List of sovereign states

Flags of the United Nations member and non-member GA observer states in front of the Palace of Nations in Geneva, Switzerland

List providing an overview of sovereign states around the world with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.

- List of sovereign states

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Customary international law

Aspect of international law involving the principle of custom.

The Hittite version of the Treaty of Kadesh, among the earliest extant examples of an international agreement.

Generally, sovereign nations must consent in order to be bound by a particular treaty or legal norm.


Distinct territorial body, a state, nation, or other political entity.

The marked territories on this global map are mostly of countries which are sovereign states with full international recognition (brackets denote the country of a marked territory that is not a sovereign state). Some territories are countries in their own right but are not recognized as such (e.g. Taiwan), and some few marked territories are disputed about which country they belong to (e.g. Kashmir) or if they are countries in their own right (e.g. West Sahara).

By one application of the declarative theory of statehood and constitutive theory of statehood, there are 206 sovereign states; of which 193 are members of the UN, two have observer status at the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) (the Holy See and Palestine), and 11 others are neither a member nor observer at the UNGA.


Third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

A photograph of Earth taken by the crew of Apollo 17 in 1972. A processed version became widely known as The Blue Marble.
Planetary disk of a star, the inner ring has a radius equal to Earth and the Sun
Artist's impression of earth during the Archean eon, showing falling meteor, erupting volcano, round stromatolites, and barren landscape
Earth topological map, the area is redder if it is raised higher in real-life
Global map of heat flow from Earth's interior to the surface
Earth's major plates, which are: · ·  ·  ·  ·
Satellite picture of Upsala Glacier, showing mountains, icebergs, lakes, and clouds
Schematic of Earth's magnetosphere, with the solar wind flows from left to right
Earth's rotation imaged by Deep Space Climate Observatory, showing axis tilt
Illustration of the Earth, Earth's orbit, the Sun and the four seasons
Earth's axial tilt and its relation to the rotation axis and planes of orbit
Earth-Moon system seen from Mars
A model of Vanguard 1, the oldest human-made object in Earth orbit
Water is transported to various parts of the hydrosphere via the water cycle
Top of Earth's blue-tinted atmosphere, with the Moon at the background
Fungi are one of the kingdoms of life on Earth.
The seven continents of Earth:
Earth's land use for human agriculture
Change in average surface air temperature since the industrial revolution, plus drivers for that change. Human activity has caused increased temperatures, with natural forces adding some variability.
Earthrise, taken in 1968 by William Anders, an astronaut on board Apollo 8

Humans have developed diverse societies and cultures; politically, the world has about 206 sovereign states.


System or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state.

World administrative levels
Map of European nations coloured by percentage of vote governing party got in last election as of 2022

While all types of organizations have governance, the term government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments and subsidiary organizations.


Landlocked country in Western Europe.

Text page from the Codex Aureus of Echternach, an important surviving codex, was produced in the Abbey of Echternach in the 11th century.
Charles IV, the 14th-century Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg
Historic map (undated) of Luxembourg City's fortifications
The three partitions of Luxembourg
Frontier with Alsace-Lorraine from 1871 to 1918
The Grand Ducal Palace in Luxembourg City, the official residence of the grand duke of Luxembourg
The Hall of the Chamber of Deputies, the meeting place of the Luxembourgish national legislature, the Chamber of Deputies, in Luxembourg City
The Court of Justice of the European Union, seated in Luxembourg City
Luxembourgish soldiers on parade during National Day, Grand Duke Day, 23 June
The largest towns are Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Dudelange, and Differdange.
Typical Luxembourg countryside near Alscheid
View of the Grund along Alzette river in the historical heart of Luxembourg City
Luxembourg is part of the Schengen Area, the EU single market, and the Eurozone (dark blue).
Graphical depiction of Luxembourg's product exports in 2019
Luxembourg's international airline Luxair is based at Luxembourg Airport, the country's only international airport.
Signs in front of the Centre Drosbach on the Cloche d'or, in the city of Luxembourg
Population density in Luxembourg by communes. The main urban area, Luxembourg City, is located in the south-center of the country
Coin of the former Luxembourg franc in two of the country's three languages: French (obverse, left) and Luxembourgish (reverse, right)
Notre-Dame Cathedral, Luxembourg City
The University of Luxembourg is the only university based in the country.
The University of Luxembourg campus Belval
Edward Steichen, photographer and painter
Charly Gaul won three Grand Tours in his cycling career.
Judd mat Gaardebounen, served with boiled potatoes and Diekirch beer

Luxembourg is one of the smallest countries in Europe, and ranked 167th in size of all the 194 independent countries of the world; the country is about 2,586 km2 in size, and measures 82 km long and 57 km wide.

