A report on List of capitals in the United States

States (highlighted in purple) whose capital city is also its most populous.
States (highlighted in blue) that have changed their capital city at least once.
The Second Continental Congress and the Congress of the Confederation met at Independence Hall at various times between 1775 and 1782.
Federal Hall in New York City, where the United States Congress convened for the first time under the United States Constitution in 1789.
The west front of the current United States Capitol.
The Navajo Nation Council Chamber in Window Rock, Arizona is the center of government for the Navajo Nation
The New Echota Council House (since reconstructed)
Stadt Huys, the original city hall of Albany, New York and meeting place of the Albany Congress in 1754.
The original of Todd's Bear Flag, photographed in 1890
Modern flag of the State of California
Richmond served as the second capital of the Confederate States of America. The city has been Virginia's capital since 1780.
St. Augustine served as Florida's capital from 1565 until the 1820s.

List of capital cities of the United States, including places that serve or have served as federal, state, insular area, territorial, colonial and Native American capitals.

- List of capitals in the United States
States (highlighted in purple) whose capital city is also its most populous.

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Austin, Texas

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Capital city of the U.S. state of Texas, as well as the seat and largest city of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties.

Capital city of the U.S. state of Texas, as well as the seat and largest city of Travis County, with portions extending into Hays and Williamson counties.

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Second capitol building in Austin
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Austin as seen from space, 2020
One of the 15 remaining moonlight towers in Austin
The 2011 Texas drought dried up many of central Texas' waterways. This boat was left to sit in the middle of what is normally a branch of Lake Travis, part of the Colorado River.
Austin covered in snow on February 15, 2021. Photo from ESA.
Map of racial distribution in Austin, 2010 U.S. census. Each dot is 25 people:
Downtown Austin from Congress Avenue Bridge, with Texas State Capitol in background, 2012
Museum of the Weird on Sixth Street
The Emma S. Barrientos Mexican American Cultural Center, located on Lady Bird Lake at 600 River Street
Austin, Texas average monthly rent
Sixth Street on a weekend night
A food truck trailer park in South Austin
2009 Austin City Limits Music Festival with view of stages and Downtown Austin
The State Theater and Paramount Theatre on Congress Avenue in Downtown Austin
View of Austin Central Library from César Chávez Street
The Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library on the University of Texas campus in Austin
The HOPE Outdoor Gallery, overlooked by the historic Texas Military Academy building, the oldest standing educational building in Texas
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H-E-B Center stadium located in Cedar Park, Texas
Ann and Roy Butler Hike-and-Bike Trail along Lady Bird Lake
Sculpture Falls along the Barton Creek Greenbelt
Austin's Deep Eddy Pool is the oldest man-made pool in Texas.
Hamilton Pool Preserve
View of the Colorado River from Covert Park at Mount Bonnell
Austin City Hall
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The University of Texas at Austin
Austin Community College
St. Edward's University
The Pennybacker Bridge is the signature element of Loop 360 in the Texas Hill Country.
Interchange of Interstate 35 and State Highway 45
The Barbara Jordan Terminal at Austin–Bergstrom International Airport
Amtrak's Texas Eagle stops in Austin twice daily
Capital MetroRail train at Downtown Station
The Pfluger Pedestrian Bridge over the Colorado River
Sister city monument in Austin commemorating the relationship with Saltillo

Incorporated on December 27, 1839, it is the 11th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most-populous city in Texas, the second-most-populous state capital city, one of two state capitals with a population of over one million people, after Phoenix, Arizona, and the most populous state capital that is not also the most populous city in its state.

Santa Fe, New Mexico

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Capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico.

Capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico.

