Literature

literaryLettersliterary workliterary canonliterary worksliterary artsprose fictionwriterliteraturestext
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.wikipedia
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Oral literature

oralfolk literatureoral tradition
The concept has changed meaning over time to include texts that are spoken or sung (oral literature), and non-written verbal art forms.
Oral literature or folk literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word.

Poetry

poempoetpoems
Literature is classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction, and whether it is poetry or prose. Classical Greek genres included philosophy, poetry, historiography, comedies and dramas.
Poetry (derived from the Greek poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

Genre

subgenregenressubgenres
It can be further distinguished according to major forms such as the novel, short story or drama; and works are often categorized according to historical periods or their adherence to certain aesthetic features or expectations (genre). The primary genres of the literature of Ancient Egypt—didactic texts, hymns and prayers, and tales—were written almost entirely in verse; while use of poetic devices is clearly recognizable, the prosody of the verse is unknown.
Genre is most popularly known as a category of literature, music, or other forms of art or entertainment, whether written or spoken, audio or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria, yet genres can be aesthetic, rhetorical, communicative, or functional.

Drama

Family Dramadramatic artsdramas
It can be further distinguished according to major forms such as the novel, short story or drama; and works are often categorized according to historical periods or their adherence to certain aesthetic features or expectations (genre). Drama and satire also developed as urban culture provided a larger public audience, and later readership, for literary production. Classical Greek genres included philosophy, poetry, historiography, comedies and dramas.
The structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception.

Didacticism

didacticdidactic poemdidactic poetry
The primary genres of the literature of Ancient Egypt—didactic texts, hymns and prayers, and tales—were written almost entirely in verse; while use of poetic devices is clearly recognizable, the prosody of the verse is unknown.
Didacticism is a philosophy that emphasizes instructional and informative qualities in literature and other types of art.

Prose

Fictional proseprosaistprosaic
Literature is classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction, and whether it is poetry or prose.
It is systematically produced and published within literature, journalism (including newspapers, magazines, and broadcasting), encyclopedias, film, history, philosophy, law, and in almost all forms and processes requiring human communications.

Nonfiction

non-fictionnon-fiction bookNon Fiction
Literature is classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction, and whether it is poetry or prose.
The numerous literary and creative devices used within fiction are generally thought inappropriate for use in nonfiction.

Satire

satiricalsatiristsatiric
Drama and satire also developed as urban culture provided a larger public audience, and later readership, for literary production.
In fiction and less frequently in non-fiction, satire is a genre of literature and performing arts, in which vices, follies, abuses, and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, corporations, government, or society itself into improvement.

Western canon

canoncanonicalCanons of Elizabethan poetry
Contemporary debates over what constitutes literature can be seen as returning to older, more inclusive notions; cultural studies, for instance, takes as its subject of analysis both popular and minority genres, in addition to canonical works.
In the twentieth century there was a general reassessment of the literary canon, including women's writing, post-colonial literatures, gay and lesbian literature, writing by people of colour, working people's writing, and the cultural productions of historically marginalized groups.

Belles-lettres

belles lettresbelletristicbelletrist
The value judgment definition of literature considers it to cover exclusively those writings that possess high quality or distinction, forming part of the so-called belles-lettres ('fine writing') tradition.
The term thus can be used to refer to literature generally.

Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition

1911 Encyclopædia BritannicaEncyclopædia Britannica'' Eleventh Edition1911 ''Encyclopædia Britannica
This sort of definition is that used in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–11) when it classifies literature as "the best expression of the best thought reduced to writing."

Literary genre

genregenresliterary genres
Literary genre is a mode of categorizing literature. Literary techniques encompass a wide range of approaches: examples for fiction are, whether a work is narrated in first-person, or from another perspective; whether a traditional linear narrative or a nonlinear narrative is used; the literary genre that is chosen.
Literature is divided into the classic three forms of Ancient Greece, poetry, drama, and prose.