Lists of office-holders

These are lists of incumbents (individuals holding offices or positions), including heads of states or of subnational entities.

Grassalkovich Palace in Bratislava is the seat of the President of Slovakia.

Incumbents may also be found in the countries' articles (main article and "Politics of") and the list of national leaders, recent changes in 2020 in politics and government, and past leaders on State leaders by year and Colonial governors by year.

List of legislatures by country

List of legislatures by country.

Palace of Westminster in February 2007

All entities included in the list of sovereign states are included in this list.


Form of government in which "supreme power is held by the people and their elected representatives".

A map of the Roman Republic
The Mahajanapadas were the sixteen most powerful and vast kingdoms and republics of the era, there were also a number of smaller kingdoms stretching the length and breadth of Ancient India. Among the Mahajanapadas and smaller states, the Shakyas, Koliyas, Mallas, and Licchavis followed republican government.
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Neptune offers the wealth of the sea to Venice, 1748–1750. This painting is an allegory of the power of the Republic of Venice.
Beginning of the Republic of Metz. Election of the first Head-Alderman in 1289, by Auguste Migette. Metz was then a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Emperor.
Honoré DaumierThe Republic (1848), a symbolic representation of the French Second Republic. Oil on canvas, 73 x 60 cm., The Louvre, Paris
A 1920s poster that commemorates the permanent President of the Republic of China Yuan Shikai and the provisional President of the Republic Sun Yat-sen
A map of the Commonwealth republics
The "Republics of Russia"
The Swiss cantons displayed on the cupola of the Federal Palace
Flag of the US state of California, a sub-national entity.

, 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names.

Principality of Sealand

Unrecognized micronation that claims HM Fort Roughs , an offshore platform in the North Sea approximately 12 km off the coast of Suffolk, as its territory.

Passport stamp from Sealand
Sealand several months after the fire
Map of Sealand and the United Kingdom, with territorial water claims of 3 and 12 nmi shown.
Michael Bates
Sealand football team with the Bates family

Simon Sellars of The Australian and Red Bull describe Sealand as the world's smallest country, but Sealand is not officially recognised by any established sovereign state in spite of Sealand's government's claim that it has been de facto recognised by Germany.

United Nations

Intergovernmental organization whose purpose is to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.

Members of the United Nations
1943 sketch by Franklin Roosevelt of the UN original three branches: The Four Policemen, an executive branch, and an international assembly of forty UN member states
The UN in 1945: founding members in light blue, protectorates and territories of the founding members in dark blue
Dag Hammarskjöld was a particularly active secretary-general from 1953 until his death in 1961.
Kofi Annan, secretary-general from 1997 to 2006
Flags of member nations at the United Nations Headquarters, seen in 2007
Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet general secretary, addressing the UN General Assembly in December 1988
Colin Powell, the US Secretary of State, demonstrates a vial with alleged Iraq chemical weapon probes to the UN Security Council on Iraq war hearings, 5 February 2003
Current secretary-general, António Guterres
The ICJ ruled that Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence from Serbia in 2008 did not violate international law.
Under Sukarno, Indonesia became the first and only country to leave the United Nations.
A Nepalese soldier on a peacekeeping deployment providing security at a rice distribution site in Haiti during 2010
The UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus was established in 1974 following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
Eleanor Roosevelt with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1949
Three former directors of the Global Smallpox Eradication Programme reading the news that smallpox has been globally eradicated in 1980
In Jordan, UNHCR remains responsible for the Syrian refugees and the Zaatari refugee camp.
The 2001 Nobel Peace Prize to the UN—diploma in the lobby of the UN Headquarters in New York City
Marking of the UN's 70th anniversary – Budapest, 2015

All the world's undisputed independent states, apart from Vatican City, are members of the United Nations.