A report on List of oldest universities in continuous operation

Map of medieval universities in Europe
The University of Bologna in Bologna, Italy, is the oldest university in continuous operation.

This article contains a list of the oldest existing universities in continuous operation in the world.

- List of oldest universities in continuous operation
Map of medieval universities in Europe

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University of Bologna

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Research university in Bologna, Italy.

Research university in Bologna, Italy.

Seal
The entry of some students in the Natio Germanica Bononiae, the nation of German students at Bologna; miniature of 1497.
Bologna University Library
Area above Bologna's old city centre.
Interior view of the Porticum and Loggia of its oldest College, the Royal Spanish College.
Pope Alexander VI
Petrarch
Carlo Goldoni
Guglielmo Marconi

Founded in 1088 by an organised guild of students (hence studiorum), it is the oldest university in continuous operation in the world, and the first university in the sense of a higher-learning and degree-awarding institute, as the word universitas was coined at its foundation.

Coat of arms

University of Oxford

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Collegiate research university in Oxford, England.

Collegiate research university in Oxford, England.

Coat of arms
Coat of arms
Balliol College, one of the university's oldest constituent colleges
Aerial view of Merton College's Mob Quad, the oldest quadrangle of the university, constructed in the years from 1288 to 1378
In 1605 Oxford was still a walled city, but several colleges had been built outside the city walls (north is at the bottom on this map).
An engraving of Christ Church, Oxford, 1742
Atrium of the Chemistry Research Laboratory, where the university has invested heavily in new facilities in recent years
The Sheldonian Theatre, built by Sir Christopher Wren between 1664 and 1668, hosts the university's Congregation, as well as concerts and degree ceremonies.
Summer in the Botanic Garden
Wellington Square, the name of which has become synonymous with the university's central administration
Tom Quad, Christ Church
Main Quad, Worcester College
Dining hall at Christ Church. The hall is an important feature of the typical Oxford college, providing a place to both dine and socialise.
Percentage of state-school students at Oxford and Cambridge
Rhodes House – home to the awarding body for the Rhodes Scholarships, often considered to be the world's most prestigious scholarship
The Clarendon Building is home to many senior Bodleian Library staff and previously housed the university's own central administration.
Duke Humfrey's Library in the Bodleian Library
The interior of the Pitt Rivers Museum
An undergraduate student at the University of Oxford in subfusc for matriculation
Rowing at Summer Eights, an annual intercollegiate bumps race
The Oxford Union's debating chamber
Tom Quad, Christ Church

There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation.

Mosaic from Pompeii (1st c. BC) depicting Plato's Academy.

Ancient higher-learning institutions

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A variety of ancient higher-learning institutions were developed in many cultures to provide institutional frameworks for scholarly activities.

A variety of ancient higher-learning institutions were developed in many cultures to provide institutional frameworks for scholarly activities.

Mosaic from Pompeii (1st c. BC) depicting Plato's Academy.
Nalanda, ancient center of higher learning in Bihar, India from 427 to 1197
Udayagiri, Odisha Part of Pushpagiri
Aristotle's School, a painting from the 1880s by Gustav Adolph Spangenberg

They are to be distinguished from the Western-style university, an autonomous organization of scholars that originated in medieval Europe and has been adopted in other regions in modern times (see list of oldest universities in continuous operation).

Poland

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Country in Central Europe.

Country in Central Europe.

A reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, 8th century BC
Poland under the rule of Mieszko I, whose acceptance of Christianity under the auspices of the Latin Church and the Baptism of Poland marked the beginning of statehood in 966.
Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great. He built extensively during his reign, and reformed the Polish army along with the country's legal code, 1333–70.
The Battle of Grunwald was fought against the German Order of Teutonic Knights, and resulted in a decisive victory for the Kingdom of Poland, 15 July 1410.
Wawel Castle in Kraków, seat of Polish kings from 1038 until the capital was moved to Warsaw in 1596.
King John III Sobieski defeated the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683.
Stanisław II Augustus, the last King of Poland, reigned from 1764 until his abdication on 25 November 1795.
The partitions of Poland, carried out by the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), the Russian Empire (brown), and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (green) in 1772, 1793 and 1795.
Chief of State Marshal Józef Piłsudski was a hero of the Polish independence campaign and the nation's premiere statesman from 1918 until his death on 12 May 1935.
Polish Army 7TP tanks on military manoeuvres shortly before the invasion of Poland in 1939
Pilots of the 303 Polish Fighter Squadron during the Battle of Britain, October 1940
Map of the Holocaust in German-occupied Poland with deportation routes and massacre sites. Major ghettos are marked with yellow stars. Nazi extermination camps are marked with white skulls in black squares. The border in 1941 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union is marked in red.
At High Noon, 4 June 1989 — political poster featuring Gary Cooper to encourage votes for the Solidarity party in the 1989 elections
Flowers in front of the Presidential Palace following the death of Poland's top government officials in a plane crash on 10 April 2010
Topographic map of Poland
Morskie Oko alpine lake in the Tatra Mountains. Poland has one of the highest densities of lakes in the world.
The wisent, one of Poland's national animals, is commonly found at the ancient and UNESCO-protected Białowieża Forest.
The Sejm is the lower house of the parliament of Poland.
The Constitution of 3 May adopted in 1791 was the first modern constitution in Europe.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, located in Warsaw
Polish Air Force F-16s, a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft
A Mercedes-Benz Sprinter patrol van belonging to the Polish State Police Service (Policja)
The Old City of Zamość is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
PKP Intercity Pendolino at the Wrocław railway station
Physicist and chemist Maria Skłodowska-Curie was the first person to win two Nobel Prizes.
Nicolaus Copernicus, the 16th century Polish astronomer who formulated the heliocentric model of the solar system.
Population of Poland from 1900 to 2010 in millions of inhabitants
Dolina Jadwigi — a bilingual Polish-Kashubian road sign with the village name
John Paul II, born Karol Wojtyła, held the papacy between 1978-2005 and was the first Pole to become a Roman Catholic Pope.
Jagiellonian University in Kraków
The Polish White Eagle is Poland's enduring national and cultural symbol
All Saints' Day on 1 November is one of the most important public holidays in Poland.
Lady with an Ermine (1490) by Leonardo da Vinci. It symbolises Poland's cultural heritage and identity.
Selection of hearty traditional comfort food from Poland, including bigos, gołąbki, żurek, pierogi, placki ziemniaczane, and rye bread.
Traditional polonaise dresses, 1780–1785.
Andrzej Wajda, the recipient of an Honorary Oscar, the Palme d'Or, as well as Honorary Golden Lion and Golden Bear Awards.
Headquarters of the publicly funded national television network TVP in Warsaw
The Stadion Narodowy in Warsaw, home of the national football team, and one of the host stadiums of Euro 2012.
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent in 1619

The Jagiellonian University founded in 1364 by Casimir III in Kraków was the first institution of higher learning established in Poland, and is one of the oldest universities still in continuous operation.