The Moroccan-American Treaty of Peace and Friendship, sealed by Sultan Mohammed III.
Deadwood, like many other Black Hills towns, was founded after the discovery of gold.
A harvest in South Dakota, 1898
A South Dakota farm during the Dust Bowl, 1936. Normal tilling practices turn South Dakota's fragile soil into a fine, loose powder that blows away, and sometimes covered vehicles, equipment, and buildings with dust during the Dust Bowl.
Terrain and primary geographic features of South Dakota
Badlands National Park
The Black Hills, a low mountain range, is located in Southwestern South Dakota.
Much of western South Dakota is covered by buttes.
Köppen climate types in South Dakota
Mount Rushmore in the Black Hills
South Dakota population density map
Indian reservations in South Dakota
East Side Lutheran Church, Sioux Falls
A B-1B Lancer lifts off from Ellsworth Air Force Base, one of South Dakota's largest employers
Ethanol plant in Turner County
Beaver Creek Bridge in Wind Cave National Park
The South Dakota State Capitol in Pierre
Congressional delegation in 2015: (from left) Senator Mike Rounds, Senator John Thune, and Representative Kristi Noem.
Nicholas Black Elk with his family, circa 1910
Sioux Falls, with a population of around 180,000, is the largest city in South Dakota.
The Coughlin Campanile, a landmark on the campus of South Dakota State University in Brookings
A tunnel along the George S. Mickelson Trail in the Black Hills

List of treaties to which the United States has been a party or which have had direct relevance to U.S. history.

- List of United States treaties

Settlement by Americans and Europeans was by this time increasing rapidly, and in 1858 the Yankton Sioux signed the 1858 Treaty, ceding most of present-day eastern South Dakota to the United States.

- South Dakota

500 related topics


Native Americans in the United States

Native Americans, also known as First Americans, Indigenous Americans, American Indians, and other terms, are the Indigenous people of the United States, including Hawaii and territories of the United States, and other times limited to the mainland.

