List of glossing abbreviations

abbreviatedglossing abbreviationglossing abbreviationslinguistic glossing abbreviationabbreviationglossAOPabbreviation used in linguistics
This page lists common abbreviations for grammatical terms that are used in linguistic interlinear glossing.wikipedia
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Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated ) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

Ablative case

ablativeAbl.separative case
The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated ) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.

Agreement (linguistics)

agreementagreegrammatical agreement
Agreement or concord (abbreviated ) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.


adjectivesadjectivalattributive adjective
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated ) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

Absolutive case

The absolutive case (abbreviated ) is the unmarked grammatical case of a core argument of a verb (generally other than the nominative) that is used as the citation form of a noun.


aorist aspectAORaor.
Aorist (abbreviated ) verb forms usually express perfective aspect and refer to past events, similar to a preterite.

Article (grammar)

definite articlearticlearticles
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation ) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.

Allative case

Allative case (abbreviated ; from Latin allāt-, afferre "to bring to") is a type of locative case.

Antipassive voice

The antipassive voice (abbreviated or ) is a type of grammatical voice that either does not include the object or includes the object in an oblique case.

Anticausative verb

An anticausative verb (abbreviated ) is an intransitive verb that shows an event affecting its subject, while giving no semantic or syntactic indication of the cause of the event.

Applicative voice

applicativeApplicativesverb applicative
The applicative voice (abbreviated or ) is a grammatical voice that promotes an oblique argument of a verb to the (core) object argument, and indicates the oblique role within the meaning of the verb.


augmentative form
An augmentative (abbreviated ) is a morphological form of a word which expresses greater intensity, often in size but also in other attributes.

Auxiliary verb

auxiliaryauxiliary verbsauxiliaries
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated ) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc. Auxiliary verbs usually accompany a main verb.


Causalcausativitycausative verb
In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated ) is a valency-increasing operation that indicates that a subject either causes someone or something else to do or be something or causes a change in state of a non-volitional event.

Classifier (linguistics)

classifierclassifiersnoun classifier
A classifier (abbreviated ' or '), sometimes called a measure word or counter word, is a word or affix that is used to accompany nouns and can be considered to "classify" a noun depending on the type of its referent.

Counterfactual conditional

counterfactualcounterfactualscounterfactual conditionals
A counterfactual conditional (abbreviated ), is a conditional containing an if-clause which is contrary to fact.


ADVadverb(ial)adverbial structure
In grammar, an adverbial (abbreviated ) is a word (an adverb) or a group of words (an adverbial phrase or an adverbial clause) that modifies or more closely defines the sentence or the verb.


A circumfix (abbreviated ) (or ambifix) is an affix which has two parts, one placed at the start of a word, and the other at the end.

Allocutive agreement

In linguistics, allocutive agreement (abbreviated or ) refers to a morphological feature in which the gender of an addressee is marked overtly in an utterance using fully grammaticalized markers even if the addressee is not referred to in the utterance.

Benefactive case

The benefactive case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used where English would use "for", "for the benefit of", or "intended for", e.g. "She opened the door for Tom" or "This book is for Bob". The benefactive case expresses that the referent of the noun it marks receives the benefit of the situation expressed by the clause.

Conjunction (grammar)

conjunctionconjunctionscoordinating conjunction
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or ) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.

Conditional mood

conditionalconditional tenseconditionals
The conditional mood (abbreviated ) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated ) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue."

Perfect (grammar)

perfectperfect aspectperfect tense
The perfect tense, aspect or Alys (abbreviated ' or ') is a verb form that indicates that an action or circumstance occurred earlier than the time under consideration, often focusing attention on the resulting state rather than on the occurrence itself.

Dative case

The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobo potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".