Lituus

lituilituotubicenwandwar trumpet
The word lituus originally meant a curved augural staff, or a curved war-trumpet in the ancient Latin language.wikipedia
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Crosier

crozierpastoral staffstaff
The lituus was a crooked wand (similar in shape to the top part of some Western European crosiers) used as a cult instrument in ancient Roman religion by augurs to mark out a ritual space in the sky (a templum).
One example is the lituus, the traditional staff of the ancient Roman augurs, as well as the staff of Moses in the Hebrew Bible.

Augur

augursauguriesCollege of Augurs
The lituus was a crooked wand (similar in shape to the top part of some Western European crosiers) used as a cult instrument in ancient Roman religion by augurs to mark out a ritual space in the sky (a templum).
Membership gave the lifelong right to participate prominently in processions at ludi and in public banquets; augurs proudly displayed the symbol of his office, the lituus.

Alphorn

alpenhornAlpine hornAlp horn
A more particular term, lituus alpinus, was used in 1555 by the Swiss naturalist Conrad Gessner when he published the earliest detailed description of the Alphorn: "nearly eleven feet long, made from two pieces of wood slightly curved and hollowed out, fitted together and skillfully bound with osiers".
For a long time, scholars believed that the alphorn had been derived from the Roman-Etruscan lituus, because of their resemblance in shape, and because of the word liti, meaning Alphorn in the dialect of Obwalden.

O Jesu Christ, meins Lebens Licht, BWV 118

BWV 118O Jesu Christ, meins Lebens Licht'', BWV 118O Jesu Christ, Meins Lebens Licht
The only known Baroque composition specifying an instrument by the Latin name lituus is Bach's motet O Jesu Christ, meins Lebens Licht (BWV 118).

Trumpet

trumpetertrumpetstrumpet player
In the second half of the 18th century the lituus was described in one source as a Latin name for the trumpet or horn.

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
The word lituus originally meant a curved augural staff, or a curved war-trumpet in the ancient Latin language.

Wand

magic wandstaffmagical wand
The lituus was a crooked wand (similar in shape to the top part of some Western European crosiers) used as a cult instrument in ancient Roman religion by augurs to mark out a ritual space in the sky (a templum).

Religion in ancient Rome

ancient Roman religionRoman religionRoman
The lituus was a crooked wand (similar in shape to the top part of some Western European crosiers) used as a cult instrument in ancient Roman religion by augurs to mark out a ritual space in the sky (a templum).

Glossary of ancient Roman religion

aedesfanumdivus
The lituus was a crooked wand (similar in shape to the top part of some Western European crosiers) used as a cult instrument in ancient Roman religion by augurs to mark out a ritual space in the sky (a templum).

Etruscan civilization

EtruscanEtruscansEtruscan League
The ancient lituus was an Etruscan high-pitched brass instrument, which was straight but bent at the end, in the shape of a letter J, similar to the Gallic carnyx.

Pitch (music)

pitchpitchestone
The ancient lituus was an Etruscan high-pitched brass instrument, which was straight but bent at the end, in the shape of a letter J, similar to the Gallic carnyx.

Brass instrument

brassbrass instrumentshorns
The ancient lituus was an Etruscan high-pitched brass instrument, which was straight but bent at the end, in the shape of a letter J, similar to the Gallic carnyx.

Carnyx

carnycescarnyxesDeskford Carnyx
The ancient lituus was an Etruscan high-pitched brass instrument, which was straight but bent at the end, in the shape of a letter J, similar to the Gallic carnyx.

Lur

bronze lurlurs
For the Roman military it may have been particular to the cavalry, and both the Etruscan and Roman versions were always used in pairs, like the prehoistoric lurer.

Roman tuba

tubaRoman ''tubatrumpet
Players of the lituus were called liticines, though the name of the instrument appears to have been loosely used (by poets, not likely by soldiers) to describe other military brass instruments, such as the tuba or the buccina. From the end of the 10th through the 13th centuries, chroniclers of the Crusades used the word lituus vaguely—along with the Classical Latin names for other Roman military trumpets and horns, such as the tuba, cornu, and buccina and the more up-to-date French term trompe—to describe various instruments employed in the Christian armies.

Buccina

buccinebucinaBucinator
Players of the lituus were called liticines, though the name of the instrument appears to have been loosely used (by poets, not likely by soldiers) to describe other military brass instruments, such as the tuba or the buccina. From the end of the 10th through the 13th centuries, chroniclers of the Crusades used the word lituus vaguely—along with the Classical Latin names for other Roman military trumpets and horns, such as the tuba, cornu, and buccina and the more up-to-date French term trompe—to describe various instruments employed in the Christian armies.

Watchman (law enforcement)

watchmenwatchmannight watch
In 17th-century Germany a variant of the bent ancient lituus was still used as a signalling horn by nightwatchmen.

Crusades

crusadeCrusadersCrusader
From the end of the 10th through the 13th centuries, chroniclers of the Crusades used the word lituus vaguely—along with the Classical Latin names for other Roman military trumpets and horns, such as the tuba, cornu, and buccina and the more up-to-date French term trompe—to describe various instruments employed in the Christian armies.

Cornu (horn)

cornuhornsBucina
From the end of the 10th through the 13th centuries, chroniclers of the Crusades used the word lituus vaguely—along with the Classical Latin names for other Roman military trumpets and horns, such as the tuba, cornu, and buccina and the more up-to-date French term trompe—to describe various instruments employed in the Christian armies.

Jean Gerson

Jean de GersonGersonJean Charlier
In the early 15th century, Jean de Gerson listed the lituus among those string instruments that were sounded by beating or striking, either with the fingernails, a plectrum, or a stick.

String instrument

stringsstringstring instruments
In the early 15th century, Jean de Gerson listed the lituus among those string instruments that were sounded by beating or striking, either with the fingernails, a plectrum, or a stick.

Harp

harpistharpsCeltic harp
Other instruments Gerson names in this category are the cythara, guiterna, psalterium, timpanum, and campanula.

Gittern

chitarraguitarraguiterna
Other instruments Gerson names in this category are the cythara, guiterna, psalterium, timpanum, and campanula.

Psalterium (instrument)

psalteriumttun-ttunString drum
Other instruments Gerson names in this category are the cythara, guiterna, psalterium, timpanum, and campanula.

Crumhorn

krumhorncrumhornskrummhorn
Throughout the postclassical era the name lituus continued to be used when discussing ancient and Biblical instruments, but with reference to contemporary musical practice in the Renaissance it usually referred to "bent horns" made of wood, particularly the crumhorn and the cornett.