A report on PotassiumLithium and Mineral oil

The flame test of potassium.
Atomic structure of Lithium-7
Bottle of mineral oil as sold in the U.S.
Structure of solid potassium superoxide.
Lithium ingots with a thin layer of black nitride tarnish
An electrical radiator that uses mineral oil as a heat transfer fluid
Potassium in feldspar
Lithium floating in oil
A freshly oiled cutting board.
Sir Humphry Davy
Lithium is about as common as chlorine in the Earth's upper continental crust, on a per-atom basis.
Applying mineral oil to a butcher block counter top
Pieces of potassium metal
Nova Centauri 2013 is the first in which evidence of lithium has been found.
Sylvite from New Mexico
Johan August Arfwedson is credited with the discovery of lithium in 1817
Monte Kali, a potash mining and beneficiation waste heap in Hesse, Germany, consisting mostly of sodium chloride.
Hexameric structure of the n-butyllithium fragment in a crystal
Potassium sulfate/magnesium sulfate fertilizer
Scatter plots of lithium grade and tonnage for selected world deposits, as of 2017
Lithium use in flares and pyrotechnics is due to its rose-red flame.
The launch of a torpedo using lithium as fuel
Lithium deuteride was used as fuel in the Castle Bravo nuclear device.
Estimates of global lithium uses in 2011 (picture) and 2019 (numbers below) 
Ceramics and glass (18%)
Batteries (65%)
Lubricating greases (5%)
Continuous casting (3%)
Air treatment (1%)
Primary aluminum production
Other (5%)

Like the other alkali metals (which are sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr)), lithium has a single valence electron that is easily given up to form a cation.

- Lithium

Potassium is the second least dense metal after lithium.

- Potassium

It is an inexpensive alternative for storing reactive metals, such as the alkali metals, lithium, potassium and sodium.

- Mineral oil

Although the heavier alkali metals can be stored under mineral oil, lithium is not dense enough to fully submerge itself in these liquids.

- Lithium

It must be stored in a dry inert gas atmosphere or anhydrous mineral oil to prevent the formation of a surface layer of potassium superoxide, a pressure-sensitive explosive that detonates when scratched.

- Potassium
The flame test of potassium.

1 related topic with Alpha


Emission spectrum for sodium, showing the D line.


0 links

Chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11.

Chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11.

Emission spectrum for sodium, showing the D line.
A positive flame test for sodium has a bright yellow color.
The structure of sodium chloride, showing octahedral coordination around Na+ and Cl− centres. This framework disintegrates when dissolved in water and reassembles when the water evaporates.
Two equivalent images of the chemical structure of sodium stearate, a typical soap.
The structure of the complex of sodium (Na+, shown in yellow) and the antibiotic monensin-A.
NaK phase diagram, showing the melting point of sodium as a function of potassium concentration. NaK with 77% potassium is eutectic and has the lowest melting point of the NaK alloys at −12.6 °C.

By means of the sodium-potassium pump, living human cells pump three sodium ions out of the cell in exchange for two potassium ions pumped in; comparing ion concentrations across the cell membrane, inside to outside, potassium measures about 40:1, and sodium, about 1:10.

Metallic sodium is generally less reactive than potassium and more reactive than lithium.

The market for sodium is volatile due to the difficulty in its storage and shipping; it must be stored under a dry inert gas atmosphere or anhydrous mineral oil to prevent the formation of a surface layer of sodium oxide or sodium superoxide.