Liu Taigong

Liu TuanLiu ZhijiafatherLau Bong's fatherLiu Bang's fatherthe emperor's father
Liu Taigong (, literally meaning "a senior person named Liu"; died 197 BC), personal name Liu Tuan (, recently rediscovered), was the father of Liu Bang, the founding emperor of the Han dynasty, which ruled over China for more than 400 years.wikipedia
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Taishang Huang

Jōkō of Japanretired emperorJōkō
Upon learning the reason behind his father's actions, Liu Bang honored Taigong with the title Taishang Huang after Liu Bang declared himself emperor.
Emperor Gaozu of Han had also bestowed the title Taishang Huangdi on his then-living father Liu Taigong.

Liu Zhong

Liu XiDaiLiu Xi or Zhong
Liu Xi was the son of the man known to history as Liu Taigong.

Emperor Gaozu of Han

Liu BangEmperor GaozuEmperor Gao
Liu Taigong (, literally meaning "a senior person named Liu"; died 197 BC), personal name Liu Tuan (, recently rediscovered), was the father of Liu Bang, the founding emperor of the Han dynasty, which ruled over China for more than 400 years.
His parents' names were not recorded in history; they were simply referred to as "Liu Taigong" (劉太公; lit. "Old Sir Liu") and "Liu Ao" (劉媪; lit. "Old Madam Liu").

Han dynasty

Eastern Han dynastyHanWestern Han dynasty
Liu Taigong (, literally meaning "a senior person named Liu"; died 197 BC), personal name Liu Tuan (, recently rediscovered), was the father of Liu Bang, the founding emperor of the Han dynasty, which ruled over China for more than 400 years.

Feng County, Jiangsu

Feng CountyFengFeng Co.
He was born and likely lived his early life in present-day Feng County, Jiangsu.

Filial piety

filialfilial devotionunfilial
The title nominally elevated Liu's status in court protocol as to remain consistent with Confucian norms of filial piety.

Lintong District

LintongJinjipuLintong County
He is entombed in present-day Lintong District, Xi'an.

Xi'an

XianXi’anXi'an, China
He is entombed in present-day Lintong District, Xi'an.

Zizhi Tongjian

Zhizhi TongjianComprehensive Mirror for Aid in GovernmentGeneral History of China

History of the Han dynasty

fall of QinHan ChineseHan Empire
Liu initially made a direct assault against Pengcheng and captured it while Xiang was battling another king who resisted him—Tian Guang the King of Qi—but his forces collapsed upon Xiang's return to Pengcheng; he was saved by a storm which delayed the arrival of Chu's troops, although his father Liu Zhijia and wife Lü Zhi were captured by Chu forces.

Lu Wan

His father and Liu Bang's father were close friends, as were Liu Bang and him.

Emperor Hui of Han

Emperor HuiLiu YingHui
What is also known is that during Chu–Han Contention, when Liu Bang fought a five-year war with Xiang Yu for supremacy over the Chinese world, his mother, his sister, and he did not initially follow his father to the Principality of Han (modern Sichuan, Chongqing, and southern Shaanxi); rather, they stayed in his father's home territory, perhaps in his home town of Pei (沛縣, in modern Xuzhou, Jiangsu) deep in Xiang's Principality of Western Chu, presumably with his grandfather Liu Zhijia.

Chen Xi (rebel)

Chen XiChen Xi (陳豨, died 194 BC)
In May 197, the death of the emperor's father brought Chen a summons to return to Chang'an to pay his respects, which he did not honor.

Ma Chao

The Jin dynasty historian Sun Sheng compared Ma Chao's betrayal of his father Ma Teng to other historical examples of extreme cruelty and inhumaneness, including: the conflict between the Zhou dynasty and the vassal state of Zheng in 720 BCE; in 203 BCE, after Xiang Yu captured Liu Bang's father and threatened to boil him alive if Liu Bang did not surrender, Liu Bang asked Xiang Yu to share a bowl of his father's flesh with him.

Battle of Pengcheng

The Chu army coerced a local into leading them to two of Liu Bang's family: his father Liu Taigong and wife Lü Zhi.