The trading post established in 1603
Mapa de los Estados Unidos de Méjico, by John Distrunell, the 1847 map used during the negotiations of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Santa Fe, 1846–1847
Santa Fe, 1882, the railroad era
The reconstruction of the St. Francis Cathedral, with the plaza visible (1885)
1921 Fiesta parade, Santa Fe. Palace of the Governors in background.
February 2003 astronaut photography of the valley of the Rio Grande (including the Rio Grande Gorge) and the Sangre de Cristo Mountains from Santa Fe (bottom center) to north of Taos, taken from the International Space Station (ISS). Santa Fe Baldy peak at lower right. Los Alamos, White Rock, the Valles Caldera, and the Rio Chama at lower left.
Palace of the Governors, established 1609–10, pictured in 2006
Cathedral Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi, built in 1869, pictured in 2004
Homes are territorial- or pueblo-style and stuccoed with flat roofs, 2011.
The Inn at Loretto, a Pueblo Revival-style building near the Plaza in Santa Fe, 2005
Santa Fe wall with mural on doorway
A covered portal on Cathedral Place outside the Museum of Contemporary Native Arts in Santa Fe, New Mexico
The public sculpture Santa Fe Current at City Hall Park
Interior of the Crosby Theatre at the Santa Fe Opera, from the mezzanine
Panoramic view from E. Palace Ave., with Cathedral Park and Cathedral Basilica of St. Francis of Assisi (left), and Museum of Contemporary Native Arts (right)
San Miguel Chapel in Santa Fe is said to be the oldest standing church structure in the U.S. The adobe walls were constructed around A.D. 1610.
El Santuario de Guadalupe, 100 S. Guadalupe St. (downtown), is the oldest extant shrine to the Virgin of Guadalupe in the United States.
The New Mexico Rail Runner Express, with its northern terminus in Santa Fe, services multiple locations in the state.
The Santa Fe Public Library, located downtown, 2009
Fashion designer and filmmaker Tom Ford was raised in Santa Fe after moving from Texas.
Actress Anna Gunn moved to Santa Fe from Oklahoma during her childhood.
Visual artist Georgia O'Keeffe took up residency in Santa Fe during the later years of her life, eventually dying in the city. The Georgia O'Keeffe Museum was built in her honor.

The city was founded in 1610 as the capital of Nuevo México, replacing the previous capital, San Juan de los Caballeros (near modern Española) at San Gabriel de Yungue-Ouinge, which makes it the oldest state capital in the United States.

Skyline of Tokyo, the capital and financial centre of Japan

Capital city

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Municipality holding primary status in a country, state, province, department, or other subnational entity, usually as its seat of the government.

Municipality holding primary status in a country, state, province, department, or other subnational entity, usually as its seat of the government.

Skyline of Tokyo, the capital and financial centre of Japan
The Roman Forum was surrounded by many government buildings as the capital of ancient Rome
The L'Enfant Plan for Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States
The Australian Parliament opened in the small town of Canberra in 1927 as a compromise between the largest cities, Sydney and Melbourne.
The Supreme Court, the seat of Switzerland's judiciary, is in Lausanne, although the executive and legislature are located in Bern.
Parliament House, Singapore. As a city-state, Singapore requires no specific capital.
The Blue Palace, the official residence of Montenegro's president, is in Cetinje, although the executive and legislature are located in Podgorica.
Mariehamn, capital city of Åland, a demilitarized archipelago with self-governance
As the last of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China, Beijing has served as the political center of China for most of the past eight centuries.
Constantinople, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, was the final part of the empire to fall to the Ottoman Turks due to its strong defences.
Countries whose capital is on the coast
Countries whose capital is not on the coast
Countries without a coast
Countries that currently have multiple capital cities
[[List of countries with multiple capitals#More than one capital in the past|Countries that have previously had multiple capital cities, but now only have one capital city]]

Traditional capitals may be economically eclipsed by provincial rivals, e.g. Nanking by Shanghai, Quebec City by Montreal, and numerous US state capitals.

New York City

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Most populous city in the United States.

Most populous city in the United States.