Comanche Indians Chasing Buffalo with Lances and Bows, by George Catlin
The Cultural areas of pre-Columbian North America, according to Alfred Kroeber
This map shows the approximate location of the ice-free corridor and specific Paleoindian sites (Clovis theory).
A Folsom point for a spear
Artists conception of Ohio Hopewell culture Shriver Circle with the Mound City Group to the left
Cahokia, the largest Mississippian culture site
Map showing the approximate locations of the Native American nations circa 16th century
Discovery of the Mississippi by William Henry Powell (1823–1879) is a Romantic depiction of Spanish explorer de Soto's seeing the Mississippi River for the first time. It hangs in the United States Capitol rotunda.
1882 studio portrait of the (then) last surviving Six Nations warriors who fought with the British in the War of 1812
Early Native American tribal territories color-coded by linguistic group
The Treaty of Penn with the Indians by Benjamin West, painted in 1771
Yamacraw Creek Native Americans meet with the Trustee of the colony of Georgia in England, July 1734. The painting shows a Native American boy (in a blue coat) and woman (in a red dress) in European clothing.
Benjamin Hawkins, seen here on his plantation, teaches Creek Native Americans how to use European technology, painted in 1805
Native-controlled territories in the West, 1836
Tecumseh was the Shawnee leader of Tecumseh's War who attempted to organize an alliance of Native American tribes throughout North America.
The Rescue sculpture stood outside the U.S. Capitol between 1853 and 1958. A work commissioned by the U.S. government, its sculptor Horatio Greenough wrote that it was "to convey the idea of the triumph of the whites over the savage tribes".
Mass grave for the dead Lakota following the 1890 Wounded Knee Massacre, which took place during the Indian Wars in the 19th century
Ely Parker (of the Seneca people) was a Union Civil War general who wrote the terms of surrender between the United States and the Confederate States of America.
Republican Charles Curtis, of Kaw, Osage, Potawatomi, French and British ancestry from Kansas, was 31st vice president of the United States, 1929–1933, serving with Republican Herbert Hoover.
General Douglas MacArthur meeting Navajo, Pima, Pawnee and other Native American troops
A Navajo man on horseback in Monument Valley, Arizona, United States
Byron Mallott, an Alaskan Native, was the lieutenant governor of Alaska.
Proportion of Indigenous Americans in each U.S. state, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico as of the 2020 United States Census
This Census Bureau map depicts the locations of differing Native American groups, including Indian reservations, as of 2000. Note the concentration (blue) in modern-day Oklahoma in the South West, which was once designated as an Indian Territory before statehood in 1907.
Indian reservations in the continental United States
Native peoples are concerned about the effects of abandoned uranium mines on or near their lands.
National Indian Youth Council demonstrations, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office
A discriminatory sign posted above a bar. Birney, Montana, 1941
Chief Plenty Coups and seven Crow prisoners under guard at Crow agency, Montana, 1887
Protest against the name of the Washington Redskins in Minneapolis, November 2014
Secotan Indians' dance in North Carolina. Watercolor by John White, 1585
Sandia Casino, owned by the Sandia Pueblo of New Mexico
Three Native American women in Warm Springs Indian Reservation, Wasco County, Oregon (1902)
Geronimo, Chiricahua Apache leader. Photograph by Frank A. Rinehart (1898).
Pre-contact: distribution of North American language families, including northern Mexico
Oklahoma Cherokee language immersion school student writing in the Cherokee syllabary
The Cherokee language taught to preschoolers as a first language, at New Kituwah Academy
Maize grown by Native Americans
Ojibwe baby waits on a cradleboard while parents tend wild rice crops (Minnesota, 1940).
Frybread, made into an Indian taco.
Makah Native Americans and a whale, The King of the Seas in the Hands of the Makahs, 1910 photograph by Asahel Curtis
Saint Kateri Tekakwitha, the patron of ecologists, exiles, and orphans, was canonized by the Catholic Church.
Baptism of Pocahontas was painted in 1840 by John Gadsby Chapman, who depicts Pocahontas, wearing white, being baptized Rebecca by Anglican minister Alexander Whiteaker (left) in Jamestown, Virginia. This event is believed to have taken place either in 1613 or 1614.
Susan La Flesche Picotte was the first Native American woman to become a physician in the United States.
Jim Thorpe—gold medalist at the 1912 Olympics, in the pentathlon and decathlon events
Ball players from the Choctaw and Lakota tribe in a 19th-century lithograph by George Catlin
Billy Mills crosses the finish line at the end of the 10,000-meter race at the 1964 Tokyo Olympics.
Fancy Dancer at the Seafair Indian Days Pow-Wow, Daybreak Star Cultural Center, Seattle, Washington
Jake Fragua, Jemez Pueblo from New Mexico
Lillian Gross, described as a "Mixed Blood" by the Smithsonian source, was of Cherokee and European-American heritage. She identified with the Cherokee culture in which she was raised.
The 1725 return of an Osage bride from a trip to Paris, France. The Osage woman was married to a French soldier.
Five Indians and a Captive, painted by Carl Wimar, 1855
Charles Eastman was one of the first Native Americans to become certified as a medical doctor, after he graduated from Boston University.
Buffalo Soldiers, 1890. The nickname was given to the "Black Cavalry" by the Native American tribes they fought.
Ben Nighthorse Campbell, one of only four Native Americans elected to the U.S. Senate
Sharice Davids became one of the first two Native American women elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
Deb Haaland became one of the first two Native American women elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
Yvette Herrell became the first Cherokee woman elected to the U.S. House of Representatives.
Ada E. Brown, a citizen of the Choctaw Nation with mixed-African-American heritage, nominated by President Donald Trump in 2019 to be a federal judge in Texas
Members of the Creek (Muscogee) Nation in Oklahoma around 1877; they include men with some European and African ancestry.

After its formation, the United States, as part of its policy of settler colonialism, continued to wage war and perpetrated massacres against many Native American peoples, removed them from their ancestral lands, and subjected them to one-sided treaties and to discriminatory government policies, later focused on forced assimilation, into the 20th century.

A Ghost Dance ritual on the Northern Lakota reservation at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, led to the U.S. Army's attempt to subdue the Lakota.


The Sioux or Oceti Sakowin (Dakota: Očhéthi Šakówiŋ /otʃʰeːtʰi ʃakoːwĩ/) are groups of Native American tribes and First Nations peoples in North America.

