Liver

hepaticliver protein synthesisliversfetal liverGlisson's capsulehuman liverhepatic metabolismFibrous capsule of Glissonhepatotropicliver disease
The liver is an organ only found in vertebrates which detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.wikipedia
2,925 Related Articles

Bile

biliarybiliousgall
The liver is an accessory digestive organ that produces bile, a fluid containing cholesterol and bile acids, and an alkaline compound which helps the breakdown of fat.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.

Hepatocyte

hepatocytesliver cellsliver cell
The liver's highly specialized tissue consisting of mostly hepatocytes regulates a wide variety of high-volume biochemical reactions, including the synthesis and breakdown of small and complex molecules, many of which are necessary for normal vital functions.
The liver forms fatty acids from carbohydrates and synthesizes triglycerides from fatty acids and glycerol.

Gallbladder

gall bladdergall-bladderHartmann's pouch
The gallbladder, a small pouch that sits just under the liver, stores bile produced by the liver which is afterwards moved to the small intestine to complete digestion. Located in the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity, it rests just below the diaphragm, to the right of the stomach and overlies the gallbladder. A portion of the hepatic diverticulum (that region closest to the digestive tube) continues to function as the drainage duct of the liver, and a branch from this duct produces the gallbladder.
In humans, the pear-shaped gallbladder lies beneath the liver, although the structure and position of the gallbladder can vary significantly among animal species.

Glycogen

glycogen depositsglycogen (n)glycogen deposits
Its other roles in metabolism include the regulation of glycogen storage, decomposition of red blood cells and the production of hormones.
In humans, glycogen is made and stored primarily in the cells of the liver and skeletal muscle.

Liver failure

hepatic failureliverhepatic
, liver transplantation is the only option for complete liver failure.
Liver failure is the inability of the liver to perform its normal synthetic and metabolic function as part of normal physiology.

Digestion

digestivedigestdigested
The liver is an organ only found in vertebrates which detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
When the pyloric sphincter valve opens, chyme enters the duodenum where it mixes with digestive enzymes from the pancreas and bile juice from the liver and then passes through the small intestine, in which digestion continues.

Gastrointestinal tract

intestinegastrointestinaldigestive tract
The hepatic artery carries oxygen-rich blood from the aorta via the celiac plexus, whereas the portal vein carries blood rich in digested nutrients from the entire gastrointestinal tract and also from the spleen and pancreas.
However, the complete human digestive system is made up of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver and gallbladder).

Lobes of liver

caudate lobeQuadrate lobe of liverCaudate lobe of liver
The liver is grossly divided into two parts when viewed from above – a right and a left lobe - and four parts when viewed from below (left, right, caudate, and quadrate lobes).
The liver is grossly divided into two portions – a right and a left lobe, as viewed from the front (diaphragmatic) surface; but the underside (the visceral surface) shows it to be divided into four lobes and includes the caudate and quadrate lobes.

Abdomen

abdominalabdominal musclesbelly
In humans, it is located in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, below the diaphragm.
Other digestive organs are known as the accessory digestive organs and include the liver, its attached gallbladder, and the pancreas, and these communicate with the rest of the system via various ducts.

Spleen

splenicsplenetichilum
The hepatic artery carries oxygen-rich blood from the aorta via the celiac plexus, whereas the portal vein carries blood rich in digested nutrients from the entire gastrointestinal tract and also from the spleen and pancreas.
The globin portion of hemoglobin is degraded to its constitutive amino acids, and the heme portion is metabolized to bilirubin, which is removed in the liver.

Cantlie line

Cantlie's line
This line is called "Cantlie's line".
In medicine, the Cantlie line or Cantlie's line is an imaginary division of the liver used when performing hepatectomies.

Lobules of liver

portal triadhepatic lobuleliver lobule
These blood vessels subdivide into small capillaries known as liver sinusoids, which then lead to lobules.
The lobules of liver, or hepatic lobules, are small divisions of the liver defined at the microscopic (histological) scale.

Lobe (anatomy)

lobeslobelobules
The liver is a reddish-brown, wedge-shaped organ with four lobes of unequal size and shape.
In anatomy, a lobe is a clear anatomical division or extension of an organ (as seen for example in the brain, lung, liver, or kidney) that can be determined without the use of a microscope at the gross anatomy level.