New Amsterdam, centered in the eventual Lower Manhattan, in 1664, the year England took control and renamed it "New York"
Fort George and the City of New York c. 1731. Royal Navy ships of the line are seen guarding what would become New York Harbor.
Columbia University was founded by royal charter in 1754 under the name of King's College.
The Battle of Long Island, the largest battle of the American Revolution, took place in Brooklyn in 1776.
Broadway follows the Native American Wickquasgeck Trail through Manhattan.
The current 5 boroughs of Greater New York as they appeared in 1814. Bronx was in Westchester County, Queens County included modern Nassau County, Kings County had 6 towns, one of which was Brooklyn, New York City is shown by hatching in southern New York County on the island of Manhattan, and Richmond County on Staten Island.
A construction worker atop the Empire State Building as it was being built in 1930. The Chrysler Building is behind him.
Manhattan's Little Italy, Lower East Side, circa 1900
The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village, a designated U.S. National Historic Landmark and National Monument, as the site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots and the cradle of the modern gay rights movement
United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001.
The core of the New York City metropolitan area, with Manhattan Island at its center
Lower and Midtown Manhattan, as seen by a SkySat satellite in 2017
Central Park in Winter by Raymond Speers, in Munsey's Magazine, February 1900
Flushing Meadows–Corona Park was used in both the 1939 and 1964 New York World's Fair, with the Unisphere as the centerpiece of the latter and which remains today.
The Statue of Liberty on Liberty Island in New York Harbor is a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom, democracy, and opportunity.
View of The Pond and Midtown Manhattan from the Gapstow Bridge in Central Park, one of the world's most visited tourist attractions, in 2019
California sea lions play at the Bronx Zoo, the world's largest metropolitan zoo.
A map of racial distribution in New York, 2010 U.S. census. Each dot is 25 people:
The landmark Neo-Gothic Roman Catholic St. Patrick's Cathedral, Midtown Manhattan
Ultra-Orthodox Jewish residents in Brooklyn. Brooklyn has the largest Jewish community in the United States, with approximately 600,000 individuals.
The Islamic Cultural Center of New York in Upper Manhattan was the first mosque built in New York City.
Ganesh Temple in Flushing, Queens, is the oldest Hindu temple in the Western Hemisphere.
The New York Stock Exchange, by a significant margin the world's largest stock exchange per market capitalization of its listed companies, at US$23.1 trillion as of April 2018. Pictured is the exchange's building on Wall Street.
The Deutsche Bank Center as viewed from Central Park West
Times Square is the hub of the Broadway theater district and a media center. It also has one of the highest annual attendance rates of any tourist attraction in the world, estimated at 50 million.
The I Love New York logo, designed by Milton Glaser in 1977
Rockefeller Center is home to NBC Studios.
Times Square Studios, home of Good Morning America
Butler Library at Columbia University, described as one of the most beautiful college libraries in the United States
The Washington Square Arch, an unofficial icon of both New York University (NYU) and its Greenwich Village neighborhood
New York-Presbyterian Hospital, affiliated with Columbia University and Cornell University, the largest hospital and largest private employer in New York City and one of the world's busiest
The New York Police Department (NYPD) is the largest police force in the United States.
Police officers of New York Police Department (NYPD)
The Fire Department of New York (FDNY) is the largest municipal fire department in the United States.
The Stephen A. Schwarzman Headquarters Building of the New York Public Library, at 5th Avenue and 42nd Street
The fast-paced streets of New York City, January 2020
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, part of Museum Mile, is one of the largest museums in the world.
Smorgasburg opened in 2011 as an open-air food market and is part of the Brooklyn Flea.
As of 2012, the city had about 6,000 hybrid taxis (shown) in service, the largest number of any city in North America.
New York City Hall is the oldest City Hall in the United States that still houses its original governmental functions.
The New York County Courthouse houses the New York Supreme Court and other offices.
Eric Adams, the current and 110th Mayor of New York City
New York City is home to the two busiest train stations in the U.S., including Grand Central Terminal.
The New York City Subway is the world's largest rapid transit system by number of stations.
The Port Authority Bus Terminal, the world's busiest bus station, at 8th Avenue and 42nd Street
John F. Kennedy Airport in Queens, the busiest international air passenger gateway to the United States
The Staten Island Ferry shuttles commuters between Manhattan and Staten Island.
Yellow medallion taxicabs are widely recognized icons of the city.
8th Avenue, looking northward ("uptown"). Most streets and avenues in Manhattan's grid plan incorporate a one-way traffic configuration.
The George Washington Bridge, connecting Upper Manhattan (background) from Fort Lee, New Jersey across the Hudson River, is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge.
The growing skyline of Long Island City, Queens (background),<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-10-30/nyc-s-fastest-growing-neighborhood-gets-180-million-investment|title=NYC's Fastest-Growing Neighborhood Gets $180 Million Investment|first=Henry|last=Goldman|date=October 30, 2018|publisher=Bloomberg L.P|access-date=October 30, 2018}}</ref> facing the East River and Manhattan in May 2017
The Grand Concourse in the Bronx, foreground, with Manhattan in the background in February 2018
St. George, Staten Island as seen from the Staten Island Ferry, the world's busiest passenger-only ferry system, shuttling passengers between Manhattan and Staten Island
The Asia gate entrance to the Bronx Zoo, the world's largest metropolitan zoo.
The Spanish Harlem Orchestra. New York City is home to nearly 3 million Latino Americans, the largest Hispanic population of any city outside Latin America and Spain.
The Financial District of Lower Manhattan including Wall Street, the world's principal financial center