Chief Black Tail Deer and his family at the 1904 World's Fair
Thiyóšpaye at Pine Ridge, South Dakota, c. 1890
Ledger artwork by Lakota artist Black Hawk representing a Heyókȟa, (dreamer of a Wakíŋyaŋ, thunder being), c.1880
Chief Red Cloud and other Lakota leaders, c. 1865-1880
Funeral scaffold of a Sioux chief (Karl Bodmer)
Summerhouse of Wahpeton bands, by Karl Bodmer painted 1832 in Minnesota
Yankton Pipestone Quarries as seen by George Catlin in 1836
Map showing the boundaries of the 1851 Treaty of Traverse des Sioux land cession area (Royce Area 289)
Little Crow, Leader of the Mdewakanton during the 1862 Dakota War, c. 1863
Drawing of the mass hanging of Dakota in Mankato, Minnesota
Illustration of Indians hunting the bison by Karl Bodmer
The Lands of the 1851 Ft. Laramie Treaty
Map showing the major battles of Red Cloud's War, along with major treaty boundaries. During Red Cloud's War, the Sioux defeated the US Army on the same plains on which they previously defeated the Crow
Sioux Indian police lined up on horseback in front of Pine Ridge Agency buildings, Dakota Territory, August 9, 1882
Great Sioux Reservation, 1888; established by Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)
Mass grave for the dead Lakota after massacre of Wounded Knee.
Map showing the Great Sioux Reservation and current reservations in North and South Dakota
Children with their chickens, Standing Rock Agency (1947)
Solen Basketball team, Standing Rock Agency (1947)
Wounded Knee AIM veterans (2013)
Demonstration in support of Standing Rock to stop DAPL occurred all over the world throughout 2016 and in March 2017 in Washington, DC
Chief Bone Necklace, an Oglala Lakota from the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation (1899)
Santee Dakota, Yankton-Yanktonai and Lakota historic distribution (the map still misnames the Yankton-Yanktonai grouping as Nakota)
Portrait of Stella Yellow Shirt and her baby (Dakota, 1899)
Sioux cradleboard
Family members of U.S. Army Master Sgt. Woodrow Wilson Keeble attending his Medal of Honor ceremony
Location of Sioux tribes prior to 1770 (dark green) and their current reservations (orange) in the US
Chiefs Red Cloud and American Horse (1891)
Running Antelope, a Hunkpapa Lakota Chief, depicted on the US 1899 $5 silver certificate.
Woodrow Keeble, Medal of Honor recipient.

Today, the Sioux maintain many separate tribal governments scattered across several reservations, communities, and reserves in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Montana in the United States; and Manitoba, southern Saskatchewan, and Alberta in Canada.

Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)

Agreement between the United States and the Oglala, Miniconjou, and Brulé bands of Lakota people, Yanktonai Dakota and Arapaho Nation, following the failure of the first Fort Laramie treaty, signed in 1851.

General William T. Sherman (third from left) and Commissioners in council with chiefs and headmen, Fort Laramie, 1868
Map 1. Some of the 1851 Fort Laramie territories. Later and at different times, each tribe would enter into new treaties with the US. The result was an often-changing patchwork of bigger and smaller parts of the initial allocations, newly established reservations, and former tribal land turned into new US territory. The bold outline shows the 1851 Sioux treaty area.
Map 2. Map showing the major battles of Red Cloud's War, along with major treaty boundaries. During Red Cloud’s War, the Sioux defeated the US Army on the same plains on which they previously defeated the Crow. In 1868, the US and the Sioux entered into negotiations regarding the western Powder River area, although neither held the treaty rights to the land.
Map 3. By right of article I in the 1868 treaty, the US compensated the Pawnee with annuities owed the Sioux, after the Massacre Canyon battle in Nebraska on August 5, 1873. The Pawnee received $9,000.
Front page of 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie, from the US National Archives
One of the signature pages from the treaty, including X marks for the tribal leaders, as a substitute for signed names
Fort Laramie Treaty (1851). Definition of Crow territory west of Powder River enlarged
Map of the 1868 Great Sioux Reservation, and the subsequent changes in reservation borders

It established the Great Sioux Reservation including ownership of the Black Hills, and set aside additional lands as "unceded Indian territory" in the areas of South Dakota, Wyoming, and Nebraska, and possibly Montana.

Sioux language

Siouan language spoken by over 30,000 Sioux in the United States and Canada, making it the fifth most spoken indigenous language in the United States or Canada, behind Navajo, Cree, Inuit languages, and Ojibwe.

Page from Dictionary of the Sioux Language, 1866

Since 2019, "the language of the Great Sioux Nation, comprisedof [sic] three dialects, Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota" is the official indigenous language of South Dakota.

North Dakota

U.S. state in the Upper Midwest, named after the indigenous Dakota Sioux.

Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site
North Dakota State Capitol, featuring an Art Deco tower
View of western North Dakota
Köppen climate types of North Dakota
North Dakota population density
Vang Evangelical Lutheran Church in Manfred
Sunflowers in Traill County, North Dakota
North Dakota Mill and Elevator postcard, ca. 1922
Oil well in western North Dakota
Paul Kane witnessed and participated in the annual bison hunt of the Métis in June 1846 on the prairies in Dakota.
Norwegian settlers in front of their sod house in North Dakota in 1898
Interstate 94 in North Dakota, near Gladstone
Building in Bismarck that houses a variety of state agencies: Workforce Safety & Insurance; Retirement & Investment; Parks & Recreation; PERS; Child Support; Commerce; and OBM Risk Management.
Administrative building for the Standing Rock Indian Reservation
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.

