma in the South West, which was once designated as an Indian Territory before statehood in 1907.
Indian reservations in the continental United States
Native peoples are concerned about the effects of abandoned uranium mines on or near their lands.
National Indian Youth Council demonstrations, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office
A discriminatory sign posted above a bar. Birney, Montana, 1941
Chief Plenty Coups and seven Crow prisoners under guard at Crow agency, Montana, 1887
Protest against the name of the Washington Redskins in Minneapolis, November 2014
Secotan Indians' dance in North Carolina. Watercolor by John White, 1585
Sandia Casino, owned by the Sandia Pueblo of New Mexico
Three Native American women in Warm Springs Indian Reservation, Wasco County, Oregon (1902)
Geronimo, Chiricahua Apache leader. Photograph by Frank A. Rinehart (1898).
Pre-contact: distribution of North American language families, including northern Mexico
Oklahoma Cherokee language immersion school student writing in the Cherokee syllabary
The Cherokee language taught to preschoolers as a first language, at New Kituwah Academy
Maize grown by Native Americans
Ojibwe baby waits on a cradleboard while parents tend wild rice crops (Minnesota, 1940).
Frybread, made into an Indian taco.
Makah Native Americans and a whale, The King of the Seas in the Hands of the Makahs, 1910 photograph by Asahel Curtis
Saint Kateri Tekakwitha, the patron of ecologists, exiles, and orphans, was canonized by the Catholic Church.
Baptism of Pocahontas was painted in 1840 by John Gadsby Chapman, who depicts Pocahontas, wearing white, being baptized Rebecca by Anglican minister Alexander Whiteaker (left) in Jamestown, Virginia. This event is believed to have taken place either in 1613 or 1614.
Susan La Flesche Picotte was the first Native American woman to become a physician in the United States.
Jim Thorpe—gold medalist at the 1912 Olympics, in the pentathlon and decathlon events
Ball players from the Choctaw and Lakota tribe in a 19th-century lithograph by George Catlin
Billy Mills crosses the finish line at the end of the 10,000-meter race at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics.
Fancy Dancer at the Seafair Indian Days Pow-Wow, Daybreak Star Cultural Center, Seattle, Washington
Jake Fragua, Jemez Pueblo from New Mexico
Lillian Gross, described as a "Mixed Blood" by the Smithsonian source, was of Cherokee and European-American heritage. She identified with the Cherokee culture in which she was raised.
The 1725 return of an Osage bride from a trip to Paris, France. The Osage woman was married to a French soldier.
Five Indians and a Captive, painted by Carl Wimar, 1855
Charles Eastman was one of the first Native Americans to become certified as a medical doctor, after he graduated from Boston University.
Buffalo Soldiers, 1890. The nickname was given to the "Black Cavalry" by the Native American tribes they fought.
Ben Nighthorse Campbell, one of only four Native Americans elected to the U.S. Senate
Sharice Davids became one of the first two Native American women elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
Deb Haaland became one of the first two Native American women elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
Yvette Herrell became the first Cherokee woman elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
Ada E. Brown, a citizen of the Choctaw Nation with mixed-African-American heritage, nominated by President Donald Trump in 2019 to be a federal judge in Texas
Members of the Creek (Muscogee) Nation in Oklahoma around 1877; they include men with some European and African ancestry.

After its formation, the United States, as part of its policy of settler colonialism, continued to wage war and perpetrated massacres against many Native American peoples, removed them from their ancestral lands, and subjected them to one-sided treaties and to discriminatory government policies, later focused on forced assimilation, into the 20th century.

Military service and urban residency contributed to the rise of American Indian activism, particularly after the 1960s and the occupation of Alcatraz Island (1969–1971) by a student Indian group from San Francisco.

American Indian Movement

Native American grassroots movement founded in July 1968 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, initially centered in urban areas to address systemic issues of poverty, discrimination, and police brutality against Native Americans.

An American Indian Movement tipi on the grounds of the Washington Monument
A participant at the raising of the John T. Williams Memorial Totem Pole in Seattle wears the AIM colors on their jacket, February 26, 2012
Members of AIM tore down the statue of Christopher Columbus outside the Minnesota State Capitol in June 2020 during the George Floyd protests

From November 1969 to June 1971, AIM participated in the occupation of the abandoned federal penitentiary known as Alcatraz, organized by seven Indian movements, including the Indians of All Tribes and Richard Oakes, a Mohawk activist.[4] In October 1972, AIM and other Indian groups gathered members from across the United States for a protest in Washington, D.C., known as the Trail of Broken Treaties.