Porta hepatis

transverse fissureTransverse fissure of livertransverse fissure of the liver
An important anatomical landmark, the porta hepatis, divides this left portion into four segments, which can be numbered starting at the caudate lobe as I in an anticlockwise manner.
The porta hepatis or transverse fissure of the liver is a short but deep fissure, about 5 cm long, extending transversely beneath the left portion of the right lobe of the liver, nearer its posterior surface than its anterior border.

Falciform ligament

falciform ligament of the liverfalciform
The falciform ligament divides the liver into a left and right lobe.
The falciform ligament is a ligament that attaches the liver to the front body wall, and separates the liver into the left lobe and right lobes.

Liver dialysis

Molecular Adsorbents Recirculation SystemSingle Pass Albumin Dialysis
It is not yet known how to compensate for the absence of liver function in the long term, although liver dialysis techniques can be used in the short term.
A critical issue of the clinical syndrome in liver failure is the accumulation of toxins not cleared by the failing liver.

Lesser omentum

lesser
This is moulded over the upper front surface of the stomach, and to the right of this is a rounded eminence, the tuber omentale, which fits into the concavity of the lesser curvature of the stomach and lies in front of the anterior layer of the lesser omentum.
The lesser omentum (small omentum or gastrohepatic omentum) is the double layer of peritoneum that extends from the liver to the lesser curvature of the stomach (hepatogastric ligament) and the first part of the duodenum (hepatoduodenal ligament).

Abdominal cavity

abdominalabdomenabdominal (peritoneal) cavity
Located in the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity, it rests just below the diaphragm, to the right of the stomach and overlies the gallbladder.
Organs of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, kidneys, large intestine, and adrenal glands.

Perisinusoidal space

space of Disseperisinusoidalperisinusoidal fibrosis
Hepatic stellate cells are nonparenchymal cells found in the perisinusoidal space, between a sinusoid and a hepatocyte.
The perisinusoidal space (or space of Disse) is a location in the liver between a hepatocyte and a sinusoid.

Colic flexures

splenic flexurehepatic flexureright colic flexure
The one in front is a shallow colic impression, formed by the hepatic flexure and the one behind is a deeper renal impression accommodating part of the right kidney and part of the suprarenal gland.
The right colic flexure or hepatic flexure (as it is next to the liver) is the sharp bend between the ascending colon and the transverse colon.

Kupffer cell

Kupffer cellsKuppfer cellstellate
The liver sinusoids are lined with two types of cell, sinusoidal endothelial cells, and phagocytic Kupffer cells.
Kupffer cells, also known as stellate macrophages and Kupffer–Browicz cells, are specialized macrophages located in the liver, lining the walls of the sinusoids.

Hepatic stellate cell

Ito cellstellate cellhepatic Ito cells
Hepatic stellate cells are nonparenchymal cells found in the perisinusoidal space, between a sinusoid and a hepatocyte.
Hepatic stellate cells (here HSC), also known as perisinusoidal cells or Ito cells (earlier lipocytes or fat-storing cells), are pericytes found in the perisinusoidal space of the liver, also known as the space of Disse (a small area between the sinusoids and hepatocytes).

Francis Glisson

Glisson
The whole surface of the liver except for the bare area, is covered in a serous coat derived from the peritoneum, and this firmly adheres to the inner Glisson's capsule.
He did important work on the anatomy of the liver, and he wrote an early pediatric text on rickets.

Biliary tract

biliary treehepatobiliarybiliary system
A portion of the hepatic diverticulum (that region closest to the digestive tube) continues to function as the drainage duct of the liver, and a branch from this duct produces the gallbladder.
The biliary tract, (biliary tree or biliary system) refers to the liver, gall bladder and bile ducts, and how they work together to make, store and secrete bile.

Complement system

complementcomplement cascadecomplement activation
Examples of highly liver-specific proteins include apolipoprotein A II, coagulation factors F2 and F9, complement factor related proteins, and the fibrinogen beta chain protein.
The complement system consists of a number of small proteins that are synthesized by the liver, and circulate in the blood as inactive precursors.