Lithium (medication)

lithiumlithium saltslithium saltlithium therapyLithium pharmacologylithium carbonateLithium medicationLithium toxicityCarbolithEskalith
Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.wikipedia
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Psychiatric medication

psychiatric drugspsychiatric drugpsychiatric medications
Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.
In 1948, lithium was first used as a psychiatric medicine.

Antidepressant

antidepressantsanti-depressantanti-depressants
This includes the treatment of major depressive disorder that does not improve following the use of other antidepressants, and bipolar disorder.
These include lithium and thyroid augmentation, dopamine agonists, sex steroids, NRIs, glucocorticoid-specific agents, or the newer anticonvulsants.

Mood stabilizer

mood stabilizersmood-stabilizingmood stabiliser
Lithium salts are classified as mood stabilizers.
* Lithium – Lithium is the "classic" mood stabilizer, the first to be approved by the US FDA, and still popular in treatment.

Leukocytosis

increased white blood cell countelevated white blood cell counthigh white blood cell count
It may also occur after strenuous exercise, convulsions such as epilepsy, emotional stress, pregnancy and labor, anesthesia, as a side effect of medication (e.g. Lithium), and epinephrine administration.

Hypothyroidism

hypothyroidhypo-underactive thyroid
Serious side effects include hypothyroidism, diabetes insipidus, and lithium toxicity.
Targeted screening may be appropriate in a number of situations where hypothyroidism is common: other autoimmune diseases, a strong family history of thyroid disease, those who have received radioiodine or other radiation therapy to the neck, those who have previously undergone thyroid surgery, those with an abnormal thyroid examination, those with psychiatric disorders, people taking amiodarone or lithium, and those with a number of health conditions (such as certain heart and skin conditions).

Bipolar disorder

bipolarmanic depressionmanic depressive
This includes the treatment of major depressive disorder that does not improve following the use of other antidepressants, and bipolar disorder.
Mood stabilizers may improve mood disturbances, and include lithium and certain anticonvulsants such as valproate and carbamazepine.

Acne

acne vulgariscystic acneAcne scarring
Several medications can worsen pre-existing acne, with examples being lithium, hydantoin, isoniazid, glucocorticoids, iodides, bromides, and testosterone.

Suicide

suicidalcommitted suicidesuicides
In these disorders, it reduces the risk of suicide.
Lithium appears effective at lowering the risk in those with bipolar disorder and major depression to nearly the same levels as that of the general population.

Diabetes insipidus

diabetesCentral diabetes insipidusdiabetic
Serious side effects include hypothyroidism, diabetes insipidus, and lithium toxicity.
It is seen in lithium toxicity, hypercalcemia, hypokalemia, or release of ureteral obstruction.

Clonazepam

KlonopinRivotril
Gabapentin and clonazepam are also indicated as antipanic medications during the childbearing years and during pregnancy.

Parkinsonism

Parkinson's syndromeParkinsonianParkinsonian syndrome
In addition to tremors, lithium treatment appears to be a risk factor for development of parkinsonism symptoms, although the causal mechanism remains unknown.

Antipsychotic

antipsychoticsneurolepticneuroleptics
Indeed, these and other antipsychotics have been associated with increased risk of lithium neurotoxicity, even with low therapeutic lithium doses.
Antipsychotics are routinely used, often in conjunction with mood stabilisers such as lithium/valproate, as a first-line treatment for manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar disorder.

Major depressive disorder

depressionclinical depressionmajor depression
This includes the treatment of major depressive disorder that does not improve following the use of other antidepressants, and bipolar disorder.
Lithium appears effective at lowering the risk of suicide in those with bipolar disorder and unipolar depression to nearly the same levels as the general population.

Mental disorder

mental illnessnervous breakdownmentally ill
Its use in the treatment of mental disorders began in 1948 by John Cade in Australia.
Other kinds of psychiatric medication gradually came into use, such as "psychic energizers" (later antidepressants) and lithium.

Ebstein's anomaly

Ebstein anomalyEbstein diseaseEbstein malformation
Case reports and several retrospective studies have demonstrated possible increases in the rate of a congenital heart defect known as Ebstein's anomaly, if taken during a woman's pregnancy.
An enlargement of the aorta may occur; an increased risk of abnormality is seen in babies of women taking lithium during the first trimester of pregnancy (though some have questioned this) and in those with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

Gabapentin

NeurontinFranklin v. Parke-DavisGabapentin ER
Gabapentin and clonazepam are also indicated as antipanic medications during the childbearing years and during pregnancy.
Studies have also shown an almost doubled rate of suicidal ideation in patients with bipolar disorder who are taking gabapentin versus those on lithium.

Diuretic

diureticsdiuretic medicationsdiuretic use
Lithium plasma concentrations are known to be increased with concurrent use of diuretics—especially loop diuretics (such as furosemide) and thiazides—and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen.

WHO Model List of Essential Medicines

World Health Organization's List of Essential MedicinesList of Essential MedicinesModel List of Essential Medicines
It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.

Mood disorder

depressionmood disordersdepressive disorder
In mood disorders, of which bipolar disorder is one, it decreases the risk of suicide.
Major depressive disorder medications usually include antidepressants, while bipolar disorder medications can consist of antipsychotics, mood stabilizers, anticonvulsants and/or lithium.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

NSAIDNSAIDsnon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
Lithium plasma concentrations are known to be increased with concurrent use of diuretics—especially loop diuretics (such as furosemide) and thiazides—and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen.
NSAIDs reduce kidney blood flow and thereby decrease the efficacy of diuretics, and inhibit the elimination of lithium and methotrexate.

John Cade

Dr. John Cade, AOTroubled MindsTroubled Minds - The Lithium Revolution
Its use in the treatment of mental disorders began in 1948 by John Cade in Australia.
*Lithium pharmacology

Neuroleptic malignant syndrome

Malignant neuroleptic syndrome
Lithium co-treatment is also a risk factor for neuroleptic malignant syndrome in people on antipsychotics and other antidopaminergic medications.
Even drugs without known anti-dopaminergic activity have been associated with NMS; examples include amoxapines and lithium.

Nystagmus

nystagmus, pathologicPathologic nystagmusHorizontal gaze nystagmus
In chronic toxicity, people have primarily neurological symptoms which include nystagmus, tremor, hyperreflexia, ataxia, and change in mental status.

Inositol monophosphatase

IMPase
Lithium treatment has been found to inhibit the enzyme inositol monophosphatase, involved in degrading inositol monophosphate to inositol required in PIP 2 synthesis.
Inhibition of inositol monophosphatase may be key in the action of lithium in treating bipolar disorder, specifically manic depression.