North Dakota is bordered by the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba to the north and by the U.S. states of Minnesota to the east, South Dakota to the south, and Montana to the west.


State in the Midwestern region of the United States.

Nebraska in 1718, Guillaume de L'Isle map, with the approximate area of the future state highlighted
Homesteaders in central Nebraska in 1888
A map of Nebraska
Nebraska National Forest
Köppen climate types of Nebraska, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Winter at Scotts Bluff National Monument
Nebraska grain bins and elevator
A cropduster in agrarian Nebraska, far west of Omaha
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election
The Nebraska State Capitol in Lincoln
Football game at the University of Nebraska on September6, 2008

It is bordered by South Dakota to the north; Iowa to the east and Missouri to the southeast, both across the Missouri River; Kansas to the south; Colorado to the southwest; and Wyoming to the west.

Great Plains

Broad expanse of flatland in North America.

The Great Plains near a farming community in central Kansas
Farmland in Sioux and Lyon Counties, Iowa (2013)
Dust cloud moving across the Llano Estacado near Ransom Canyon, Texas
Herd of Plains Bison of various ages resting in Elk Island Park, Alberta
The Great Plains as seen in Minnesota's upland prairie at Glacial Lakes State Park
The High Plains of Kansas, in the Smoky Hills near Nicodemus
Short-grass prairie near the front range of the Rockies in Colorado
View of Lake Lawtonka and wind turbines from Mount Scott, Oklahoma
A tornado touching down in Park County, Colorado, July 23, 2018
American bison (Bison bison), Wichita Mountain Wildlife Refuge, Oklahoma
Excavation of a fossil Daemonelix burrow at Agate Fossil Beds National Monument.
Scotts Bluff National Monument, Nebraska
Buffalo hunt under the wolf-skin mask, George Catlin, 1832–33.
This painting by Alfred Jacob Miller is a portrayal of Plains Indians chasing buffalo over a small cliff. The Walters Art Museum.
Great Plains in North Dakota c. undefined 2007, where communities began settling in the 1870s.
Fort William, the first Fort Laramie, as it looked prior to 1840. Painting from memory by Alfred Jacob Miller
Grange in session, 1873
Withdrawal rates from the Ogallala Aquifer
Wind farm in the plains of West Texas
Black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) National Black-footed Ferret Conservation Center, Colorado
Swift fox (Vulpes velox), Colorado
Lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) on a lek in the Red Hills of Kansas
Great Plains ratsnake (Pantherophis emoryi), Missouri
Great Plains toad (Anaxyrus cognatus)
Homesteaders in central Nebraska in 1886
The Great Plains before the native grasses were plowed under, Haskell County, Kansas, 1897, showing a man near a buffalo wallow
Cattle herd and cowboy, c. 1902
Wheat field on Dutch flats near Mitchell, Nebraska, 1910

The entirety of the U.S. states of Kansas, Nebraska, North Dakota and South Dakota;


State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

Early Indian treaty territories in Montana
Assiniboine family, Montana, 1890–91
Montana Territory in 1865
Chief Joseph and Col. John Gibbon met again on the Big Hole Battlefield site in 1889.
Buffalo Soldiers, Ft. Keogh, Montana, 1890. The nickname was given to the "Black Cavalry" by the Native American tribes they fought.
Mennonite family in Montana, c. 1937
Map of Montana
Relief map of Montana
Saint Mary Lake in Glacier National Park
Belly River in Waterton Lakes National Park
Missouri Breaks region in central Montana
Pompeys Pillar National Monument
Quake Lake was created by a landslide during the 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake.
Temperature and precipitation for Montana's capital city, Helena
Köppen climate types of Montana, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Clark Fork River, Missoula, in autumn
Missoula, the second-largest city in Montana
Montana population density map
Population of Montana 1870–2018
Indian reservations in Montana. Borders are not exact.
Montana ranks 2nd nationally in craft breweries per capita.
First Interstate Center, in downtown Billings, is the tallest building in Montana.
Dancers at Crow Fair in 1941
Montana State Bobcats football at Bobcat Stadium (Montana State University), Bozeman
Lone Mountain at Big Sky Ski Resort
The Big Sky Resort
The Palisades area on the north end of the ski area at Red Lodge Mountain Resort
Guided snowmobile tours in Yellowstone Park
Yellowstone Airport, West Yellowstone, Montana
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election

It is bordered by Idaho to the west; North Dakota and South Dakota to the east; Wyoming to the south; and by the Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, and Saskatchewan to the north.


