Lithuanian press ban

banned Lithuanian booksbanned Lithuanian pressLithuanian press was bannedbanned by the Tsarist authoritiesillegal Lithuanian pressLithuanian press was prohibitedand barred use of the Latin alphabetban against printing in the Lithuanian language using the Latin alphabetban of printing in the Lithuanian languageban on public speaking and writing in Lithuanian
The Lithuanian press ban (spaudos draudimas) was a ban on all Lithuanian language publications printed in the Latin alphabet in force from 1865 to 1904 within the Russian Empire, which controlled Lithuania at the time.wikipedia
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Lithuanian language

LithuanianLithuanian-languageLith.
The Lithuanian press ban (spaudos draudimas) was a ban on all Lithuanian language publications printed in the Latin alphabet in force from 1865 to 1904 within the Russian Empire, which controlled Lithuania at the time.
In 1864, following the January Uprising, Mikhail Muravyov, the Russian Governor General of Lithuania, banned the language in education and publishing and barred use of the Latin alphabet altogether, although books printed in Lithuanian continued to be printed across the border in East Prussia and in the United States.

Lithuania

LTURepublic of LithuaniaLithuanian
The Lithuanian press ban (spaudos draudimas) was a ban on all Lithuanian language publications printed in the Latin alphabet in force from 1865 to 1904 within the Russian Empire, which controlled Lithuania at the time.
They banned the Lithuanian press, closed cultural and educational institutions and made Lithuania part of a new administrative region called Northwestern Krai.

Lithuanian book smugglers

knygnešiaibook smugglerbook smuggling
Knygnešiai (Lithuanian book smugglers) smuggled illegal books and periodicals across the border.
Lithuanian book smugglers or Lithuanian book carriers (knygnešys, plural: knygnešiai) transported Lithuanian language books printed in the Latin alphabet into Lithuanian-speaking areas of the Russian Empire, defying a ban on such materials in force from 1864 to 1904.

Lithuania Minor

Prussian LithuaniaMažoji LietuvaLithuanian
However, Lithuanians organized printing outside the Empire, largely in Lithuania Minor (East Prussia), and in the United States.
During the years of the Lithuanian press ban, most of the Lithuanian books printed using the Latin alphabet were published in Lithuania Minor.

Russification

RussifiedRussifyRussianized
Tsarist authorities hoped that this measure, part of a larger Russification plan, would decrease Polish influence on Lithuanians and would return them to what were considered their ancient historical ties with Russia.
Muravyov also banned the use of Latin and Gothic scripts in publishing.

Szlachta

szlachcicnoblePolish nobility
They believed that if the Lithuanian peasantry were distanced from the Polonized nobility and the Catholic Church, Lithuanians would naturally come under Russian cultural influence, as they had allegedly been during previous eras.
After the January Uprising the sanctions went further, and Russian officials announced that "Lithuanians were actually Russians seduced by Poles and Catholicism" and began to intensify russification, and to ban the printing of books in Lithuanian.

Varpas

The resistance intensified towards the end of the 19th century, after another major newspaper, Varpas (The Bell), edited by Vincas Kudirka, was established in 1889.
Varpas (literally: The Bell) was a monthly Lithuanian-language newspaper published during the Lithuanian press ban from January 1889 to December 1905.

Sovetsk, Kaliningrad Oblast

TilsitSovetskTilžė
The majority of these were published in Tilsit, a city in East Prussia, although some publications reached Lithuania from the United States.
During the 19th century when the Lithuanian language in Latin characters was banned within the Russian Empire, Tilsit was an important centre for printing Lithuanian books which then were smuggled by Knygnešiai to the Russian-controlled part of Lithuania.

Aušra

Auszraaušrà
The period from Valančius death in 1875 to 1883 saw the establishment of the Lithuanian-language newspaper Auszra (The Dawn), and the resistance at this time is associated with bishop Antanas Baranauskas.
This period, between 1883 and 1904, when the Lithuanian press ban was enforced by Tsarist authorities, has been referred to as the Aušros gadynė (the Dawn Period).

Povilas Višinskis

In 1902 and 1903 the Russian Supreme Court reversed two press ban convictions that had been brought against Antanas Macijauskas and Povilas Višinskis.
When advertisements for another play printed in Lithuanian using Latin alphabet were confiscated by police as violating the Lithuanian press ban, Višinskis sued and obtained a favorable judgment from the Governing Senate in 1903.

Mikhail Muravyov-Vilensky

Mikhail MuravyovMikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov-VilenskyMikhail Nikolayevich Muravyov
He instituted a complete ban on the Latin alphabet and the Lithuanian language in printed content.

