A 3.6v Li-ion battery from a Nokia 3310 mobile phone
Atomic structure of Lithium-7
Cylindrical Panasonic 18650 lithium-ion cell before closing.
Lithium ingots with a thin layer of black nitride tarnish
Lithium-ion battery monitoring electronics (over-charge and deep-discharge protection)
Lithium floating in oil
An 18650 size lithium ion cell, with an alkaline AA for scale. 18650 are used for example in notebooks or EVs
Lithium is about as common as chlorine in the Earth's upper continental crust, on a per-atom basis.
A lithium-ion battery from a laptop computer (176 kJ)
Nova Centauri 2013 is the first in which evidence of lithium has been found.
Nissan Leaf's lithium-ion battery pack.
Johan August Arfwedson is credited with the discovery of lithium in 1817
Japan Airlines Boeing 787 lithium cobalt oxide battery that caught fire in 2013
Hexameric structure of the n-butyllithium fragment in a crystal
Transport Class 9A:Lithium batteries
Scatter plots of lithium grade and tonnage for selected world deposits, as of 2017
Lithium use in flares and pyrotechnics is due to its rose-red flame.
The launch of a torpedo using lithium as fuel
Lithium deuteride was used as fuel in the Castle Bravo nuclear device.

A lithium-ion battery or Li-ion battery is a type of rechargeable battery composed of cells in which lithium ions move from the negative electrode through an electrolyte to the positive electrode during discharge and back when charging.

- Lithium-ion battery

Lithium and its compounds have several industrial applications, including heat-resistant glass and ceramics, lithium grease lubricants, flux additives for iron, steel and aluminium production, lithium batteries, and lithium-ion batteries.

- Lithium
A 3.6v Li-ion battery from a Nokia 3310 mobile phone

7 related topics

Alpha

A lithium polymer battery used to power a smartphone

Lithium polymer battery

A lithium polymer battery used to power a smartphone
An experimental lithium-ion polymer battery made by Lockheed-Martin for NASA
Hexagonal lithium polymer battery for underwater vehicles made by Custom Cells Itzehoe GmbH
3-Cell LiPo battery for RC models
Apple iPhone 3GS's Lithium-ion battery, which has expanded due to a short circuit failure.

A lithium polymer battery, or more correctly lithium-ion polymer battery (abbreviated as LiPo, LIP, Li-poly, lithium-poly and others), is a rechargeable battery of lithium-ion technology using a polymer electrolyte instead of a liquid electrolyte.

The primary difference is that instead of using a liquid lithium-salt electrolyte (such as LiPF6) held in an organic solvent (such as EC/DMC/DEC), the battery uses a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVdF).

CR2032 lithium button cell battery.

Lithium battery

CR2032 lithium button cell battery.
Lithium 9 volt, AA, and AAA sizes. The top object is a battery of three lithium-manganese dioxide cells, the bottom two are lithium-iron disulfide cells and are compatible with 1.5 volt alkaline cells.
Diagram of lithium button cell battery with MnO2 (manganese dioxide) at cathode.
KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN icon required by IEC 60086-4 on coin cells (lithium button cells) with 20 mm diameter and more

Lithium batteries are primary batteries that have metallic lithium as an anode.

Disposable primary lithium batteries must be distinguished from secondary lithium-ion or a lithium-polymer, which are rechargeable batteries.

Edison and a 1914 Detroit Electric model 47 (courtesy of the National Museum of American History)

Electric vehicle

Vehicle that uses one or more electric motors for propulsion.

Vehicle that uses one or more electric motors for propulsion.

Edison and a 1914 Detroit Electric model 47 (courtesy of the National Museum of American History)
An EV and an antique car on display at a 1912 auto show
This 1973 photo of a charging station in Seattle shows an AMC Gremlin, modified to take electric power; it had a range of about 50 miles on one charge.
General Motors EV1 electric car (1996–1998), story told in movie Who Killed the Electric Car?
The global stock of electric vehicles has grown steadily through the 2010s.
Battery electric bus powered with lithium-ion batteries
Electric truck e-Force One
Learning curve of lithium-ion batteries: the price of batteries declined by 97% in three decades.
An electric powertrain used by Power Vehicle Innovation for trucks or buses
A streetcar (or tram) drawing current from a single overhead wire through a pantograph
Mars helicopter Ingenuity
Oceanvolt SD8.6 electric saildrive motor
A trolleybus uses two overhead wires to provide electric current supply and return to the power source.
Hess Swisstrolley 3 in St. Gallen
lithium ion polymer battery prototypes. Newer Li-poly cells provide up to 130 Wh/kg and last through thousands of charging cycles.
Tesla Model S chassis with drive motor
Cutaway view of a Tesla Model S drive motor
Rimac Concept One, electric supercar, since 2013. 0 to 100 km/h in 2.8 seconds, with a total output of 1073 hp.