State in the Midwestern region of the United States, bordered by the Mississippi River to the east and the Missouri River and Big Sioux River to the west.

Excavation of the 3,800-year-old Edgewater Park Site
Iowa in 1718 with the modern state area highlighted
Iowa Territorial Seal
Bellevue along the Mississippi, 1848
Topography of Iowa, with counties and major streams
DeSoto Lake at DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge
Landforms of Iowa, based on Prior (1991)
Köppen climate types of Iowa, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Iowa annual rainfall, in inches
Percent population changes by counties in Iowa, 2000–2009. Dark green counties have gains of more than 5%.
Iowa population density map
Population age comparison between rural Pocahontas County and urban Polk County, illustrating the flight of young adults (red) to urban centers in Iowa
Amana Colonies were founded by German Pietists.
The Christina Reiman Butterfly Wing at Iowa State University, Ames
Skyline of Des Moines, Iowa's capital and largest city
Old Capitol, Iowa City
Inside the Davenport Skybridge
Brucemore, Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Historic Fourth Street, Sioux City
Loess Hills east of Mondamin
The Iowa Great Lakes located primarily in Dickinson County, in the northwestern section of Iowa near the Minnesota border.
Ruins of historic Fort Atkinson
Wood-heated floating sauna on the farm pond
Iowa gross state products by industry, 2009
Harvesting corn in Jones County
Farm in rural Northwest Iowa
Central Iowa cornfield and dairy in June
Mural in Mt. Ayr Post Office, "The Corn Parade" by Orr C. Fischer, commissioned as part of the New Deal
Ethanol plant under construction in Butler County
Wind turbines near Williams
Palmer Chiropractic College in Davenport is the first school of chiropractic in the world.
Iowa's major interstates, larger cities, and counties
The Iowa State Capitol in Des Moines, completed in 1886, is the only state capitol in the United States to feature five domes, a central golden dome surrounded by four smaller ones. It houses the Iowa General Assembly, comprising the Iowa House of Representatives and Iowa Senate.
The Iowa Supreme Court, across from the capitol, is the state's highest court.
Samuel J. Kirkwood, founder of the Iowa Republican Party, abolitionist, and Iowa's Civil War Governor
The Union Block building, Mount Pleasant, scene of early civil rights and women's rights activities
Schaeffer Hall (University of Iowa, Iowa City)
Riverside's "favorite son"
South End Zone of Iowa State University's Jack Trice Stadium in Ames, IA.
Modern Woodmen Park is home to the Quad Cities baseball team.
President Herbert Hoover
Vice President Henry Wallace

It is bordered by six states: Wisconsin to the northeast, Illinois to the east and southeast, Missouri to the south, Nebraska to the west, South Dakota to the northwest, and Minnesota to the north.


State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

The first Fort Laramie as it looked before 1840 (painting from memory by Alfred Jacob Miller)
A backcountry road in the Sierra Madre Range of southeastern Wyoming, near Bridger Peak
Köppen climate types of Wyoming, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
On Interstate 80, leaving Utah
Autumn in the Bighorn Mountains
Teton Range
Green River valley
An enlargeable map of the 23 counties of Wyoming
Since 2016, Wyoming license plates feature Squaretop Mountain in the background
Cheyenne, Wyoming
Casper, Wyoming
Rock Springs, Wyoming
Evanston, Wyoming
Rawlins, Wyoming
Wyoming is home to 12 ski resorts, including Grand Targhee and Jackson Hole.
Wind farm in Uinta County
North Antelope Rochelle Mine, the largest estimated coal mine reserve in the world, as of 2013
A natural gas rig west of the Wind River Range
Major highways of Wyoming
Wind River Canyon
Wyoming terrain map
National Park Service sites map
The largest population centers are Cheyenne (southeast) and Casper.
Wyoming State Capitol building, Cheyenne
State flower of Wyoming: Indian paintbrush
The Rocky Mountain Herbarium at the University of Wyoming
Yellowstone National Park
Devils Tower National Monument
Thunder Basin National Grassland
Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge

Wyoming is bordered by Montana to the north and northwest, South Dakota and Nebraska to the east, Idaho to the west, Utah to the southwest, and Colorado to the south.