List of glossing abbreviations

abbreviatedglossing abbreviationglossing abbreviationsAabbreviationabbreviation used in linguisticsASSglosslinguistic glossing abbreviationO
This page lists common abbreviations for grammatical terms that are used in linguistic interlinear glossing.wikipedia
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Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated ) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

Ablative case

ablativeAbl.separative case
The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated ) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.


adjectivesadjectivalattributive adjective
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated ) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

Absolutive case

The absolutive case (abbreviated ) is the grammatical case of a core argument of a verb (generally other than the nominative) that is used as the citation form of a noun.

Agreement (linguistics)

agreementagreegrammatical agreement
Agreement or concord (abbreviated ) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.

Allative case

Allative case (abbreviated ; from Latin allāt-, afferre "to bring to") is a type of locative case.


aorist aspectAORaor.
Aorist (abbreviated ) verb forms usually express perfective aspect and refer to past events, similar to a preterite.

Antipassive voice

The antipassive voice (abbreviated or ) is a type of grammatical voice that either does not include the object or includes the object in an oblique case.

Anticausative verb

An anticausative verb (abbreviated ) is an intransitive verb that shows an event affecting its subject, while giving no semantic or syntactic indication of the cause of the event.

Article (grammar)

definite articlearticlearticles
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation ) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.

Applicative voice

The applicative voice (abbreviated or ) is a grammatical voice that promotes an oblique argument of a verb to the (core) object argument, and indicates the oblique role within the meaning of the verb.


ADVadverb(ial)adverbial structure
In grammar, an adverbial (abbreviated ) is a word (an adverb) or a group of words (an adverbial phrase or an adverbial clause) that modifies or more closely defines the sentence or the verb.

Allocutive agreement

In linguistics, allocutive agreement (abbreviated or ) refers to a morphological feature in which the gender of an addressee is marked overtly in an utterance using fully grammaticalized markers even if the addressee is not referred to in the utterance.


augmentative form
An augmentative (abbreviated ) is a morphological form of a word which expresses greater intensity, often in size but also in other attributes.

Auxiliary verb

auxiliaryauxiliary verbsauxiliaries
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated ) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc. Auxiliary verbs usually accompany a main verb.

Adverbial case

The adverbial case (abbreviated ) is a noun case in Abkhaz and Georgian with a function similar to that of the translative and essive cases in Finnic languages.


Causalcausative voicecausative verb
In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated ) is a valency-increasing operation that indicates that a subject either causes someone or something else to do or be something or causes a change in state of a non-volitional event.

Counterfactual conditional

counterfactualcounterfactualscounterfactual conditionals
A counterfactual conditional (abbreviated ), is a conditional containing an if-clause which is contrary to fact.

Classifier (linguistics)

classifierclassifiersnumeral classifier
A classifier (abbreviated ' or '), sometimes called a measure word or counter word, is a word or affix that is used to accompany nouns and can be considered to "classify" a noun depending on the type of its referent.

Benefactive case

The benefactive case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used where English would use "for", "for the benefit of", or "intended for", e.g. "She opened the door for Tom" or "This book is for Bob". The benefactive case expresses that the referent of the noun it marks receives the benefit of the situation expressed by the clause.


A circumfix (abbreviated ) (or ambifix) is an affix which has two parts, one placed at the start of a word, and the other at the end.

Conjunction (grammar)

conjunctionconjunctionssubordinating conjunction
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or ) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.


subordinatorcomplementizer phraseCP
In linguistics (especially generative grammar), complementizer or complementiser (glossing abbreviation: ) is a lexical category (part of speech) that includes those words that can be used to turn a clause into the subject or object of a sentence.

Conditional mood

conditionalconditional tenseconditionals
The conditional mood (abbreviated ) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated ) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue."