List of glossing abbreviationswikipedia
This page lists common abbreviations for grammatical terms that are used in linguistic interlinear glossing.
abbreviatedglossing abbreviationglossing abbreviationslinguistic glossing abbreviationabbreviationglossAOPabbreviation used in linguistics

Accusative case

accusativeaccusative caseacc.
The accusative case (abbreviated ) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

Ablative case

ablativeablative caseAbl.
The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated ) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.

Agreement (linguistics)

agreementagreegrammatical agreement
Agreement or concord (abbreviated ) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.


In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated ) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

Abessive case

abessivecaritiveabessive case
In linguistics, abessive (abbreviated or ), caritive and privative (abbreviated ) is the grammatical case expressing the lack or absence of the marked noun.

Inalienable possession

inalienable possessioninalienably possessedinalienable
In linguistics, inalienable possession (abbreviated ) is a type of possession in which a noun is obligatorily possessed by its possessor.

Absolutive case

absolutiveabsolutive caseABS
The absolutive case (abbreviated ) is the unmarked grammatical case of a core argument of a verb (generally other than the nominative) that is used as the citation form of a noun.


aoristaorist aspectAOR
Aorist (abbreviated ) verb forms usually express perfective aspect and refer to past events, similar to a preterite.

Affirmation and negation

In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively ' and ') are the ways that grammar encode negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.

Article (grammar)

definite articlearticlearticles
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation ) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.

Allative case

allativeallative casedirectional
Allative case (abbreviated ; from Latin allāt-, afferre "to bring to") is a type of locative case.

Antipassive voice

antipassiveantipassive voiceantipassives
The antipassive voice (abbreviated or ) is a type of grammatical voice that either does not include the object or includes the object in an oblique case.

Anticausative verb

anticausativeanticausative verbanticausatives
An anticausative verb (abbreviated ) is an intransitive verb that shows an event affecting its subject, while giving no semantic or syntactic indication of the cause of the event.

Applicative voice

applicativeapplicative voiceApplicatives
The applicative voice (abbreviated or ) is a grammatical voice that promotes an oblique argument of a verb to the (core) object argument, and indicates the oblique role within the meaning of the verb.

Copula (linguistics)

copulato becopular
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated ) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue."


augmentativeaugmentative form
An augmentative (abbreviated ) is a morphological form of a word which expresses greater intensity, often in size but also in other attributes.

Auxiliary verb

auxiliary verbauxiliaryauxiliary verbs
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated ) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc. Auxiliary verbs usually accompany a main verb.


In linguistics, a causative (abbreviated ) is a valency-increasing operation that indicates that a subject either causes someone or something else to do or be something or causes a change in state of a non-volitional event.

Andative and venitive

In linguistics, andative and venitive (abbreviated and ) are a type of verbal deixis, verb forms which indicate 'going' or 'coming' motion in reference to a particular location or person, respectively.

Classifier (linguistics)

classifierclassifiersnoun classifier
A classifier (abbreviated ' or '), sometimes called a measure word or counter word, is a word or affix that is used to accompany nouns and can be considered to "classify" a noun depending on the type of its referent.

Counterfactual conditional

counterfactualcounterfactualscounterfactual conditional
A counterfactual conditional (abbreviated ), is a conditional containing an if-clause which is contrary to fact.


In grammar, an adverbial (abbreviated ) is a word (an adverb) or a group of words (an adverbial phrase or an adverbial clause) that modifies or more closely defines the sentence or the verb.


A circumfix (abbreviated ) (or ambifix) is an affix which has two parts, one placed at the start of a word, and the other at the end.

Benefactive case

benefactivebenefactive caseautobenefactive
The benefactive case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used where English would use "for", "for the benefit of", or "intended for", e.g. "She opened the door for Tom" or "This book is for Bob".

Allocutive agreement

allocutiveallocutive agreementallocutively
In linguistics, allocutive agreement (abbreviated or ) refers to a morphological feature in which the gender of an addressee is marked overtly in an utterance using fully grammaticalized markers even if the addressee is not referred to in the utterance.