Lithium

Atomic structure of Lithium-7
Lithium ingots with a thin layer of black nitride tarnish
Lithium floating in oil
Lithium is about as common as chlorine in the Earth's upper continental crust, on a per-atom basis.
Nova Centauri 2013 is the first in which evidence of lithium has been found.
Johan August Arfwedson is credited with the discovery of lithium in 1817
Hexameric structure of the n-butyllithium fragment in a crystal
Scatter plots of lithium grade and tonnage for selected world deposits, as of 2017
Lithium use in flares and pyrotechnics is due to its rose-red flame.
The launch of a torpedo using lithium as fuel
Lithium deuteride was used as fuel in the Castle Bravo nuclear device.

Chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3.

- Lithium
Atomic structure of Lithium-7

500 related topics

Relevance

Pegmatite with blue corundum crystals

Pegmatite

Igneous rock showing a very coarse texture, with large interlocking crystals usually greater in size than 1 cm and sometimes greater than 1 m. Most pegmatites are composed of quartz, feldspar, and mica, having a similar silicic composition to granite.

Igneous rock showing a very coarse texture, with large interlocking crystals usually greater in size than 1 cm and sometimes greater than 1 m. Most pegmatites are composed of quartz, feldspar, and mica, having a similar silicic composition to granite.

Pegmatite with blue corundum crystals
Pegmatite containing lepidolite, tourmaline, and quartz from the White Elephant Mine in the Black Hills, South Dakota
Proterozoic pegmatite swarm in the headwall of the cirque of a small mountain glacier, northeastern Baffin Island, Nunavut
Pegmatitic granite with pink potassium feldspar crystals, surrounding a finer-grained cumulate-filled enclave, Rock Creek Canyon, eastern Sierra Nevada, California
Elbaite tourmaline (olive-green) and lepidolite mica (violet), from a lithium-enriched pegmatite in Brazil
Scatter plots of lithium grade and tonnage for selected world deposits, as of 2017
Pegmatite (light colored) in dark mica schist, Île de Noirmoutier, France
Pegmatite (pink), Isle of Skye, Scotland
Potassium feldspar pegmatites at the Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Park, Colorado

These complex pegmatites are mined for lithium, beryllium, boron, fluorine, tin, tantalum, niobium, rare earth elements, uranium, and other valuable commodities.

A 3.6v Li-ion battery from a Nokia 3310 mobile phone

Lithium-ion battery

A 3.6v Li-ion battery from a Nokia 3310 mobile phone
Cylindrical Panasonic 18650 lithium-ion cell before closing.
Lithium-ion battery monitoring electronics (over-charge and deep-discharge protection)
An 18650 size lithium ion cell, with an alkaline AA for scale. 18650 are used for example in notebooks or EVs
A lithium-ion battery from a laptop computer (176 kJ)
Nissan Leaf's lithium-ion battery pack.
Japan Airlines Boeing 787 lithium cobalt oxide battery that caught fire in 2013
Transport Class 9A:Lithium batteries

A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery composed of cells in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode through an electrolyte to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.

Color produced when lithium chloride is heated

Lithium chloride

Color produced when lithium chloride is heated

Lithium chloride is a chemical compound with the formula LiCl.

CR2032 lithium button cell battery.

Lithium battery

CR2032 lithium button cell battery.
Lithium 9 volt, AA, and AAA sizes. The top object is a battery of three lithium-manganese dioxide cells, the bottom two are lithium-iron disulfide cells and are compatible with 1.5 volt alkaline cells.
Diagram of lithium button cell battery with MnO2 (manganese dioxide) at cathode.
KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN icon required by IEC 60086-4 on coin cells (lithium button cells) with 20 mm diameter and more

Lithium batteries are primary batteries that have metallic lithium as an anode.