Chemical energy stored on the vehicle in on-board batteries: Battery electric vehicle (BEV) typically with a lithium-ion battery

One source estimates that over a fifth of the lithium and about 65% of the cobalt needed for electric cars will be from recycled sources by 2035.

Various cells and batteries (top left to bottom right): two AA, one D, one handheld ham radio battery, two 9-volt (PP3), two AAA, one C, one camcorder battery, one cordless phone battery

Electric battery

Source of electric power consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections for powering electrical devices.

Source of electric power consisting of one or more electrochemical cells with external connections for powering electrical devices.

Various cells and batteries (top left to bottom right): two AA, one D, one handheld ham radio battery, two 9-volt (PP3), two AAA, one C, one camcorder battery, one cordless phone battery
A voltaic cell for demonstration purposes. In this example the two half-cells are linked by a salt bridge that permits the transfer of ions.
From top to bottom: a large 4.5-volt 3R12 battery, a D Cell, a C cell, an AA cell, an AAA cell, an AAAA cell, an A23 battery, a 9-volt PP3 battery, and a pair of button cells (CR2032 and LR44)
Line art drawing of a dry cell: 1. brass cap, 2. plastic seal, 3. expansion space, 4. porous cardboard, 5. zinc can, 6. carbon rod, 7. chemical mixture
A device to check battery voltage
An analog camcorder [lithium ion] battery
Battery after explosion
Leak-damaged alkaline battery

Examples include the lead-acid batteries used in vehicles and lithium-ion batteries used for portable electronics such as laptops and mobile phones.

The high electrochemical potential changes in the reactions of lithium compounds give lithium cells emfs of 3 volts or more.

Crystalline 2×2-atom tin selenide nanowire grown inside a single-wall carbon nanotube (tube diameter ~1 nm).

Nanowire battery

A nanowire battery uses nanowires to increase the surface area of one or both of its electrodes.

A nanowire battery uses nanowires to increase the surface area of one or both of its electrodes.

Crystalline 2×2-atom tin selenide nanowire grown inside a single-wall carbon nanotube (tube diameter ~1 nm).

Some designs (silicon, germanium and transition metal oxides), variations of the lithium-ion battery have been announced, although none are commercially available.

However, the use of silicon anodes in batteries has been limited by the volume expansion during lithiation.

Venn diagram of electrified vehicles: PHEVs, BEVs, HEVs, and BAHVs

Electric car

Automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using only energy stored in batteries.

Automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using only energy stored in batteries.

Venn diagram of electrified vehicles: PHEVs, BEVs, HEVs, and BAHVs
Gustave Trouvé's personal electric vehicle (1881), the world's first publicly presented full-scale electric car
Early electric car built by Thomas Parker - photo from 1895
"La Jamais Contente", 1899
NASA's Lunar Roving Vehicles were battery-driven
The General Motors EV1, one of the cars introduced due to a California Air Resources Board (CARB) mandate, had a range of 160 mi with NiMH batteries in 1999
The Tesla Roadster helped inspire the modern generation of electric vehicles
The Salar de Uyuni in Bolivia is one of the largest known lithium reserves in the world
Typical "skateboard" layout with the battery as floor and a motor at one or both axles
Side impact test of a Tesla Model X
Prototypes of 75 watt-hour/kilogram lithium-ion polymer batteries. Newer lithium-ion cells can provide up to 280 W·h/kg and last through thousands of charging cycles.
Comparison of EPA-rated range for model year 2020 electric cars rated up until January 2020.
NIO ES8 has a swappable battery pack
BYD e6 is able to recharge to 80% in 15 minutes
Charging station at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This station is run by Petrobras and uses solar energy
A dedicated electric car free charging and parking lot in Oslo
4 out of 10 Europeans interviewed for the European Investment Bank climate survey thought subsidies for electric cars should be a priority to fight climate change.
All-electric car on a bus lane in Oslo.
In a 2022 climate survey, European and American car buyers state that would opt for hybrid or petrol or diesel cars, while Chinese respondents favour fully electric cars.
Volkswagen ID.3
Mazda MX-30
Ford Mustang Mach-E

The Roadster was the first highway-legal all-electric car to use lithium-ion battery cells, and the first production all-electric car to travel more than 200 mi per charge.

According to a 2020 study, balancing lithium supply and demand for the rest of the century will require good recycling systems, vehicle-to-grid integration, and lower lithium intensity of transportation.

Atomic structure of Lithium-7

Thacker Pass Lithium Mine

Atomic structure of Lithium-7

The Thacker Pass Lithium Mine is a proposed lithium clay mining development project in Humboldt County, Nevada which is the largest known lithium deposit in the US, and one of the largest in the world.

Cobalt (another mineral required for lithium-ion batteries) is mined in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and is associated with child labor and other human rights violations.