New York City was the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, and has been the largest U.S. city since 1790.

Philadelphia

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Largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth most populous city in the U.S., and the second most populous city in the Northeast megalopolis, behind New York City.

Largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth most populous city in the U.S., and the second most populous city in the Northeast megalopolis, behind New York City.

Benjamin Franklin, 1777
Independence Hall on Chestnut Street between 5th and 6th Streets in Philadelphia, where the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution were ratified on July 4, 1776 and June 21, 1788, respectively
An 18th-century map of Philadelphia, circa 1752
Sentinel-2 true-color image of Philadelphia and the Delaware River, September 2020
This 1683 portrait of Philadelphia, created by Thomas Holme, is believed to be the first map ever developed of the city of Philadelphia
Center City Philadelphia's contrasting architectural styles can be seen in One Liberty Place, built between 1985 and 1987 (in the background), and Philadelphia City Hall, built between 1871 and 1901 (in the foreground), July 2009
Philadelphia's Fairmount Park along the Schuylkill River, circa 1900
Map of racial distribution in Philadelphia, 2010 Census. Each dot is 25 people:
Philadelphia's famed Italian Market, part of South Philadelphia's Italian heritage, June 2006
"Leacht Cuimhneacháin na Gael", an Irish famine memorial at Penn's Landing honors the large Irish community (14.2% of the city's population), April 2015
Gayborhood street sign, near Washington Square, April 2007
Philadelphia Episcopal Cathedral of the Episcopal Diocese of Pennsylvania, April 2010
Interior of the Cathedral Basilica of Saints Peter and Paul, built in the 1860s
The Philadelphia Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the United States, October 2009
FMC Tower at Cira Centre South, July 2018
William Penn Charter School, established in 1689, is the oldest Quaker school in the nation
The campus of the University of Pennsylvania, an Ivy League university in Philadelphia and one of the highest ranked universities in the world, November 2005
Medical Hall housing at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, the oldest medical school in the United States
Philadelphia Museum of Art, April 2010
Keys To Community, a bust of Ben Franklin by James Peniston, 2007
Kimmel Center, home of the Philadelphia Orchestra
Curtis Institute of Music, one of the world's premier conservatories
Pat's Steaks and Geno's Steaks in Philadelphia, August 2010
The Flyers play at the Wells Fargo Center, March 2014
Historic Boathouse Row at night on the Schuylkill, a symbol of the city's rich rowing history
Old City Hall served as Philadelphia's town hall from 1800 to 1854.
James A. Byrne United States Courthouse houses the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit and the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.
Jim Kenney, the current and 99th Mayor of Philadelphia
Police Administration Building (the Roundhouse) in Center City, east of Chinatown
Mounted police officer in Center City, 1973
A Philadelphia police cruiser on Benjamin Franklin Parkway
Inquirer Building at 400 North Broad Street was home of The Philadelphia Inquirer, the third longest continuously published newspaper in the United States, until 2012. It is currently undergoing renovations to become the new headquarters of the Philadelphia Police Department.
Original studio for WCAU, Philadelphia's NBC affiliate, 1622 Chestnut Street
2016 photo of 30th Street Station, which accommodates both SEPTA regional and Amtrak national trains. 30th Street Station is Amtrak's third busiest train station in the nation.
Market–Frankford Line train departing 52nd Street station
Philadelphia International Airport, the busiest airport in Pennsylvania and 21st busiest in the nation
Traffic heading into Philadelphia on Interstate 95 during the morning rush hour, July 2008
The Ben Franklin Bridge, which connects Philadelphia and Camden, New Jersey
Suburban Station with art deco architecture at 16th Street and JFK Boulevard
Fairmount Water Works, Philadelphia's second municipal waterworks
Chinatown paifang at 10th and Arch (2013), a symbol of Philadelphia's friendship with Tianjin. Philadelphia is experiencing significant Chinese immigration from New York City, 95 miles to the north, and from China.
The Birth of Pennsylvania, 1680, by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris – William Penn, holding paper, and King Charles II
Penn's Treaty with the Indians by Benjamin West
John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence – the Committee of Five presents their draft in Independence Hall, June 28, 1776.<ref>John Hazelton, The Historical Value of Trumbull's: Declaration of Independence, Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, volume 31 (Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1907), 38.</ref>
President's House – the presidential mansion of George Washington and John Adams, 1790–1800
Opening day ceremonies at the Centennial Exposition at Memorial Hall, 1876 – first official World's fair in the United States
Elfreth's Alley, "Our nation's oldest residential street", 1702–1836<ref name="marker">Historical marker on Elfreth's Alley</ref>
Carpenters' Hall exhibiting Georgian architecture, 1770–1774
Second Bank of the United States exhibiting Greek Revival architecture, 1818–1824
Second Empire-style Philadelphia City Hall, 1871–1901, from South Broad Street
The grand concourse of the 30th Street Station, in Art Deco style, 1927–1933
The University of Pennsylvania Medical School, the oldest medical school in the United States
The paifang “Friendship Arch” at Chinatown, one of America’s largest, attracting Chinese immigrants from both New York City and China.
The annual Naked Bike Ride attracts participants domestically and worldwide to Philadelphia.
The Wharton School of Business is one of the world’s most prestigious business schools.
Jim Kenney, the 99th Mayor of Philadelphia

