Local anesthetic

local anestheticslocal anaestheticLocal anesthetic toxicitylocallocal anaestheticslipid rescuelocal analgesicLocal anesthetic with vasoconstrictorSeptocaineanesthetic/vasoconstrictor combination
A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes absence of pain sensation.wikipedia
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Local anesthetic nerve block

nerve blockregional nerve blockadeblock
When it is used on specific nerve pathways (local anesthetic nerve block), paralysis (loss of muscle power) also can be achieved.
Local anesthetic nerve block (local anesthetic regional nerve blockade, or often simply nerve block) is a short-term nerve block involving the injection of local anesthetic as close to the nerve as possible for pain relief.


cokecocaine traffickingcrack
Synthetic LAs are structurally related to cocaine.
Cocaine sold on the street is commonly mixed with local anesthetics, cornstarch, quinine, or sugar, which can result in additional toxicity.

Brachial plexus block

axillary blockbrachial plexus nerve blockinfraclavicular block
This technique involves the injection of local anesthetic agents in close proximity to the brachial plexus, temporarily blocking the sensation and ability to move the upper extremity.


physical painacute painnociceptive pain
A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes absence of pain sensation.
Local anesthetic injections into the nerves or sensitive areas of the stump may relieve pain for days, weeks, or sometimes permanently, despite the drug wearing off in a matter of hours; and small injections of hypertonic saline into the soft tissue between vertebrae produces local pain that radiates into the phantom limb for ten minutes or so and may be followed by hours, weeks or even longer of partial or total relief from phantom pain.

Intravenous regional anesthesia

Bier blockintravenous regional anaesthesiaBier block anaesthesia
Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) or Bier's block anesthesia is an anesthetic technique on the body's extremities where a local anesthetic is injected intravenously and isolated from circulation in a target area.


pharmaceuticalpharmaceuticalspharmaceutical drug
A local anesthetic (LA) is a medication that causes absence of pain sensation.
Antibiotics, sympathomimetics, antihistamines, anticholinergics, NSAIDs, corticosteroids, antiseptics, local anesthetics, antifungals, cerumenolytic

Topical anesthetic

Topical anesthesiatopical anaesthetictopical
A topical anesthetic is a local anesthetic that is used to numb the surface of a body part.

Local anesthesia

regional anesthesialocallocal anaesthesia
They are used in various techniques of local anesthesia such as:

Epidural administration

epiduralepidural anesthesiaepidural anaesthesia
High plasma levels might arise, for example, when doses intended for epidural or intrasupport tissue administration are accidentally delivered as intravascular injection.
The epidural route is frequently employed by certain physicians and nurse anaesthetists to administer local anaesthetic agents, and occasionally to administer diagnostic (e.g. radiocontrast agents) and therapeutic (e.g., glucocorticoids) chemical substances.


Surface anesthesia also facilitates some endoscopic procedures such as bronchoscopy (visualization of the lower airways) or cystoscopy (visualization of the inner surface of the bladder)
The procedure was done in an awake patient using topical cocaine as a local anesthetic.


Although all local anesthetics potentially shorten the myocardial refractory period, bupivacaine blocks the cardiac sodium channels, thereby making it most likely to precipitate malignant arrhythmias.
Bupivacaine, marketed under the brand name Marcaine among others, is a medication used to decrease feeling in a specific area.


Exposure to aniline group chemicals such as benzocaine, lidocaine, and prilocaine can produce this effect, especially benzocaine.
Lidocaine, also known as lignocaine, is a medication used to numb tissue in a specific area (local anesthetic).


Exposure to aniline group chemicals such as benzocaine, lidocaine, and prilocaine can produce this effect, especially benzocaine.
Benzocaine, sold under the brand name Orajel among others, is an ester local anesthetic commonly used as a topical pain reliever or in cough drops.


CitanestCitanest Plainprilocain
Exposure to aniline group chemicals such as benzocaine, lidocaine, and prilocaine can produce this effect, especially benzocaine.
Prilocaine is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type first prepared by Claes Tegner and Nils Löfgren.

Infiltration (medical)

As part of medical intervention, local anaesthetics may be injected at more than one point so as to infiltrate an area prior to a surgical procedure.

Retrobulbar block

Systemic complications include local anesthetic toxicity, brainstem anesthesia, and stimulation of the oculocardiac reflex.


methaemoglobinaemiaMethemoglobemiaacquired methaemoglobinaemia
Methemoglobinemia is a process where iron in hemoglobin is altered, reducing its oxygen-carrying capability, which produces cyanosis and symptoms of hypoxia.
Classical drug causes of methemoglobinaemia include various antibiotics (trimethoprim, sulfonamides, and dapsone ), local anesthetics (especially articaine, benzocaine, prilocaine, and lidocaine ), and aniline dyes, metoclopramide, rasburicase, chlorates, and bromates.

Amino esters

amino esteresterEsters
Esters are prone to producing allergic reactions, which may necessitate the use of an amide.
Amino esters are a class of local anesthetics.


One combination product of this type is used topically for surface anaesthesia, TAC (5-12% tetracaine, 1 / 2000 (0.05%, 500 ppm, ½ per mille) adrenaline, 4 or 10% cocaine).
Tetracaine, also known as amethocaine, is a local anesthetic used to numb the eyes, nose, or throat.

Nerve block

conduction blockblockperibulbar block
The risk of temporary or permanent nerve damage varies between different locations and types of nerve blocks.
A combination of local anesthetic (such as lidocaine), epinephrine, a steroid (corticosteroid), and an opioid is often used.


Chloroprocaine (trade name Nesacaine, Nesacaine-MPF) (often in the hydrochloride salt form as the aforementioned trade names) is a local anesthetic given by injection during surgical procedures and labor and delivery.


novocaineNovocainprocaine hydrochloride
The search for a less toxic and less addictive substitute led to the development of the aminoester local anesthetics stovaine in 1903 and procaine in 1904.
Procaine is a local anesthetic drug of the amino ester group.


Articaine is a dental amide-type local anesthetic.


It is a local anesthetic with vasoconstrictor, administered via iontophoresis through the skin.


Piperocaine is a local anesthetic drug developed in the 1920s and used as its hydrochloride salt for infiltration and nerve blocks.