Petalite, the lithium mineral from which lithium was first isolated

Alkali metal

Petalite, the lithium mineral from which lithium was first isolated
Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner was among the first to notice similarities between what are now known as the alkali metals.
Lepidolite, the rubidium mineral from which rubidium was first isolated
Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic system proposed in 1871 showing hydrogen and the alkali metals as part of his group I, along with copper, silver, and gold
Estimated abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar system. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (lithium, beryllium, and boron) are rare because they are poorly synthesised in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers, and (2) a general decrease in abundance, as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Spodumene, an important lithium mineral
Effective nuclear charge on an atomic electron
Periodic trend for ionisation energy: each period begins at a minimum for the alkali metals, and ends at a maximum for the noble gases. Predicted values are used for elements beyond 104.
The variation of Pauling electronegativity (y-axis) as one descends the main groups of the periodic table from the second to the sixth period
A reaction of 3 pounds (≈ 1.4 kg) of sodium with water
Liquid NaK alloy at room temperature
Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride. On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but that would be geometrically impossible: thus lithium nitride takes on this unique crystal structure.
Structure of the octahedral n-butyllithium hexamer, (C4H9Li)6. The aggregates are held together by delocalised covalent bonds between lithium and the terminal carbon of the butyl chain. There is no direct lithium–lithium bonding in any organolithium compound.
Solid phenyllithium forms monoclinic crystals can be described as consisting of dimeric Li2(C6H5)2 subunits. The lithium atoms and the ipso carbons of the phenyl rings form a planar four-membered ring. The plane of the phenyl groups are perpendicular to the plane of this Li2C2 ring. Additional strong intermolecular bonding occurs between these phenyllithium dimers and the π electrons of the phenyl groups in the adjacent dimers, resulting in an infinite polymeric ladder structure.
Reduction reactions using sodium in liquid ammonia
Empirical (Na–Cs, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Fr–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) atomic radius of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in angstroms
Empirical (Na–Fr) and predicted (Uue) electron affinity of the alkali metals from the third to the eighth period, measured in electron volts
Empirical (Na–Fr, Mg–Ra) and predicted (Uue–Uhp, Ubn–Uhh) ionisation energy of the alkali and alkaline earth metals from the third to the ninth period, measured in electron volts
Similarly to the alkali metals, ammonia reacts with hydrochloric acid to form the salt ammonium chloride.
Very pure thallium pieces in a glass ampoule, stored under argon gas
This sample of uraninite contains about 100,000 atoms (3.3 g) of francium-223 at any given time.
FOCS 1, a caesium atomic clock in Switzerland
Lithium carbonate
A wheel type radiotherapy device which has a long collimator to focus the radiation into a narrow beam. The caesium-137 chloride radioactive source is the blue square, and gamma rays are represented by the beam emerging from the aperture. This was the radiation source involved in the Goiânia accident, containing about 93 grams of caesium-137 chloride.

The alkali metals consist of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr).

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table

Chemical element

A chemical element refers to all aspects of the species of atoms that have a certain number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

A chemical element refers to all aspects of the species of atoms that have a certain number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table
Estimated distribution of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Only the fraction of the mass and energy in the universe labeled "atoms" is composed of chemical elements.
Periodic table showing the cosmogenic origin of each element in the Big Bang, or in large or small stars. Small stars can produce certain elements up to sulfur, by the alpha process. Supernovae are needed to produce "heavy" elements (those beyond iron and nickel) rapidly by neutron buildup, in the r-process. Certain large stars slowly produce other elements heavier than iron, in the s-process; these may then be blown into space in the off-gassing of planetary nebulae
Abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar System. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (Li, Be, B) are rare because they are poorly synthesized in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers (the Oddo-Harkins rule), and (2) a general decrease in abundance as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Mendeleev's 1869 periodic table: An experiment on a system of elements. Based on their atomic weights and chemical similarities.
Dmitri Mendeleev
Henry Moseley

The lightest chemical elements are hydrogen and helium, both created by Big Bang nucleosynthesis during the first 20 minutes of the universe in a ratio of around 3:1 by mass (or 12:1 by number of atoms), along with tiny traces of the next two elements, lithium and beryllium.

Illustration of a Hofmann electrolysis apparatus used in a school laboratory

Electrolysis

Technique that uses direct electric current to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

Technique that uses direct electric current to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.

Illustration of a Hofmann electrolysis apparatus used in a school laboratory
Hall-Heroult process for producing aluminium

1821 – Lithium was discovered by the English chemist William Thomas Brande, who obtained it by electrolysis of lithium oxide.

Cracking in cast LiH after machining with a fly cutter. Scale is in inches.

Lithium hydride

Cracking in cast LiH after machining with a fly cutter. Scale is in inches.

Lithium hydride is an inorganic compound with the formula LiH.

Partially molten rubidium metal in an ampoule

Rubidium

Chemical element with the symbol Rb and atomic number 37.

Chemical element with the symbol Rb and atomic number 37.

Partially molten rubidium metal in an ampoule
Rubidium crystals (silvery) compared to caesium crystals (golden)
cluster
Flame test for rubidium
Gustav Kirchhoff (left) and Robert Bunsen (center) discovered rubidium by spectroscopy. (Henry Enfield Roscoe is on the right side.)
A rubidium fountain atomic clock at the United States Naval Observatory

It forms amalgams with mercury and alloys with gold, iron, caesium, sodium, and potassium, but not lithium (even though rubidium and lithium are in the same group).

The flame test of potassium.

Potassium

Chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number19.

Chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number19.

The flame test of potassium.
Structure of solid potassium superoxide.
Potassium in feldspar
Sir Humphry Davy
Pieces of potassium metal
Sylvite from New Mexico
Monte Kali, a potash mining and beneficiation waste heap in Hesse, Germany, consisting mostly of sodium chloride.
Potassium sulfate/magnesium sulfate fertilizer

Potassium is the second least dense metal after lithium.