Philadelphia remained the nation's largest city until 1790, when it was surpassed by New York City, and served as the nation's first capital from May 10, 1775 until December 12, 1776 and on four subsequent occasions during and following the American Revolution, including from 1790 to 1800 while the new national capital of Washington, D.C. was under construction.

Vermont

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State in the New England region of the United States.

State in the New England region of the United States.

The Old Constitution House at Windsor, where the Constitution of Vermont was adopted on July 8, 1777
A circa 1775 flag used by the Green Mountain Boys
The gold leaf dome of the neoclassical Vermont State House (Capitol) in Montpelier
1791 Act of Congress admitting Vermont into the Union
Vermont in 1827. The county boundaries have since changed.
Map of Vermont showing cities, roads, and rivers
Population density of Vermont
Mount Mansfield
Western face of Camel's Hump Mountain (elevation 4079 ft).
Fall foliage at Lake Willoughby
Köppen climate types of Vermont, using 1991–2020 climate normals.
Silurian and Devonian stratigraphy of Vermont
The hermit thrush, the state bird of Vermont
A proportional representation of Vermont exports, 2020
Fall foliage seen from Hogback Mountain, Wilmington
Lake Champlain
Autumn in Vermont
Stowe Resort Village
The Lyndon Institute, a high school in Lyndon, Vermont
The University of Vermont
Old Mill, the oldest building of the university
Vermont welcome sign in Addison on Route 17 just over the New York border over the Champlain Bridge
Amtrak station in White River Junction
The Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant, in Vernon
The Vermont Supreme Court's building in Montpelier
Vermont towns hold a March town meeting for voters to approve the town's budget and decide other matters. Marlboro voters meet in this building.
Senators Bernie Sanders and Patrick Leahy and Representative Peter Welch greet supporters in 2017.
Vermontasaurus sculpture in Post Mills, in 2010

The state capital is Montpelier, the least-populous state capital in the United States.

