Lithium

Lilithium ionLi + lithium metalLi 2 Li 2+ Li-ion Batterylithium-6 6 Li 7 Li
Lithium (from λίθος) is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3.wikipedia
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Chemical element

elementelementschemical elements
Lithium (from λίθος) is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3.
The next three elements (lithium, beryllium and boron) were formed mostly by cosmic ray spallation, and are thus rarer than heavier elements.

Symbol (chemistry)

symbolchemical symbolchemical symbols
Lithium (from λίθος) is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3.

Lithium chloride

LiClS
Lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride. Other known binary compounds include halides (LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI), sulfide ([[lithium sulfide|]]), superoxide ([[Lithium superoxide|]]), and carbide ([[Lithium carbide|]]).
Lithium chloride is a chemical compound with the formula LiCl.

Lithium oxide

Li 2 ODilithium oxidelithia
When cut, it possesses a silvery-white color that quickly changes to gray as it oxidizes to lithium oxide.
Lithium oxide (O) or lithia is an inorganic chemical compound.

List of chemical elements

List of elements by melting pointList of elements by nameList of elements by atomic number
While it has one of the lowest melting points among all metals, it has the highest melting and boiling points of the alkali metals.

Lithium soap

lithium greaselithium-based greaselithium stearate
Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, lithium grease lubricants, flux additives for iron, steel and aluminium production, lithium batteries, and lithium-ion batteries.
Lithium soap is a soap consisting of a lithium salt of a fatty acid.

Alkali metal

alkali metalsalkaligroup 1
It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal.
The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr).

Lithium carbonate

Li 2 CO 3 lithiumlithium carbonate equivalent
In moist air, lithium rapidly tarnishes to form a black coating of lithium hydroxide (LiOH and LiOH·H 2 O), lithium nitride (Li 3 N) and lithium carbonate (Li 2 CO 3, the result of a secondary reaction between LiOH and CO 2 ). Many other inorganic compounds are known in which lithium combines with anions to form salts: borates, amides, carbonate, nitrate, or borohydride ([[Lithium borohydride|]]).
Lithium carbonate is an inorganic compound, the lithium salt of carbonate with the formula.

Electrolysis

electrolyticelectrolyzedelectrolyzer
Lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.

Potassium

KK + potassium ion
Lithium can float on the lightest hydrocarbon oils and is one of only three metals that can float on water, the other two being sodium and potassium.
Potassium is the second least dense metal after lithium.

Lithium hydride

lithium deuterideLiHlithium-6 deuteride
The transmutation of lithium atoms to helium in 1932 was the first fully man-made nuclear reaction, and lithium deuteride serves as a fusion fuel in staged thermonuclear weapons.
Lithium hydride is an inorganic compound with the formula LiH.

Lithium superoxide

Other known binary compounds include halides (LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI), sulfide ([[lithium sulfide|]]), superoxide ([[Lithium superoxide|]]), and carbide ([[Lithium carbide|]]).
Lithium superoxide (LiO 2 ) is an inorganic compound which has only been isolated in matrix isolation experiments at 15-40 K.

Lithium aluminium hydride

lithium aluminum hydrideLiAlH 4 LAH
Lithium aluminium hydride is commonly used as a reducing agent in organic synthesis.
Lithium aluminium hydride, commonly abbreviated to LAH, is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula LiAlH 4.

Lithium iodide

LiIS
Other known binary compounds include halides (LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI), sulfide ([[lithium sulfide|]]), superoxide ([[Lithium superoxide|]]), and carbide ([[Lithium carbide|]]).
Lithium iodide, or LiI, is a compound of lithium and iodine.

Lithium bromide

LiBrS
Other known binary compounds include halides (LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI), sulfide ([[lithium sulfide|]]), superoxide ([[Lithium superoxide|]]), and carbide ([[Lithium carbide|]]).
Lithium bromide (LiBr) is a chemical compound of lithium and bromine.

Sodium

NaNa + sodium ion
Lithium can float on the lightest hydrocarbon oils and is one of only three metals that can float on water, the other two being sodium and potassium.
Metallic sodium is generally less reactive than potassium and more reactive than lithium.

Lithium carbide

Li-C
Other known binary compounds include halides (LiF, LiCl, LiBr, LiI), sulfide ([[lithium sulfide|]]), superoxide ([[Lithium superoxide|]]), and carbide ([[Lithium carbide|]]).
Lithium carbide, often known as dilithium acetylide, is a chemical compound of lithium and carbon, an acetylide.

Lithium nitride

Li 3 N
In moist air, lithium rapidly tarnishes to form a black coating of lithium hydroxide (LiOH and LiOH·H 2 O), lithium nitride (Li 3 N) and lithium carbonate (Li 2 CO 3, the result of a secondary reaction between LiOH and CO 2 ).
Lithium nitride is prepared by direct combination of elemental lithium with nitrogen gas:

Diagonal relationship

diagonal similaritiesWhen the properties of atoms are so highly similar
Lithium has a diagonal relationship with magnesium, an element of similar atomic and ionic radius.
These pairs (lithium (Li) and magnesium (Mg), beryllium (Be) and aluminium (Al), boron (B) and silicon (Si), etc.) exhibit similar properties; for example, boron and silicon are both semiconductors, forming halides that are hydrolysed in water and have acidic oxides.

Lithium amide

LiNH 2 amides
Many other inorganic compounds are known in which lithium combines with anions to form salts: borates, amides, carbonate, nitrate, or borohydride ([[Lithium borohydride|]]).
Lithium amide can be made by treating lithium metal to liquid ammonia:

Lithium nitrate

nitrateS
Many other inorganic compounds are known in which lithium combines with anions to form salts: borates, amides, carbonate, nitrate, or borohydride ([[Lithium borohydride|]]).
It is the lithium salt of nitric acid (an alkali metal nitrate).

Ionic radius

ionic radiiionicradius
Lithium has a diagonal relationship with magnesium, an element of similar atomic and ionic radius.

Pegmatite

pegmatitespegmatiticpegmatitic veins
It never occurs freely in nature, but only in (usually ionic) compounds, such as pegmatitic minerals, which were once the main source of lithium.
Pegmatites are the primary source of lithium either as spodumene, lithiophyllite or usually from lepidolite.

Helium-3

3 HeHelium 3 3 He ("helium 3")
The two lithium nuclei have lower binding energies per nucleon than any other stable nuclides other than deuterium and helium-3.
Helium-3 is also thought to be a natural nucleogenic and cosmogenic nuclide, one produced when lithium is bombarded by natural neutrons, which can be released by spontaneous fission and by nuclear reactions with cosmic rays.

Stellar nucleosynthesis

hydrogen burningnucleosynthesisstellar fusion
While lithium is created in stars during stellar nucleosynthesis, it is further burned.
Stellar nucleosynthesis has occurred since the original creation of hydrogen, helium and lithium during the Big Bang.