Lithosphere

continental lithosphereoceaniclithosphericoceanic lithospheresurfacecrustLithosphere of Earthocean crustEarth's crustEarth's lithosphere
A lithosphere ( [lithos] for "rocky", and σφαίρα [sphaira] for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.wikipedia
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Earth

Earth's surfaceterrestrialworld
On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater.
Earth's lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over many millions of years.

Plate tectonics

tectonic platesplate tectonictectonic
The lithosphere is subdivided into tectonic plates.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3.3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

Upper mantle (Earth)

upper mantle
On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater.
Crust and mantle are distinguished by composition while the lithosphere and asthenosphere are defined by a change in mechanical properties.

Asthenosphere

asthenosphericasthenospheric mantleaesthenosphere
The layer under the lithosphere is known as the asthenosphere.
It lies below the lithosphere, at depths between approximately 80 and 200 km below the surface.

Biosphere

ecospherebiosphericenvironment
The uppermost part of the lithosphere that chemically reacts to the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere through the soil forming process is called the pedosphere.
By the most general biophysiological definition, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere.

Pedosphere

soilsoil system
The uppermost part of the lithosphere that chemically reacts to the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere through the soil forming process is called the pedosphere.
It exists at the interface of the lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere.

Lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary

Lithosphere-Asthenosphere boundaryboundaryGutenberg discontinuity or the "G
The Lithosphere-Asthenosphere boundary is defined by a difference in response to stress: the lithosphere remains rigid for very long periods of geologic time in which it deforms elastically and through brittle failure, while the asthenosphere deforms viscously and accommodates strain through plastic deformation.
The Lithosphere–asthenosphere boundary (referred to as the LAB by geophysicists) lies between Earth's cooler, rigid lithosphere and the warmer, ductile asthenosphere.

Crust (geology)

crustEarth's crustcrustal
On Earth, it is composed of the crust and the portion of the upper mantle that behaves elastically on time scales of thousands of years or greater.
It is the top component of lithosphere: a division of Earth's layers that includes the crust and the upper part of the mantle.

Oceanic crust

oceanicoceanic plateocean crust
The crust and the solid mantle layer together constitute oceanic lithosphere.

Mid-ocean ridge

spreading centermid-oceanic ridgespreading ridge
The age is often equal to L/V, where L is the distance from the spreading centre of mid-oceanic ridge, and V is velocity of the lithospheric plate.
The production of new seafloor and oceanic lithosphere results from mantle upwelling in response to plate separation.

Mantle convection

convectionconvectingmantle convecting
In fact, oceanic lithosphere is a thermal boundary layer for the convection in the mantle.
The Earth's surface lithosphere rides atop the asthenosphere and the two form the components of the upper mantle.

Craton

cratonsintracratonicintra-cratonic
The oldest parts of continental lithosphere underlie cratons, and the mantle lithosphere there is thicker and less dense than typical; the relatively low density of such mantle "roots of cratons" helps to stabilize these regions.
A craton (, or ; from κράτος kratos "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere, which consists of the Earth's two topmost layers, the crust and the uppermost mantle.

Subduction

subduction zonesubductedsubducting
The gravitational instability of mature oceanic lithosphere has the effect that at subduction zones, oceanic lithosphere invariably sinks underneath the overriding lithosphere, which can be oceanic or continental.
Stable subduction zones involve the oceanic lithosphere of one plate sliding beneath the continental or oceanic lithosphere of another plate due to the higher density of the oceanic lithosphere.

Atmosphere of Earth

airEarth's atmosphereatmosphere
The uppermost part of the lithosphere that chemically reacts to the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere through the soil forming process is called the pedosphere.

Hydrosphere

waterhydrosphericatmospheric cycling
The uppermost part of the lithosphere that chemically reacts to the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere through the soil forming process is called the pedosphere.

Climate system

Earth's climate arises from the interaction of five major climate system components: the atmosphere (air), the hydrosphere (water), the cryosphere (ice and permafrost), the lithosphere (earth's upper rocky layer) and the biosphere (living things).

Geosphere

The geosphere may be taken as the collective name for the lithosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryosphere, and the atmosphere.

Kimberlite

kimberlite pipeskimberlitickimberlites
Geoscientists can directly study the nature of the subcontinental mantle by examining mantle xenoliths brought up in kimberlite, lamproite, and other volcanic pipes.
In this regard, the study of kimberlite has the potential to provide information about the composition of the deep mantle and melting processes occurring at or near the interface between the cratonic continental lithosphere and the underlying convecting asthenospheric mantle.

Lamproite

meta-lamproite
Geoscientists can directly study the nature of the subcontinental mantle by examining mantle xenoliths brought up in kimberlite, lamproite, and other volcanic pipes.
Recent research, for example on the lamproites at Gaussberg in Antarctica, and lead-lead isotope geochemistry have revealed that the source of lamproites may be transition zone melts of subducted lithosphere which has become trapped at the base of the lithospheric mantle.

Mohorovičić discontinuity

MohoMohorovicic DiscontinuityMoho discontinuity
The Moho lies almost entirely within the lithosphere.

Vertical displacement

The movement of magma in the asthenosphere can create divergent plate boundaries as the magma begins to rise and protrude weaker lithospheric crust.

Kola Superdeep Borehole

Kola BoreholeKola drilling experimentKola Institute
The stated areas of study were the deep structure of the Baltic Shield, seismic discontinuities and the thermal regime in the Earth's crust, the physical and chemical composition of the deep crust and the transition from upper to lower crust, lithospheric geophysics, and to create and develop technologies for deep geophysical study.

Carbonate–silicate cycle

Carbonate-silicate cycleCarbonate-Silicate Geochemical Cyclecarbonates
On exoplanets, the location of the substellar point will dictate the release of carbon dioxide from the lithosphere.

Solid earth

terra firmasolid parts of the Earthsolid-Earth sciences