Montpelier, Vermont

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Capital city of the U.S. state of Vermont and the seat of Washington County.

Capital city of the U.S. state of Vermont and the seat of Washington County.

The first Vermont State House, built in 1808, was designed by Sylvanus Baldwin.
Montpelier as illustrated in 1884
State Street, Montpelier Historic District, 2006
Winooski River at Montpelier
Downtown shops
Building of the State street built on the North Branch River (tributary of Winooski River).
Hubbard Park Observation Tower, built 1915–1930
Montpelier City Hall
Main Street in downtown Montpelier

The site of Vermont's state government, it is the least populous state capital in the United States.

New Mexico

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State in the Southwestern United States.

State in the Southwestern United States.

Wheeler Peak in the Sangre de Cristo Range
Puebloan ruins at Chaco Canyon
Carlsbad Caverns National Park
White Sands National Park
Rio Grande Gorge and Bridge
Shiprock
Köppen climate types of New Mexico, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Greater roadrunner (the state bird of New Mexico)
Ancestral Pueblo territory shown in pink over New Mexico
Statue of Popé, leader of the Pueblo Revolt. The statue, entitled Po'pay, is among two statues depicting New Mexicans at the United States Capitol National Statuary Hall Collection, the other being Dennis Chávez.
Territory of Santa Fe de Nuevo México when it belonged to Mexico in 1824
"The indigenous people of northern New Mexico" by Balduin Möllhausen, 1861.
A Hispano boy in Chamisal, 1940.
A homesteader and his children at the New Mexico Fair in Pie Town, New Mexico, 1940
New Mexico population density map
San Miguel Chapel, built in 1610 in Santa Fe, is the oldest church structure in the continental U.S.
New Mexico state quarter, circulated in April 2008
An F-22 Raptor flown by the 49th Fighter Wing at Holloman AFB
Albuquerque Studios, built in 2007 for the rising demand of film production in the state
In this photo, the Mexico–United States border divides Sunland Park and the Mexican state of Chihuahua.
The Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railroad
The railway station in Tucumcari
The New Mexico Rail Runner Express is a commuter operation that runs along the Central Rio Grande Valley.
Downtown Santa Fe train station
Spaceport America terminal, The Gateway.
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The New Mexico Public Education Department is in Santa Fe.
Map of public New Mexico colleges and universities. New Mexico Higher Education Department.
Symbols of the Southwest: a string of dried chile pepper pods (a ristra) and a bleached white cow's skull hang in a market near Santa Fe
Interior of the Crosby Theater at the Santa Fe Opera, viewed from the mezzanine
Luminarias in the old mission church, Jemez State Monument
The Santa Ana Star Center
Zimmerman Library at The University of New Mexico
Zuhl Library at New Mexico State University
Walkway outside Golden Library at Eastern New Mexico University
Donnelly Library at New Mexico Highlands University
Party registration by county (February 2021):

The state capital is Santa Fe, which is the oldest capital in the U.S., founded in 1610 as the government seat of Nuevo México in New Spain; the largest city is Albuquerque.

(2007)

Congress Hall

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Congress Hall, located in Philadelphia at the intersection of Chestnut and 6th Streets, served as the seat of the United States Congress from December 6, 1790, to May 14, 1800.

Congress Hall, located in Philadelphia at the intersection of Chestnut and 6th Streets, served as the seat of the United States Congress from December 6, 1790, to May 14, 1800.

(2007)
House chamber on the first floor of Congress Hall
Senate chamber on the second floor of Congress Hall

During Congress Hall's duration as the capitol of the United States, the country admitted three new states, Vermont, Kentucky, and Tennessee; ratified the Bill of Rights of the United States Constitution; and oversaw the presidential inaugurations of both George Washington (his second) and John Adams.