Civilization

civilisationcivilizationsancient civilization
The history of literature follows closely the development of civilization.
Civilizations tend to develop intricate cultures, including a state-based decision making apparatus, a literature, professional art, architecture, organized religion and complex customs of education, coercion and control associated with maintaining the elite.

Comedy

comediescomediccomedy writer
Classical Greek genres included philosophy, poetry, historiography, comedies and dramas.
Also in Poetics, Aristotle defined comedy as one of the original four genres of literature.

Science fiction

sci-fiscience-fictionSci Fi
Genre fiction also showed it could question reality in its 20th century forms, in spite of its fixed formulas, through the enquiries of the skeptical detective and the alternative realities of science fiction.
It has been called the "literature of ideas", and often explores the potential consequences of scientific, social, and technological innovations.

Postmodernism

postmodernpost-modernpostmodernist
For instance, postmodern authors argue that history and fiction both constitute systems of signification by which we make sense of the past.
They have been the point of departure for works of literature, architecture and design, as well as being visible in marketing/business and the interpretation of history, law and culture, starting in the late 20th century.

Genre fiction

popular fictionRomancegenre film
Genre fiction also showed it could question reality in its 20th century forms, in spite of its fixed formulas, through the enquiries of the skeptical detective and the alternative realities of science fiction.
In later periods other genres such as the chivalric romance, opera, and prose fiction developed.

Fiction

fictionalRealistic fictionfictitious
Literature is classified according to whether it is fiction or non-fiction, and whether it is poetry or prose.
It also commonly refers, more narrowly, to written narratives in prose and often specifically novels.

Publishing

publisherpublishedpublishing house
Literary prizes and publishing houses often have their own arbitrary limits, which vary according to their particular intentions.
Publishing is the business of making information available to the public, particularly the sale or dissemination of literature, music, or information using both digital and non-digital media.

Play (theatre)

playplaysstage play
A play is a subset of this form, referring to the written dramatic work of a playwright that is intended for performance in a theater; it comprises chiefly dialogue between characters, and usually aims at dramatic or theatrical performance rather than at reading.
A play is form of literature written by a playwright, usually consisting of dialogue or singing between characters, intended for theatrical performance rather than just reading.

Dialogue

dialoguesdialogspoken dialogue
A play is a subset of this form, referring to the written dramatic work of a playwright that is intended for performance in a theater; it comprises chiefly dialogue between characters, and usually aims at dramatic or theatrical performance rather than at reading.
Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English ) is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.

Nonlinear narrative

nonlinearnon-linearnon-linear narrative
Literary techniques encompass a wide range of approaches: examples for fiction are, whether a work is narrated in first-person, or from another perspective; whether a traditional linear narrative or a nonlinear narrative is used; the literary genre that is chosen.
Nonlinear narrative, disjointed narrative or disrupted narrative is a narrative technique, sometimes used in literature, film, hypertext websites and other narratives, where events are portrayed, for example, out of chronological order or in other ways where the narrative does not follow the direct causality pattern of the events featured, such as parallel distinctive plot lines, dream immersions or narrating another story inside the main plot-line.

Nobel Prize in Literature

Nobel PrizeNobel Prize for LiteratureLiterature
The Nobel Prize in Literature was one of the six Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, and is awarded to an author on the basis of their body of work, rather than to, or for, a particular work itself.
The Nobel Prize in Literature is a Swedish literature prize that is awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning).

Literary award

literary prizeliterary awardsliterary prizes
Literary prizes and publishing houses often have their own arbitrary limits, which vary according to their particular intentions.
A literary award is an award presented in recognition of a particularly lauded literary piece or body of work.

Classical antiquity

antiquityclassicalancient
As a more urban culture developed, academies provided a means of transmission for speculative and philosophical literature in early civilizations, resulting in the prevalence of literature in Ancient China, Ancient India, Persia and Ancient Greece and Rome.
Respect for the ancients of Greece and Rome affected politics, philosophy, sculpture, literature, theatre, education, and even architecture and sexuality.