Laurynas Ivinskis

The committee had four members: the Polish librarian Stanisław Mikucki from Warsaw, Russian Jonas Kerčinskis, a Lithuanian Catholic priest who had converted to Eastern Orthodoxy, Antanas Petkevičius, and the well-known Lithuanian educator and publisher Laurynas Ivinskis.
His calendar Metu skajtlus ukiszkas ant metu Wieszpaties circulated until the Lithuanian press ban in 1864.

Saliamonas Banaitis

The publishing houses of Martynas Kukta, Saliamonas Banaitis, and the Society of Saint Casimir in Kaunas were responsible for many of the publications issued between the end of the ban in 1904 and the restoration of Lithuanian independence in 1918.
Despite lack of higher education, he joined Lithuanian cultural life – smuggled banned Lithuanian press, assisted Vincas Kudirka with the publication of Lithuanian-language newspapers Varpas and Ūkininkas, participated in the Great Seimas of Vilnius.

Society of Saint Casimir

St. Casimir SocietyŠvento Kazimiero draugija
The publishing houses of Martynas Kukta, Saliamonas Banaitis, and the Society of Saint Casimir in Kaunas were responsible for many of the publications issued between the end of the ban in 1904 and the restoration of Lithuanian independence in 1918.
Established in 1905, right after the Lithuanian press ban was lifted, the society published a total of about 740 books and several periodicals, including the first full Roman Catholic Bible translation into Lithuanian in six volumes in 1911–1937.

List of Lithuanian-language periodicals (up to 1904)

six short-lived Lithuanian-language periodicals
*List of Lithuanian-language periodicals (up to 1904)
This list of Lithuanian-language periodicals includes periodical publications (newspapers, magazines) that were published up to 1904 when the Lithuanian press ban was lifted in Lithuania Proper (then part of the Russian Empire).

Great Seimas of Vilnius

Great Vilnius Seimas
The first issue of a Lithuanian newspaper after the ban, Vilniaus žinios, appeared on December 23, 1904; the Great Seimas of Vilnius, which took place in November 1905, was now able to issue its announcements and publications in Lithuanian.
After the unsuccessful uprising of 1863, Lithuania was subjected to Russification policies: the Lithuanian press ban was initiated, schools were required to teach in the Russian language, Roman Catholics could not hold positions in government institutions and could own only limited amounts of land, and political rights were restricted.

Vilniaus žinios

The first issue of a Lithuanian newspaper after the ban, Vilniaus žinios, appeared on December 23, 1904; the Great Seimas of Vilnius, which took place in November 1905, was now able to issue its announcements and publications in Lithuanian.
It was the first legal Lithuanian-language daily newspaper to appear after the Lithuanian press ban was lifted on May 7, 1904.

Antanas Baranauskas

Antoni BaranowskiBaranauskas, Antanas
The period from Valančius death in 1875 to 1883 saw the establishment of the Lithuanian-language newspaper Auszra (The Dawn), and the resistance at this time is associated with bishop Antanas Baranauskas.
By 1880, after he realized that the ban of printing in the Lithuanian language would not be lifted, in spite of several unofficial promises by Tsarist authorities to do so, his desire to promote the Lithuanian language slowly declined.

Motiejus Valančius

The organized resistance to the ban, both legal and illegal, was largely initiated by bishop Motiejus Valančius, who petitioned the government to exempt prayer books from the ban.
His services to the Lithuanian cause were lasting and important, including his opposition to the Russian government and the tactics he employed in resisting its policies, particularly the Lithuanian press ban.

Latin alphabet

LatinRoman alphabetRoman
The Lithuanian press ban (spaudos draudimas) was a ban on all Lithuanian language publications printed in the Latin alphabet in force from 1865 to 1904 within the Russian Empire, which controlled Lithuania at the time.

Russian Empire

RussiaImperial RussiaRussian
The Lithuanian press ban (spaudos draudimas) was a ban on all Lithuanian language publications printed in the Latin alphabet in force from 1865 to 1904 within the Russian Empire, which controlled Lithuania at the time.

Cyrillic script

CyrillicCyrillic alphabetUzbek Cyrillic
Lithuanian-language publications that used Cyrillic were allowed and even encouraged.

January Uprising

Uprising of 1863January 1863 Uprising1863 Uprising
The concept arose after the failed January Uprising of 1863, taking the form of an administrative order in 1864, and was not lifted until 24 April 1904.

Russo-Japanese War

Russian-Japanese WarRusso Japanese WarRusso–Japanese War
The Russian courts reversed two convictions in press ban cases in 1902 and 1903, and the setbacks of the Russo-Japanese War in early 1904 brought about a loosened Russian policy towards minorities.

Tsar

CzarRussian TsarTsars
Tsarist authorities hoped that this measure, part of a larger Russification plan, would decrease Polish influence on Lithuanians and would return them to what were considered their ancient historical ties with Russia.