Alcatraz Island

Small island in San Francisco Bay, 1.25 mi offshore from San Francisco, California, United States.

The Social Hall, destroyed by fire during the Native American occupation.
Alcatraz Island, 1895.
Alcatraz in the dawn mist, from the east. The "parade ground" is at left.
Alcatraz Island and lighthouse at sunset
The water tower and powerhouse (at right), which generated electricity for the island.
A model of Military Point Alcatraz, 1866–1868, now on display at Alcatraz Island
Model of the prison in present day, on display at Alcatraz Island
The lighthouse tower adjacent to the prison cell house
Alcatraz citadel built in the early 1850s; 1908 photo
An exterior view of the Alcatraz main cell block from the exercise yard.
Cell 181 in Alcatraz where Al Capone was imprisoned
A lingering sign of the 1969–71 Native American occupation
The Alcatraz cellhouse, lighthouse, and Warden's House, which was burned out during the 1969–71 Native American occupation
Map of Alcatraz
Brandt's cormorant nesting on Alcatraz Island
Flowers on Alcatraz
A panorama of Alcatraz as viewed from San Francisco Bay, facing east. Sather Tower and UC Berkeley are visible in the background on the right. (Drag image left and right to show full panorama.)
Different view of the Water Tower built in 1940.
Alcatraz Utility House and Power Plant Chimney, built in 1939.
School House (two story building in the middle) and the Electric Repair shop (foreground) built in 1930s.
thumb|Alcatraz, outside (2012)
thumb|Alcatraz, hallway (2013)
Views of both long sides of the island.
Alcatraz Island harbor guards tower.
Alcatraz Island view from the west. Image shot from an altitude of approximately {{convert|1800|ft|0|abbr=on}}.
Alcatraz view from tour boat.
Basement of Alcatraz
Alcatraz citadel built in the early 1850s; 1908 photo

Beginning in November 1969, the island was occupied for more than 19 months by a group of Native Americans, initially primarily from San Francisco, who were later joined by AIM and other urban Indians from other parts of the country, who were part of a wave of Native American activists organizing public protests across the US through the 1970s.

Red Power movement

Social movement led by Native American youth to demand self-determination for Native Americans in the United States.

Flag of the American Indian Movement
Sign in Alcatraz (1969)
BIA seal

Events that were part of the movement include the Occupation of Alcatraz, the Trail of Broken Treaties, the Occupation of Wounded Knee, along with intermittent protests and occupations throughout the era.

Bannock people

The Bannock tribe were originally Northern Paiute but are more culturally affiliated with the Northern Shoshone.

Bannock people in Idaho
Map of lands traditionally inhabited by the Bannock
Illustration by Frederic Remington of a Bannock hunting party fording the Snake River during the Bannock War of 1895

LaNada War Jack, leader of the Third World Strikes and the Occupation of Alcatraz, activist, tribal politician, and academic

Richard Oakes (activist)

Mohawk Native American activist.

Graffiti from the occupation, featuring a Navajo greeting, "Yata Hey"

The Occupation of Alcatraz is credited for opening a rediscovered unity among all Native American tribes.

John Trudell

Native American author, poet, actor, musician, and political activist.

Trudell in 1997

He was the spokesperson for the Indians of All Tribes' takeover of Alcatraz beginning in 1969, broadcasting as Radio Free Alcatraz.

Benjamin Bratt

American actor and producer who has worked in film and on television.

Bratt in 2013
Bratt on the red carpet at the premiere of The Great Raid in Washington
Bratt at San Francisco Memorial Day parade Grand Master, in 2010

An activist for Native American rights, his mother took Bratt (age 6) and her other children to participate in the 1969 Native American occupation of Alcatraz.

Russell Means

Oglala Lakota activist for the rights of Native Americans, libertarian political activist, actor, musician, and writer.

Means at the Illinois Libertarian Party convention in Chicago, Illinois, at the time he was running for the Libertarian Party nomination for president in 1988
Russell Means speaks against the War on Terror at a DC Anti-War Network's anti-war protest on November 11, 2001.

Means participated in the 1969 Alcatraz occupation.

LaNada War Jack

American writer and activist.

A few months later, she became one of the organizers of the Occupation of Alcatraz in 1969.